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英文文法学习笔记(17)特殊构句

2022-01-16 22:10  AlfredZhao  阅读(27)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第17篇笔记:特殊构句。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1.1 倒装

1. He is never late for school.
=> Never is he late for school.
=> He never goes to school late.
=> Never does he go to school late.

2. He rarely tells a joke.
=> Rarely does he tell a joke.

3. I have never seen such beautiful scenery.
=> Never have I seen such beautiful scenery.

4. I had hardly(=scarcely) sat in the chair when(=before) someone knocked at the door.
=> Hardly(=Scarcely) had I sat in the chair when(=before) someone knocked at the door.

5. He had no sooner reached his house than it began to rain.
=> No sooner had he reached his house than it began to rain.

6. In no circumstances will I allow you to go there.
=> Under no circumstances will I allow you to go there.

7. He not only draws illustrations but (he also) writes novels.
=> Not only does he draw illustrations but he (also) writes novels.

8. I did not know (that) he was homesick until I talked to him.
=> Not until I talked to him did I know he was homesick.

9. I had no hope at that time.
=> No hope did I have at that time.

10. My father did not say a word.
=> Not a word did my father say.

11. That red car I like very much, but this blue one I dislike.

12. Only in case of emergency can we use this exit.

13. Only when it rains do you feel cool.

14. Only if you pass the examination and become a college student, will I accept you as a friend.

15. If only I had money, I could buy some new clothes.

16. If only he had arrived in time.

17. The teacher comes here.
=> Here comes the teacher.
=> Here he comes.

18. A shower of stones came over the wall.
=> Over the wall came a shower of stones.

19. I remember well the promise you made last year.
=> Well do I remember the promise you made last year.

20. Amily is so beautiful that I am head over heels in love with her.
=> So beautiful is Amily that I am head over heels in love with her.

21. It was such a boring lecture that half the students fell asleep.
=> Such a boring lecture was it that half the students fell asleep.

22. The country that has no war is happy.
=> Happy is the country that has no war.

23. The sound of the bell grew faint.
=> Faint grew the sound of the bell.

24. She is happy.
Happy she is.

25. You are right.
=> Right you are.

26. Amy spent the whole evening watching TV, and so did her sister.
=> Amy spent the whole evening watching TV, and her sister did, too.

27. You don't feel like eating any more, and neither do I.
=> You don't feel like eating any more, and I don't, either.
=> You don't feel like eating any more, and me, either.

1.2 强调

28. My father caught a carp in this river last week.

29. It was my father that (=who) caught a carp in this river last week.

30. It was a carp that (=which) my father caught in this river last week.

31. It was in this river that (=where) my father caught a carp last week.

32. It was last week that (=when) my father caught a carp in this river.

33. Do feel free to call me at any time.

34. She rarely speaks at our meetings, but when she does speak, she is always to the point.

35. He is happiness itself.
=> He is very happy.
=> He is all happiness.

36. This is the very spot where I found the purse.

37. The dog is terribly smart.

38. The question was much easier than I had thought.

39. That's much the best plan.
=> That is the very best plan.

40. They are selling computers at the lowest possible prices at that store.

41. Who on earth is calling at this hour?

42. What in the world did you mean by that?

43. Never again will we make such a mistake.

44. The dress does not suit her at all.

45. Did you follow the doctor's advice at all?

46. If you learn English at all, learn it well.

47. He is not a liar at all.
=> He is far from a liar.
=> He is not in the least a liar.
=> He is by no means a liar.
=> He is anything but a liar.

48. He read the romantic letter aloud again and again.
=> He read the romantic letter aloud over and over (again).

49. She is the most beautiful girl that I've ever seen.

50. What surprised me was her scream.

51. The first thing to remember is not to criticize anyone.

52. All you have to do is study hard.

53. All I have to do is get on the internet.
=> All I have to do is surf the internet.
=> What I have to do is get on the internet.
=> The only thing I have to do is get on the internet.
=> The first thing I have to do is get on the internet.

1.3 省略

54. I bought a bunch of flowers on my way home from my uncle's #.

55. The girls were brave, but the boys were not #.

56. Cathy ate a hamburger, and I # French fries.

57. You may go home now if you want to #.

58. What she said made him happy, but # me disappointed.

59. I like her than # him.

60. I like her than he #.

61. To some life is pleasure, to others # suffering.

62. He is rich, but his uncle is twice as rich #.

63. I have no difficulty # finding his house.

64. Sounds great.

65. Don't know what to say.

66. Doesn't look very well.

67. When # in school, they were good friends.

68. When # in Rome, do as the Romans do.

69. Though # poor, he is an honest man.

70. If # put in the refrigerator, meat will keep for a week.

71. Please point out the mistakes if # any.

72. I'd like to see you off if # possible.

73. How careless # of you to lose your wallet!

74. What a pity # that you can't come with us!

75. How (hard) it rains!

76. What a (wonderful/terrible) day!

77. Is this the key # you are looking for?

78. I visited the village # my parents were born.

79. What are the languages # spoken in Canada?

80. He said (that) his brother was out, but that his sister was home.

81. Mike told his wife (that) he had bought the lottery and that they could go to Europe in the near future.

82. My girlfriend doesn't know (that) I'm going to give her a big surprise.

83. I believe (that) he is a great scholar.

84. I suggested that Jack (should) finish the work as soon as possible.

85. He insisted that the meeting (should) be adjourned till tomorrow.

86. HOUSE FOR SALE.
=> The house is for sale.

87. Road Closed.
=> This road is closed.

88. Kidnapper Arrested in Chicago.
=> The kidnapper was arrested in Chicago.

1.4 插入

89. His son, fortunately, was rescued from the burning house.

90. She is, undoubtedly, an able secretary.

91. She was very tired, nevertheless, she went to work as usual.

92. It is, after all, due to his misunderstanding.

93. Clothes in this boutique, in my opinion, are overpriced.

94. He's rude, bad-tempered and conceited-in short, he's a very unpleasant man.

95. She seldom, if ever, goes to the movies by herself.

96. It was cold, and what was worse, it began to rain.
=> It was cold, and to make matters worse, it began to rain.

97. I thought he would get better, but as it is, he is getting worse.

98. He is, as it were, a walking dictionary.
=> He is, so to speak, a walking dictionary.

99. Fishing in this river, as far as I know, is prohibited.

100. Something ought to be done, I agree, it's worth thinking about.

101. Picasso, as you know, is one of the greatest artists in the world.

102. Too much exercise, I think, is bad for your health.

1.5 同位语

103. Her best friend Lisa is a nurse.

104. Carter, a friend of mine, graduated from Oxford University.

105. She was born and raised in the city of New York.

106. The question whether he would agree with us was discussed.

107. It is a fiddle, or a violin.

108. He came home two hours later than usual, that is (to say), about nine o'clock.

109. All of us knew the fact that she was trying to conceal the scandal.

110. All of us knew the fact that she was trying to conceal.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

2.1 倒装

一般来说,英文句子中的顺序为主词+动词。而所谓的倒装句,就是将其更换为动词+主词的顺序。倒装句可以分为以下三种:
(1) 动词 + 主词
(2) 助动词(do, does, did) + 主词 + 原形动词
(3) 助动词 (will, can, should ...)+ 主词 + 原形动词

{
	a). 否定字放句首{
		否定字 + {
			be动词 + 主词 ..
			助动词 + 主词 + 原形动词 ..
		}
	}

	b). 表方向或场所的副词放句首{
		(方向、场所)副词 + {
			动词 + 主词(名词)
			主词(代名词) + 动词 
		}
	}

	c). 程度副词放句首{
		程度副词 + {
			be动词 + 主词 ..
			助动词 + 主词 + 原形动词 ..
		}
		so...that... / such...that... 也可改为倒装句。
	}

	d). 补语放句首{
		补语 + be动词 + 主词(名词)
		注意:此句型中,若主词为代名词,则不用倒装句。
	}

	e). so, neither, nor 开始的句子{
		so, neither, nor + {
			be动词 + 主词 ..
			助动词 + 主词 + 原形动词 ..
		}
		注意:下列句子的意思和上例(例句:26/27)不同{
			It is getting dark in this room.(房间渐渐暗了)
			So is that room.(那个房间也是)
			So it is.(没错)
		}
	}
}

2.2 强调

特别加强句子中某字词的意义者,称为强调。{
	(1) It beV 强调部分 that 剩余部分...
		此句型中,动词或形容词不可用来强调。

	(2) 助动词、形容词、副词的强调{
		a). 用do、does、did强调动词
		b). 用反身代词或very强调名词
		c). 强调形容词或副词原级用very、so、awfully、highly、terribly、dreadfully等
	}

	(3) 疑问词的强调
		强调疑问词用 on earth, in the world, 而口语中也有用 the hell, the devil, the deuce等。

	(4) 否定句的强调
		否定的强调,可将否定字放句首,或用at all, far away, in the least, by no means, anything but 等。
		注意:at all 也可强调疑问句或条件句。

	(5) 字词重复的强调
		I waited for hours and hours. 我等了好几个小时。

	(6) 其他
		下列句子也表示强调(例句:49~53)。
}

2.3 省略

所谓省略,就是在一个完整的句子中的一个字(或几个字)省去,也无损整个句子的表达。{
	(1) 词频的省略

	(2) 从属子句的主词和主要子句的主词相同时,则省略
		注意:if 之后所省略的主词及动词,可能和主要子句的不同。

	(3) 感叹句中的主词及动词省略

	(4) 关系词的省略 

	(5) 连接词that的省略
	
	(6) 广告、告示、新闻标题等的省略
}

2.4 插入

所谓插入,是将字、片语、子句放在句子的中间或句尾,用以补充说明或加强印象,通常用逗号或破折号来区隔。{
	(1) 字的插入

	(2) 片语的插入

	(3) 子句的插入
}

2.5 同位语

为了补充名词、代名词的意思,可将其他名词或名词相等语放在其后,而后者就称为同位语。

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

3.1 倒装

  1. 他上学从不迟到。

  2. 他很少说笑。

  3. 我从未见过如此美丽的景色。

  4. 我刚坐下就有人敲门。

  5. 他一到家就开始下雨了。

  6. 无论任何情形下,我都不准你去那里。

  7. 他不仅画插图而且写小说。

  8. 直到和他聊过后,才知道他患了思乡病。

  9. 那时我全然无望。

  10. 我父亲一句话也没说。

  11. 那红车我很喜欢,但蓝车我不喜欢。

  12. 只有在紧急时才能使用此出口。

  13. 只有下雨时才觉得凉爽一些。

  14. 只要你考取成为大学生,我就认你为朋友。

  15. 我要是有钱就好了,那我就能买些新衣服。

  16. 他要是及时赶到就好了。

  17. 老师来了。

  18. 一堆石头从墙那头丢来。

  19. 我清楚记得去年你许下的承诺。

  20. Amily如此美丽,以至于我深深爱上她。

  21. 如此无聊的一堂课,半数同学都睡着了。

  22. 没有战争的国家是快乐的。

  23. 铃声变小了。

  24. 她很快乐。

  25. 你是对的。

  26. Amy整晚都在看电视,而她的姐姐也是。

  27. 你们不想再吃了,我也不想。

3.2 强调

  1. 我父亲上星期在这条河里抓到一只鲤鱼。

  2. 上星期在这条河里抓到一只鲤鱼的是我父亲。

  3. 上星期我父亲在这条河里抓到的是一只鲤鱼。

  4. 上星期我父亲就是在这条河里抓到一只鲤鱼。

  5. 就在上星期我父亲在这条河里抓到一只鲤鱼。

  6. 不要客气,任何时候你都可以打电话给我。

  7. 她很少在会议上说话,但只要他开口,总是会说到重点。

  8. 他是幸福的代名词。

  9. 这就是我发现钱包的确实地点。

  10. 这只狗非常机灵。

  11. 这问题远比我所想的更为简单。

  12. 那绝对是最好的计划。

  13. 那家店贩卖价格最低廉的电脑。

  14. 到底是谁在这时候打电话来?

  15. 你那到底是什么意思?

  16. 我们绝不会再犯那样的错。

  17. 这洋装一点也不适合她。

  18. 你究竟有没有按照医生的指示。

  19. 既然要学英文,就该把它学好。

  20. 他绝不是骗子。

  21. 他大声地反复地念着那封罗曼蒂克的情书。

  22. 她是我见过最美丽的女孩。

  23. 最让我惊讶的是她的尖叫声。

  24. 要切记的第一件事是不要批评任何人。

  25. 你所必须做的就是用功读书。

  26. 我所要做的事就是上网。

3.3 省略

  1. 我在从叔叔家回来的路上买了一束花。

  2. 这些女孩勇敢,那些男孩则不。

  3. Cathy吃了汉堡,而我吃薯条。

  4. 如果你想的话就可以回家。

  5. 他所说的令他高兴,但令我失望。

  6. 我喜欢她胜过喜欢他。

  7. 我喜欢她胜过他喜欢她。

  8. 对有些人而言生活是愉悦的,但对有些人而言是痛苦的。

  9. 他很富有,但他叔叔是他的两倍。

  10. 我毫无困难的找到他家。

  11. 听起来很棒。

  12. 我不知道该说什么。

  13. 他看起来不太舒服。

  14. 他们在学生时代便是好朋友。

  15. 入境随俗。

  16. 虽然穷,但他很诚实。

  17. 如果把肉放进冷冻库,可保存一星期。

  18. 如果有错误的话,请指出来。

  19. 如果有可能的话,我会为你送行。

  20. 你弄丢了你的皮夹,真是太粗心了。

  21. 真可惜你不能和我们一起来。

  22. 雨下的好大啊!

  23. 多美/惨的一天啊!

  24. 这是你在找的钥匙吗?

  25. 我拜访了我双亲出生的那个村落。

  26. 加拿大说几种语言?

  27. 他说他哥哥不在家,但他姐姐在家。

  28. Mike告诉他太太他已经买了乐透彩券,并且在不久之后他们就能去欧洲旅行。

  29. 我女朋友不知道我要给她一个大惊喜。

  30. 我相信他是位伟大的学者。

  31. 我建议jack要尽快完成这工作。

  32. 他坚持休会到明天。

  33. 房屋出售。

  34. 道路封闭。

  35. 绑架者在芝加哥被逮捕。

3.4 插入

  1. 很幸运地,他的儿子从失火的房子中被救了出来。

  2. 无疑地,她是位能干的秘书。

  3. 她很疲倦,但他仍然照常去工作。

  4. 总之,那是由于他的误会所造成。

  5. 以我之见,这家精品店的衣服价格太高。

  6. 他粗鲁,脾气坏,又自负。简单地说,他是一个讨人厌的人。

  7. 她不曾,就是有也很少,独自一人去看电影。

  8. 天气很冷,更糟的是,还开始下雨。

  9. 我以为他会好转,但事实上他一直在恶化。

  10. 他好比是一本活字典。

  11. 就我所知,在这条河里钓鱼是被禁止的。

  12. 我同意必须设法处理,这值得考虑。

  13. 毕加索,如你所知,是世界上最伟大的艺术家之一。

  14. 我认为过多的运动有害你的健康。

3.5 同位语

  1. 她最好的朋友,Lisa,是一位护士。

  2. Carter,我的一位好朋友,毕业于牛津大学。

  3. 她在纽约这个城市中出生成长。

  4. 他是否同意我们,此问题已经讨论过了。

  5. 那是一把fiddle,也就是小提琴。

  6. 他比平常晚两小时回家,也就是说,在九点左右。

  7. 我们知道她试图要隐藏这丑闻的事实。

  8. 我们知道她试图要隐藏的事实。