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英文文法学习笔记(15)被动语态

2021-12-12 23:08  AlfredZhao  阅读(304)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第15篇笔记:被动语态。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1. The terrorists bombed the station.

2. The station was bombed by the terrorists.

3. We keep a dog named Lucky. Lucky is an old dog and can't move quickly. He was almost run over by a car yesterday.

4. My sister isn't very good at driving, yesterday she insisted on driving my car, and she almost ran over an old dog.

1.1 主、被动语态转换

5. People all over the world watch the Olympics.
=> The Olympics is watched by people all over the world.

6. Tom threw the paper plane during the break.
=> The paper plane was thrown by Tom during the break.

7. They do not permit talking on the cell phones in the train.
=> Talking on the cell phones is not permitted (by them) in the train.

8. Wild monkeys are seen around this area.

9. This seat is taken.

10. The newspapers are delivered around 5:00 a.m.

11. This swimmer will make a new record.
=> A new record will be made by this swimmer.

12. The wind had blown away the balloons before they came.
=> The balloons had been blown away by the wind before they came.

13. The teacher is counting the number of students.
=> The number of students is being counted by the teacher.

1.2 第四句型(SVOO)的被动语态

14. The sent all the customers a card about the sale.
=> All the customers were sent a card about the sale.
=> They sent a card about the sale to all the customers.
=> A card about the sale was sent (by them) to all the customers.

15. The embassy gave me a new passport.
=> I was given a new passport by the embassy.
=> A new passport was given (to) me by the embassy.

16. My father bought me a motorcycle.
=> I was bought a motorcycle by my father.(很少用)
=> A motorcycle was bought for me by my father.

1.3 第五句型(SVOC)的被动语态

17. His grandfather named the baby Doris.
=> The baby was named Doris by his grandfather.

18. They painted the wall blue.
=> The wall was painted bule (by them).

19. John persuaded me to go to the dentist.
=> I was persuaded to go to the dentist by John.

20. The make the students wait in line.
=> The students were made to wait (by them).

21. He heard his dog bark/barking at a cat.
=> His dog was heard to bark/barking at a cat (by him).

22. I saw a man jump/jumping into the river.
=> A man was seen to jump/jumping into the river.

1.4 疑问句的被动语态

23. Does your wife cook your meals?
=> Are your meals cooked by your wife?

24. Did your father bake this pizza?
=> Was this pizza baked by your father?

25. Will you finish the work tomorrow?
=> Will the work be finished (by you) tomorrow?

26. Who produced this CD?
=> Who(m) was this CD produced by?
=> By whom was this CD produced?

27. Who do the police suspect?
=> Who is suspected by the police?

28. What do you call this in English?
=> What is this called in English?

29. What kind of program do you favor?
=> What kind of program is favored by you?

1.5 祈使句的被动语态

30. Open the door of the room.
=> Let the door of the room be opened.

31. Don't forget this lesson.
=> Let this lesson not be forgotten.
=> Don't let this lesson be forgotten.

32. Let my daughters pack the things.
=> Let the things be packed by my daughters.

1.6 say, believe, expect, know, think, consider 等的被动语态

33. They say that yawns are catching.
=> It is said that yawns are catching.
=> Yawns are said to be catching.

34. We expect that the plane will land on time.
=> It is expected that the plane will land on time.
=> The plane is expected to land on time.

35. They think that he is the best football player of the year.
=> It is thought that he is the best football player of ther year.
=> He is thought to be the best football player of the year.

1.7 特别注意的被动语态

36. She was shocked at the man's bad manners.

37. Her parents were satisfied with her school report.

38. Mr. Wang is known to many young students.

39. The language is known by everyone in this class.

40. She is known as an excellent pianist.

41. The box was covered with a black cloth by the magician.

42. Many people were killed in the plane crash.

43. He is absorbed in buying an selling real estate.

44. These are home-made cakes.

45. Excited spectator rushed into the playground.

46. I don't like to be talked about.

47. Nobody likes being made fun of.

48. The street lights are switched on at sunset.

49. The street lights are switched now.

50. My little brother is dressed by my mother.

51. My little brother is dressed in red pants today.

52. She got dressed very quickly.

53. The city lies buried under the sand.

54. The door remained closed until morning.

55. Chicken doesn't bake well.

56. Your paper reads like a novel.

57. Long use has worn his gloves at the tips.

58. Red wine stains doesn't wash out easily.

59. The door doesn't lock.

60. This tough steak doesn't cut easily.

61. I had my house burned down in the fire.

62. I got my pocket picked.

63. I got my wrist broken.

64. I got my tooth pulled out.

65. I had my hair cut.

66. I was born in 1975.

67. My mom has borne four children.

68. You were borne by me.

69. He was born on January 1.

70. They have been married seven years.

71. She was badly/slightly injured in the accident.

72. He was wounded in the left leg.

73. Aren't you hurt?

74. They are acquainted with each other.

75. My father is engaged in business.

76. John is engaged to Mary.

77. They are accustomed to foreign manners.

78. I am used to staying up late at night.

79. My father used to smoke(, but now he doesn't).

80. He used to be a naughty boy.

81. Please be seated.
=> Please sit down.
=> Please take a seat.
=> Please seat yourself.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

时态						主动语态 										被动语态
现在式					I punish the boy.							The boy is punished (by me).
过去式					I punished the boy.							The boy was punished (by me).
未来式					I will punish the boy.						The boy will be punished (by me).

现在进行式				I am punishing the boy.						The boy is being punished (by me).
过去进行式				I was punishing the boy. 					The boy was being punished (by me).
未来进行式				I will be punishing the boy.				The boy will be being punished (by me).

现在完成式				I have punished the boy.					The boy has been punished (by me).
过去完成式				I had punished the boy. 					The boy had been punished (by me).
未来完成式				I will have punished the boy.				The boy will have been punished (by me).

2.1 主、被动语态转换

by + 受词 可省略的情形有三{
	1) 动作者为一般人或泛指一群人时
	2) 动作者不清楚时
	3) 从前后文的关系可清楚动作者是谁时
}

2.2 第四句型(SVOO)的被动语态

第四句型{
	S + V + O(间接受词->人) + O(直接受词->物)
	S + V + O(直接受词->物) + 介系词 + O(间接受词->人)
}

注意:动词 buy, get, make, read, sing, write, build, cook, pass, choose 等,其被动语态,多不用间接受词当主语。

2.3 第五句型(SVOC)的被动语态

重点:使役动词及感官动词的被动语态{
	使役动词 + O + VR 		=> beV + 使役P.P. + toV 
	感官动词 + O + VR/Ving	=> beV + 感官P.P. + toV/Ving 
}

使役动词:命令、工作
感官动词:感觉、五官

2.4 疑问句的被动语态

疑问句的被动语态{
	1) Yes/No 问句
		beV + 主词 + 过去分词... ...?
	2) WH 问句
}

2.5 祈使句的被动语态

重点:使役动词{
	1) make/have + O + {
		V 		(主)
		P.P.	(被)
	}
		I made him do it.
		I made it done.


	2) get + O + {
		toV		(主)
		P.P.	(被)
	}
		I got him to do it.
		I got it done.


	3) let + O + {
		V 		(主)
		be P.P.  (被)
	}
		I let him do it.
		I let it be done.
}

2.6 say, believe, expect, know, think, consider 等的被动语态

It is said + that + S + V 
S is said to 不定词

2.7 特别注意的被动语态

特别注意的被动语态{
	1) 被动语态行为者前不加by

	2) 具有被动语态功能的过去分词,有时可修饰名词 

	3) 不定词、动名词也可用于被动
	
	4) 被动语态,有时表示动作,有时表示状态
	
	5) 主动语态表示被动
	
	6) 经验性的被动语态
	
	7) 惯用的被动语态

}

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

  1. 恐怖分子炸掉车站。

  2. 车站被恐怖分子炸掉。

  3. 我们养了一只名叫Lucky的狗。Lucky是只老狗,行动不快。昨天他差点被车撞倒。

  4. 我妹妹不太会开车,昨天她坚持要开我的车,差点撞死一只老狗。

3.1 主、被动语态转换

  1. 全世界的人都在看奥运。

  2. Tom在休息时玩纸飞机。

  3. 在火车上禁止使用手机。

  4. 在这地区随处可见野生猴子。

  5. 这座位有人坐了。

  6. 报纸约在早上五点送达。

  7. 这游泳选手将缔造新纪录。

  8. 在他们来之前气球都被风吹跑了。

  9. 老师正在数学生人数。

3.2 第四句型(SVOO)的被动语态

  1. 他们寄给所有顾客一张有关这次销售的卡片。

  2. 大使馆发给我一份新护照。

  3. 我父亲买了一辆摩托车给我。

3.3 第五句型(SVOC)的被动语态

  1. 他祖父为这个婴儿取名Doris。

  2. 他们把墙漆成蓝色。

  3. John说服我去看牙医。

  4. 他们叫学生排队等候。

  5. 他听到他的狗对着一只猫叫。

  6. 我看见一个人跳进河里。

3.4 疑问句的被动语态

  1. 你太太会做饭给你吃吗?

  2. 这披萨是你父亲烤的吗?

  3. 你明天会完成这工作吗?

  4. 谁制作这张CD?

  5. 警察怀疑谁?

  6. 这个用英文怎么称呼?

  7. 你喜欢哪种节目?

3.5 祈使句的被动语态

  1. 打开这房门。

  2. 别忘了这个教训。

  3. 让我女儿打包这些东西吧。

3.6 say, believe, expect, know, think, consider 等的被动语态

  1. 据说打哈欠会传染。

  2. 我们希望飞机能准时着陆。

  3. 他们认为他是年度最佳美式足球员。

3.7 特别注意的被动语态

  1. 那男人的无礼使她震惊。

  2. 她父母亲对她的成绩单感到满意。

  3. 许多年轻学子久仰王老师的大名。

  4. 班上的每位同学都懂这个语言。

  5. 她以身为优秀的钢琴家而闻名。

  6. 那盒子被魔术师盖上黑布。

  7. 许多人在那次坠机中身亡。

  8. 他热衷于买卖房地产。

  9. 这些是家庭烘制的蛋糕。

  10. 兴奋的观众们冲进运动场。

  11. 我不喜欢成为别人的话题。

  12. 没有人喜欢被捉弄。

  13. 日落时分街灯被点亮。

  14. 现在街灯是亮着的。

  15. 我弟弟让我母亲为他穿衣服。

  16. 我弟弟今天穿红色裤子。

  17. 她穿衣服很快。

  18. 这城市被埋藏在沙漠底下。

  19. 直到早上门依旧开着。

  20. 鸡肉烤的不好。

  21. 你的报告读起来像小说一般。

  22. 长久使用使他手套的指尖部分磨损了。

  23. 红酒污渍不易洗掉。

  24. 门没上锁。

  25. 这很硬的牛排不好吃。

  26. 我家在那场火灾中付之一炬。

  27. 我的钱被扒了。

  28. 我弄折了我的手腕。

  29. 有人拔掉我的牙齿/我请牙医帮我拔牙。

  30. 我剪头发了。

  31. 我出生在1975年。

  32. 我母亲生了4个小孩。

  33. 你是我生的。

  34. 他出生在1月1日。

  35. 他们结婚7年了。

  36. 她在那次事故中受伤/轻伤。

  37. 他左腿受伤。

  38. 你有没有受伤?

  39. 他们彼此熟识。

  40. 我父亲在做生意。

  41. John和Mary订婚了。

  42. 他们习惯于外国礼仪。

  43. 我习惯熬夜。

  44. 我父亲以前常抽烟,但现在不抽了。

  45. 他以前是个顽皮的孩子。

  46. 请坐。