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英文文法学习笔记(6)五大句型

2021-09-25 16:20  AlfredZhao  阅读(29)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第6篇笔记:五大句型。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1. He got to London yesterday.

2. He got angry.

3. He got a newspaper.

4. He got me a newspaper.

5. He got his children ready.

1.1 第一句型:S + V

6. Amy lives in this town.

7. My older brother usually goes to bed at ten.

8. In Florida, it usually rains for about an hour every day during the hottest season.

9. Here comes a bus.

10. There are many books on the shelf.

11. Here you are.

12. Life in Taiwan has changed a lot during the last ten years.

13. The poor little girl ran away from the two-headed snake in a fright.

1.2 第二句型:S + V + C

14. He lay still on the bed.

15. My uncle stayed a bachelor all his life.

16. At last my dream has come true.

17. As we grow older, our memories become weaker.

18. The milk has gone sour.

19. I fell asleep in class yesterday.

20. The child seemed tired.
=> The child seemed to be tired.
=> It seemed that the child was tired.

🌟21. She seems to be an American.

22. She appeared to know nothing about it.
=> It appeared that she knew nothing about it.

23. Ice feels hard and cold.

24. This flower smells very sweet.

25. This medicine tastes bitter.

26. How does the little tiger look? It looks cute.

27. What does the little tiger look like? It looks like a cat.

28. It feels like fur.

29. I don't feel like taking a walk now.

30. After taking medicine, I am feeling much better.

31. They look very lively in the pictures which I took.

32. The problem of air pollution in cities has become more and more serious.

33. I want to see a movie.
=> I feel like seeing a movie.
=> I would like to see a movie.

34. I don't feel like it.

1.3 第三句型:S + V + O

35. I didn't understand the meaning of his words.

36. The man robbed him of all his money.
=> He was robbed of all his money.

37. My mother will take care of the puppy.

38. I dreamed a strange dream last night.

39. I slept a sound sleep in the soft bed.

40. She lived an unhappy life.

41. He died a miserable death.

42. They fought a good fight.

43. She smiled a sweet smile.

44. Every afternoon a vender drives a pickup to our community to sell vegetables.

45. He knows every one of us in our neighborhood, and every one of us knows him, too.

1.4 第四句型:S + V + O + O

46. He handed the clerk the money.
=> He handed the money to the clerk.

47. The teacher recommended us the book.
=> The teacher recommended the book to us.

48. She made her daughter a new dress.
=> She made a new dress for her daughter.

49. Can you spare me a few minutes?
=> Can you spare a few minutes for me?

50. He asked me a strange question.
=> He asked a strange question of me.

51. He threw me a stone.
=> He threw a stone at me.

52. He played me a trick.
=> He played a trick on me.

53. Would you please pass it to me?

54. I'll buy it to you.

55. He told me how to stop smoking.

56. He told us that he would leave for America soon.
=> He told us he would leave for America soon.

57. His parents left him a big fortune.
=> His parents left a big fortune for him.

58. She sent her friends and her husband's friends a lot of Christmas cards.
=> She sent a lot of Christmas cards for her friends and her husband's friends.

1.5 第五句型:S + V + O + C

59. They found that stranger a spy.

60. We must always keep the classroom clean.

61. All work and no play makes Jack a dull boy.

62. I'm going to paint my house white tomorrow.

63. I can't make him understand it.

🌟64. I can't make myself understood in English.

65. He wouldn't let his daughter go out alone.

66. He let the work be done soon.

67. You don't have to do it by yourself, I'll get him to help you to finish it.
=> You don't have to do it by yourself, I'll get him to help you finish it.

68. I had my hair cut.

69. I had my money stolen.

70. I heard my mother humming a tune.

71. I heard something crash against the wall.

72. I saw the boy punished by his father.

73. Frequent demonstrations have made the traffic in Taipei worse.

74. The children always consider their house a heaven.

75. The management want all the employees to be punctual.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

vt/vi 由受词(O)判断;完全/不完全 由补语(C)判断。

I love you.		S + V + O, love(vt.)
I cried.		cried(vi.)
I go with you.	go(vi.)

I am a teacher.	S + V + C (我是老师=老师是我)

英文四大要素:S、V、O、C。
S = Subject
V = Verb
O = Object
C = Complement

2.1 第一句型:S + V

every day
everyday

时间副词,小单位在前。

有:{
	拥有(have/has)
	存在(beV)
}

注意:There be ... 及 Here be ... 的句型,是由第一句型(S + V)演变而来。其中there, here只能视为具有副词功能的修饰语。
老外习惯将here、there放在句首。

2.2 第二句型:S + V + C

第二句型的动词也叫连缀动词,分为下面四种:
1)表状态
be, lie, sit, stand, stay, rest, remain, keep 等。

2)表状态变化
come, become, go, get, grow, make, turn, fall, run 等。

3)表“似乎..”
seem, appear 等。
主词 + seem/appear + 形容词 ...
主词 + seem/appear + to V ...
It seems/appear that + 主词 + 动词 ...

4)表“..起来”
feel, look, smell, taste, sound 等。

注意:
1⃣️feel, look, smell, taste, sound ...
feel(look...) + 形容词				...起来 怎么样?
feel(look...)+ like + 名词			...起来像..

2⃣️feel的用法:
feel like + 名词	 -> 摸起来像...
feel like + 名词/V-ing	 -> 想要...
be feeling + 形容词 -> 渐渐觉得...(主词须为人)

🌟小知识:
lie,说谎;躺;
当用于“说谎”意思时,动词三态:lie -> lied -> lied
当用于“躺”意思时,动词三态:lie -> lay -> lain

2.3 第三句型:S + V + O

此句型中的动词后须有受词,但不需补语。

重点:动词(dream, sleep, live, die, fight, smile 等)+ 同族受词

dreamed 	dream 
slept 		sleep
lived 		life
died  		death
fought 		fight
smiled 		smile

2.4 第四句型:S + V + O + O

此句型中的动词为授予动词,其后有两个受词。一为间接受词(人),一为直接受词(物)。

授予动词之后的介系词可分为下列几项:
1)介系词 to
allow, promise, award, read, give, recommend, grant, sell, hand, send, lend, show, pass, teach, pay, tell, write

2)介系词 for
bring, get, buy, leave, call, make, choose, order, cook, prepare, do, save, find, spare

3)其他介系词
ask, throw, play

重点:直接受词(物)若改为代名词,只能用句型:<直接受词 + 介系词 + 间接受词>
名词片语、名词子句也可当直接受词。

leave 离开
leave for 前往

离开台湾去往美国
leave Taiwan for America.

leaves{
	leaf(叶子,单数) -> leaves(复数)
	leaves 是leave的三单,eg:He leaves classroom after class.
}

2.5 第五句型:S + V + O + C

此句型中的动词需要受词,且受词之后需要补语补充说明,即受词补语。

重点:使役动词,感官动词用不定词,分词当受词补语。
1)使役动词
make/have + O + {
	原形不定词(受词主动)
	P.P. (受词被动)
}

let + O + {
	原形不定词(受词主动)
	be + P.P. (受词被动)
}

get + O + {
	to 不定词(受词主动)
	P.P. (受词被动)
}

2)感官动词
{feel, see, watch, look at, notice, observe, hear, listen to} + O + {
	原形不定词(主动)
	现在分词(主动)
	过去分词(被动)
}

employee 雇员;
employer 雇主;

make + O + 形
want + O + to V

注意:每个动词的用法,背单词的时候都要记忆积累。

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

  1. 他昨天到达伦敦。

  2. 他生气了。

  3. 他买了一份报纸。

  4. 他给我买了一份报纸。

  5. 他让他的小孩准备好。

3.1 第一句型:S + V

  1. Amy住在这个镇上。

  2. 我哥哥通常在十点上床睡觉。

  3. 在佛罗里达,最热的季节每天通常会下约一小时的雨。

  4. 公车来了。

  5. 这书架上有很多书。

  6. 你要的东西在这。

  7. 台湾的生活最近十年变化很多。

  8. 那可怜的小女孩惊恐的逃离两头蛇。

3.2 第二句型:S + V + C

  1. 他一动也不动的躺在床上。

  2. 我叔叔终身未娶。

  3. 最后我的梦想终于实现了。

  4. 随着年龄的增加,我们的记忆便逐渐衰退。

  5. 牛奶变酸了。

  6. 昨天我在课堂上睡着了。

  7. 那小孩好像累了。

🌟21. 她好像是美国人。

  1. 关于那件事她似乎一无所知。

  2. 冰摸起来又硬又冰。

  3. 这朵花闻起来好香。

  4. 这药尝起来很苦。

  5. 这小老虎看起来如何?它看起来很可爱。

  6. 这只小老虎看起来像什么?它看起来像猫。

  7. 它摸起来像皮毛。

  8. 我现在不想去散步。

  9. 吃过药后,我渐渐觉得好多了。

  10. 它们在我拍的照片中看起来很生动。

  11. 都市中空气污染的问题已经变得愈来愈严重。

  12. 我想去看电影。(3种说法)

  13. 我就是不想。

3.3 第三句型:S + V + O

  1. 我不了解他话中的意思。

  2. 那个人抢了他所有的钱。

  3. 我母亲会照顾那只狗。

  4. 我昨晚做了一个奇怪的梦。

  5. 我在柔软的床上睡了舒服的一觉。

  6. 她过着不幸的生活。

  7. 他死的很惨。

  8. 他们打了漂亮的一仗。

  9. 她笑的很甜。

  10. 每天下午有一个小贩开着小货车到我们社区来卖菜。

  11. 他认识我们附近的每一个人,而我们每一个人也认识他。

3.4 第四句型:S + V + O + O

  1. 他把钱递给店员。

  2. 老师向我们推荐这本书。

  3. 她为她女儿做了一件新洋装。

  4. 你能为我拨出几分钟吗?

  5. 他问我一个奇怪的问题。

  6. 他向我丢了一个石头。

  7. 他对我恶作剧。

  8. 请把它传给我好吗?

  9. 我会买给你。

  10. 他告诉我如何戒烟。

  11. 他告诉我们他不久后将前往美国。

  12. 他的双亲留给他一大笔财富。

  13. 她给她的朋友和她丈夫的朋友寄了很多圣诞卡。

3.5 第五句型:S + V + O + C

  1. 他们发现那陌生人是间谍。

  2. 我们必须随时保持教室干净。

  3. 光是工作不玩乐,孩子就会成呆瓜。

  4. 明天我要把房子漆成白色。

  5. 我无法使他了解这件事。

🌟64. 我无法用英文表达我自己。

  1. 他不让他女儿独自出门。

  2. 他让这工作很快地被完成。

  3. 你不必独自做这件工作;我会叫他帮你完成。

  4. 我剪头发了。

  5. 我的钱被偷了。

  6. 我听到我母亲在哼着曲调。

  7. 我听到有东西砸在墙上碎掉的声音。

  8. 我看见那男孩被他的父亲处罚。

  9. 经常地示威已使台北的交通恶化。

  10. 孩子们总是认为他们的家是天堂。

  11. 管理阶层想要所有的员工准时。

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