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英文文法学习笔记(4)否定

2021-09-07 00:04  AlfredZhao  阅读(21)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第4篇笔记:否定。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1.1 否定字的表现

1. My boss didn't tell me to wear jeans.

2. My boss told me not to wear jeans.

3. Dave is an Australian, not an Austrian.

4. I met him on the street, not at the office.

5. She loves him not because he is handsome, but because he is warmhearted.

6. I have no one to count on.
=> I have no one to depend on.

7. No students are allowed to enter the room.

8. Nobody is allowed to enter the room.

9. He is no genius.

10. It never snows in the Sahara desert.

11. You should never walk alone at night.

12. His success is hardly possible.

13. The injured child could scarcely walk.

14. I rarely listen to classical music.

15. England has seldom won the World Cup.

16. Few people are satisfied with his answer.
=> Few are satisfied with his answer.

17. He showed little interest in math.

1.2 部分否定

18. Both of my friends did not go abroad for advanced study.

19. Neither of my friends went abroad for advanced study.
=> None of my friends went abroad for advanced study.

20. He didn't read all of these comic books.

21. He didn't read any of these comic books.
=> He read none of these comic books.

22. She doesn't always agree with me.

23. Not everybody can be a poet.

24. Beautiful flowers do not necessarily smell sweet.

1.3 双重否定

25. You can't make an omelet without breaking some eggs.

26. It is not unusual for couples to quarrel.

1.4 否定的惯用表现

27. He is by no means a fool.
=> He is not a fool at all.
=> He is no fool.

28. Traveling to the moon is not a dream any longer.
=> Traveling to the moon is no longer a dream.

🚩29. You cannot be too careful when you drive at night.

30. It was not long before the earthquake stopped.

31. I didn't graduate from university until I was twenty-five. 
=> It is not until I was twenty-five that I graduated from university.

32. Babies do nothing but cry.

33. I cannot help admiring his courage.
=> I cannot but admire his courage.

34. There is no telling what may happen.
=> It's impossible to tell what may happen.

35. He can ride a motorcycle, not to mention a bicycle.

36. The soldier got an order and lost no time in carrying it out.
=> The soldier got an order and lost no time in carrying it on.

1.5 不用否定字的否定表现

37. Who knows what will happen tomorrow?
=> No one knows what will happen tomorrow.

38. This book was too boring for me to read through.

39. He would be the last person to tell a lie.

40. The story he told me was anything but boring.

41. Five hundred dollars for a pair of shoes is far from cheap!

42. This district is free from air pollution.

43. The view from the window was beautiful beyond description.

44. The book is quite above me.
=> The book is quite above my understanding.

45. He is above cheating on a test.

46. The alarm clock failed to go off.

47. Heavy fog kept us from driving fast.

48. You had better refrain from alcohol.

49. I know better than to do such a thing.

50. We tried to open the door, but in vain.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

2.1 否定字的表现

1. 没告诉我要穿
2. 告诉我不要穿
本动词否定 -> 助动词 + not + VR
不定词否定 -> not + to VR

jeans,裤子有两个裤管,所以复数。
3. Australian 
Austrian
重音(类似汉语一声)、非重音(类似汉语三声)

5. not because ..., but because ...
because 连词 + S + V 

7. No + S 
S的单复数决定动词

8. Nobody = No one

9. He is no genius.
=> He is not a genius.
意思一样,语气不一样。

10~11. never 

12~15. hardly、scarcely、rarely、seldom 
15. England has seldom won the World Cup, has it?
主句有否定的意思,所以最后反问时用“肯定”。

16. Few 
few = not many

17. little 
little = not much
动词showed这里还可以用had、took替换。

2.2 部分否定

18. Both ... not ...
并非两者都

19. Neither 
None
全部否定

20. read发音 
VR /rid/
过去式 /r...d/

not always = sometimes

24. necessarily

注意:quite(相当的)、altogether(完全的)、completely(完全的)、
entirely(完全的)、exactly(确实的)等和not共用,就会形成部分否定。

2.3 双重否定

25. omelet 煎蛋卷;煎蛋饼;

26. unusual 
特别的; 不寻常的; 罕见的; 独特的; 与众不同的; 别致的;

quarrel 
n.口角; 争吵; 拌嘴; 抱怨(或不赞成)的理由;
vi.争吵; 吵嘴; 吵架;

couples 夫妇
twins 双胞胎
parents 父母亲

2.4 否定的惯用表现

27. by no means 绝非
by all means 必定

means n.方法,手段; 既可以代表单数,也可以代表复数,单复数同形,都有s;
mean a.卑鄙的
mean v.意思是,表示...的意思

What does ‘xxx’ mean?
xxx是什么意思?

The red light means 'Stop'. 红灯表示停。

28. Traveling 美式
Travelling 英式
美式英语写traveling,英式英语写travelling。

no longer
not ... any longer

I don't love you any longer.

🚩29. You cannot be too careful when you drive at night.
You are not too old to learn.
You are never too old to learn.

30. It was not long before ...

32. do nothing but ...

33. cannot help Ving ...
=> cannot but VR ...

34. There is no telling ...

35. not to mention

36. carry on 执行
carry out 一样的意思
可以分开的动词短语
{
	carry on an order
	carry an order on
	carry it on
}
使用代名词替换时,代名词只能放在中间。

No parking.
=> There is no parking along this street.

order 命令 n. v.
点菜

May I take your order now?	n.
May I order now?	v.

2.5 不用否定字的否定表现

37. Who knows 
=> No one knows 

38. too ... to ...
太... 而不能...

40. The story [he told me] was anything but boring.
名词性子句。

41. is far from 

42. free from 

43. beyond description.

44. quite above me.

45. He is above cheating on a test.

46. go off.
响。

47. Heavy fog kept us from driving fast.

注意:阻止;防止;
keep ... from ...
hinder ... from ...
stop ... from ...
protect ... from ...
prevent ... from ...

48. refrain from 
alcohol (n.)
alcoholic (adj.)

alcoholic drinks 
soft drinks

49. I know better than to do such a thing.

50. in vain. 枉然;徒劳

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

3.1 否定字的表现

  1. 我的上司没告诉我要穿牛仔裤。

  2. 我的上司告诉我不要穿牛仔裤。

  3. Dave是澳洲人,不是奥地利人。

  4. 我在街上遇到他,而不是在办公室。

  5. 她爱他不是因为他长得帅,而是因为他很贴心。

  6. 我没有人可以依赖。

  7. 没有学生被允许可以进入房间。

  8. 没有人被允许可以进入房间。

  9. 他绝非天才。

  10. 撒哈拉沙漠绝不会下雪。

  11. 你不该晚上一个人散步。

  12. 他的成功几乎是不可能的。

  13. 那受伤的小孩几乎不能行走。

  14. 我很少听古典音乐。

  15. 英国很少赢得世界杯。

  16. 几乎没人对他的答案感到满意。

  17. 他对数学没什么兴趣。

3.2 部分否定

  1. 我的朋友并非两位都出国深造了。(部分否定)

  2. 我的朋友都没有出国深造。(全部否定)

  3. 他并非读了所有的漫画书。(部分否定)

  4. 他没读这些漫画书。(全部否定)

  5. 她并非总是同意我。

  6. 并非每个人都能成为诗人。

  7. 美丽的花朵未必都很香。

3.3 双重否定

  1. 你不可能不打破几个鸡蛋而可以做蛋卷的。

  2. 夫妻吵架并不稀奇。

3.4 否定的惯用表现

  1. 他绝非笨蛋。

  2. 到月球旅行不再是梦想。

  3. 夜晚开车再怎么小心也不为过。

  4. 不久后地震就停了。

  5. 我直到25岁才大学毕业。

  6. 宝宝只会哭。

  7. 我不得不佩服他的勇气。

  8. 无法得知可能会发生什么事。

  9. 他会骑摩托车,更别提脚踏车了。

  10. 那士兵接到命令就立即执行。

3.5 不用否定字的否定表现

  1. 谁晓得明天发生什么事?

  2. 这本书对我而言太无聊无法看完。

  3. 他绝不会说谎。

  4. 他告诉我的故事一点也不会无聊。

  5. 500元买一双鞋绝不便宜!

  6. 这地方是没有空气污染的。

  7. 从窗户望出去的美景美的笔墨难以形容。

  8. 这本书远超过我的理解能力。

  9. 他考试不可能作弊。

  10. 这闹钟不会响了。

  11. 浓雾使我们无法开快车。

  12. 你最好避免喝酒。

  13. 我还没有笨到去做那种事。

  14. 我们设法打开门,但却做不到。

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