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英文文法学习笔记(3)假设语气

2021-09-04 00:33  AlfredZhao  阅读(35)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报

本篇为第3篇笔记:假设语气。

一、经典例句

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

一、经典例句

1. If you are free, please help me with my homework.

2. If I were free, I would help you with your homework.

1.1 假设法现在式

3. If it rains tomorrow, we will cancel the picnic.

4. I suggest that everyone should help in some way.
=> I suggest that everyone help in some way.

5. I insist that she should consult the doctor.
=> I insist that she consult the doctor.

6. It is important that we be honest.
=> It is important that we should be honest.
=> It is important for us to be honest.

1.2 假设法过去式

7. If I were young, I could enjoy this party.
=> As I am not young, I can't enjoy this party.

8. If I had a lot of money, I would buy a yacht.
=> As I don't have much money, I won't buy a yacht.

1.3 假设法过去完成式

9. If I had known the gossip then, I would have told you.
=> As I didn't known the gossip then, I wouldn't tell you.

10. If our teacher had spoken louder, we wouldn't have dozed off.
=> We wouldn't have dozed off if our teacher had spoken louder.
=> As our teacher didn't speak loud, we dozed off.
=> we dozed off as our teacher didn't speak loud.

11. Suppose you had ten million dollars, what would you like to do first?
=> Supposing you had ten million dollars, what would you like to do first?

12. I will stay here provided the climate agrees with me tomorrow.
=> I will stay here providing the climate agrees with me tomorrow.

13. If I had done my homework yesterday, I would go on a date with her now.
=> As I didn't do my homework yesterday, I don't go on a date with her now.

1.4 假设法未来式

14. If it should rain tomorrow, the game would be put off.
=> If it should rain tomorrow, the game will be put off.

15. If the Pacific Ocean were to dry up, I would change my mind.
=> I never change my mind.

16. If I were a bird, I could fly to you.
=> Were I a bird, I could fly to you.

17. If he had known the truth, he would have told you.
=> Had he known the truth, he would have told you.

18. If it should rain, I would stay at home.
=> Should it rain, I would stay at home.

1.5 其他假设法的表现

19. He talks as if he knew everything.
=> He talks as though he knew everything.

20. She looks as if she had seen a ghost.
=> She looks as though she had seen a ghost.

21. She laughed as if nothing had happened.
=> She laughed as though nothing had happened.

22. I wish I knew Annie's cellular phone number.
=> I'm sorry I don't know Annie's cellular phone number.

23. I wish I hadn't bought such an expensive dress.
=> I'm sorry I bought such an expensive dress then.

24. It's past midnight. It's time the children went to bed.
=> It's time the children went to bed.
=> It's time that the children went to bed.
=> It's time for the children to go to bed.

25. It's about time you apologized to her for what you did.

26. If only I had taken her advice.

27. If only my tooth would stop hurting!

28. It it were not for music, he would not live a moment.
=> Were it not for music, he would not live a moment.
=> Without music, he could not live a moment.
=> But for music, he could not live a moment.

29. If it had not been for the traffic jam, we would have been in time for the game.
=> Had it not been for the traffic jam, we would have been in time for the game.
=> Without the traffic jam, we would have been in time for the game.
=> But for the traffic jam, we would have been in time for the game.

1.6 代替if子句的用法

30. To hear him talk, you would think he knew all about the secret.
=> If you heard him talk, you would think he knew all about the secret.

31. I know he is innocent; otherwise I wouldn't try to save him.
=> If I didn't know he was innocent, I wouldn't try to save him.

32. We hid in the forest; otherwise they would have found us.
=> If we hadn't hidden in the forest, they would have found us.

33. With a little patience, you could get over your difficulty.
=> If you had a little patience, you could get over your difficulty.

34. Ten years ago, I could have run around this lake within half an hour.
=> If it had been ten years ago, I could have run around this lake within half an hour.

35. The same man, living in this centry, would be a hero.
=> The same man, if he were living in this centry, would be a hero.

36. Seen from a distance, you might look hansome.
=> If you were seen from a distance, you might be hansome.

37. A man of sense wouldn't say such a thing.
=> If he were a man of sense, he wouldn't say such a thing.

38. A secret agent would never tell you his real name.
=> If he were a secret agent, he would never tell you his real name.

二、知识点回顾(对应例句编号)

1. 直述句。
If you are free, please help me with my homework.

2. 假设句。
If I were free, I would help you with your homework.

2.1 假设法现在式

假设语气重点:
1)时间线
	过去完成式 -> 过去式 -> 现在式 -> 未来式
2)事实与假设时态差一级
	比如:与现在事实对比,假设语气就用过去式。

🏁句子中的前后时代要一致,前面现在式,后面也是现在式;
will是表示未来的,但是本身是现在式的动词。

shall “将要”的意思;
should 助动词 “应该”的意思
只有should有“应该”的意思。

4. everyone 第三人称单数,但是后面的help为何不加s?是因为前面省略了“should”,should后面用原形。
5. she consult 一样的道理,省略了should,所以用的VR。

假设语气不是只有if语句,比如:
S + 动词(suggest、demand、insist、agree等类似意思的动词) + that + 假设法现在式;
It is + 形容词(necessary、important等) + that + 假设法现在式。

2.2 假设法过去式

🏁句子中的前后时代要一致,前面过去式,后面也是过去式;

8. won't = will not

2.3 假设法过去完成式

know动词三态:know,knew,known

特别注意四个词:would/could/should/might。

从属连接词 if,可在句前,也可在句中
	if在句子中间时,无需逗号分隔;

doze off 打瞌睡。

speak loud. 在事实的叙述中,loud原形更合适,从语气判断更适宜些。
在假设语气中 had spoken louder,比较是和事实比较;

注意:在条件子句中,除了if之外,也可用:
suppose、supposing、suppose that、providing、provided、provided that、as long as、in case、unless等字。
但 unless 通常不用于假设语气的句子中。

unless用于直述句,if用于假设句;

suppose 假设
in case 万一
unless  除非

重点:若两子句的时态不同时,其时态「各自为准」!

2.4 假设法未来式

对未来的假设。

if子句中怎么会有should? 很特殊,但其实意思也变了,解释为“万一”,万中有一的概率。
were to 指“不可能发生”的假设;

重点:假设句中的If可以省略,形成Were(Had/Should等)+主词的顺序。

2.5 其他假设法的表现

... as if / as though(仿佛;好像) + S + 假设法过去式
... as if / as though(仿佛;好像) + S + 假设法过去完成式

... wish(希望) + S + 假设法过去式
... wish(希望) + S + 假设法过去完成式

It is time + (that)+ S + 假设法过去式
It is about time + (that)+ S + 假设法过去式
It is almost time + (that)+ S + 假设法过去式
It is high time + (that)+ S + 假设法过去式

If only + S + 假设法过去式
If only + S + 假设法过去完成式
注:If only ... 和 I wish ... 在表现上意思差不多。

If it were not for ... => 假设法过去式
If it had not been for ... => 假设法过去完成式
(若没有...的话)

She look as if she had seen a ghost.
她现在看起来,但见到鬼是在过去,所以与过去事实相反,假设语气向前推,就用过去完成式。

It is high time you got a job.
你该找份工作了。

what you did
=> the thing that you did
what 作为关系代名词

in time 及时
on time 准时

2.6 代替if子句的用法

除了连接词if开始的副词子句之外,不定词、副词片语、分词构句等有时也有假设的功能。
不定词更简洁,假设语气可通过后半句体现;

在有连接词的句子中,其中有连接词的部分是附属的子句,无连接词的部分是老大(主句)。
当表述重复想省略主词等,也是省略子句的主词等。
eg: If you had a little patience, you could get over your difficulty.
=> With a little patience, you could get over your difficulty.
with 这里是有的意思。
注:with本身可以是副词,也可以是介词。

分词:{
	现在分词	Ving	-> 代表主动
	过去分词	P.P 	-> 代表被动

	注意:分词不代表现在/过去等时态,只有动词才代表时态。
}

A man of ... 什么样的人
A man of sense
A man of ability
A man of power

get over 克服

patient (adj.)有耐性的;(n.)病人
patience (n.)有耐性

Be patient	有耐性一点
Be a good patient	当个听话的病人

三、例句中文翻译(参考)

  1. 如果你有空,请帮我做功课。(表“有帮忙的可能性存在”)

  2. 如果我有空,我会帮你做功课。(表“我现在没空,所以无法帮你”之意)

3.1 假设法现在式

  1. 如果明天下雨的话,我们将取消这次的野餐。

  2. 我提议每一个人都以某种方式帮忙。

  3. 我坚持她要去看医生。

  4. 诚实对我们而言很重要。

3.2 假设法过去式

  1. 如果我还年轻,我就能够乐在派对中。
    => 我现在已经不年轻了,我无法乐在派对中。

  2. 如果我有很多钱,我就买一艘游艇。
    => 我没有那么多钱,我无法买游艇。

3.3 假设法过去完成式

  1. 如果我那时知道那个流言,我早就告诉你了。

  2. 如果那时我们的老师讲课大声点,我们就不会打瞌睡。

  3. 假设你有一千万美金,你会先做什么?

  4. 如果明天这里气候适合的话,我就待下来。

  5. 如果我昨天做完功课的话,我今天就可以和她约会。

3.4 假设法未来式

  1. 万一明天下雨的话,比赛将会延期。

  2. 如果太平洋干涸的话,我会改变心意。

  3. 如果我是一只鸟,我就能飞向你。

  4. 如果他知道真相,他会告诉你。

  5. 万一下雨的话,我会呆在家。

3.5 其他假设法的表现

  1. 他说的好像他知道一切。

  2. 她看起来好像她那时见到鬼了。

  3. 她那时笑得仿佛之前什么都没有发生。

  4. 我希望我知道安妮的手机号码。

  5. 我希望那时我没有买那么贵的洋装。

  6. 已经过了午夜了,该是小朋友上床睡觉的时间了。

  7. 该是你为你的所作所为向她道歉的时候了。

  8. 但愿那时我有接受她的忠告。

  9. 但愿我的牙齿不疼了!

  10. 若没有音乐,他一刻也无法生存。

  11. 若那时没有塞车,我们就能及时赶上比赛。

3.6 代替if子句的用法

  1. 听到他说的话,你一定会以为他知道所有的秘密。

  2. 我知道他是无辜的;否则我不会设法救他。

  3. 那时我们躲在森林里,否则他们会找到我们。

  4. 如果稍微有点耐性,你就能克服困难。

  5. 如果在十年前,我绕着这湖水跑一圈只要半个小时就好了。

  6. 同样这个人,若生在这世纪,一定是个英雄。

  7. 稍微远一点看,你看起来就很帅。

  8. 有知识的人不会这么说的。

  9. 情报人员是不会告诉你他的真实姓名的。

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