一:词类

  英语词类分为10种,分别是名词,形容词,代词,数词,动词,副词,借词,连词和感叹词。

1.名词(n):表示人,事物,地点或抽象概念的名称。如,boy,morning,bag,ball,class,orange.

2.代词(pron):主要用来代替名词。如:who,she,you,it

3.形容词(adj):表示人或事物性质或特性。如:good,right,white,orange。

4.数词(unm):表示数目或事物的顺序。如:one,two,three,first,third。

5.动词(v):表示动作或状态。如

6.副词(adv):修饰动词,形容词或其它副词,说明时间,地点,程度等,如:now,very,here,often

7.冠词(art):用在名词前帮助说明名词。如a,an,the

8.介词(prep):表示它后面的名词或代词与其它句子成分的关系,如in,on,from,above,

9.连词(conj):用来连接词,短语或句子。如and,but,before

10.感叹词(interj):表示喜,怒,哀,乐等感情的词。如:oh,well,hi,hello

二:句子成分:

  英语句子成分分为7种:分别是主语,谓语,宾语,定语,状语,表语,宾语不语。

2.1  主语:

(1)由名词,代词,动词不定式,动名词等充当。说明动词是“谁”发出的,主语是句子陈述的对象,说明是谁或什么,表示句子说明的是“什么人”,“什么事”。如“我写字”中的“我”,做出写字的这个动作是主语。“写”则是谓语,“字”是宾语,是接受“写”这个动作的受体是宾语。

eg1:The painter painted a very nice picture.

eg2:They fought against SARS bravely.
eg3:To see is to believe.

eg4:Helping animals is to help people.

(2)动词不定式或动名词做主语时可用it代替,而不定式或动名词移至表语或宾语之后。

eg1:It is very comfortable to have a Class A seat during the long journey.

eg2:Eating too much is bad for your health = It is bad for your health eating too much.

(3)口语中常见主语或“主-系”省略:(it is ) nothing . (it) doesn`t matter。(I) think you.

(4)主语与谓语必须保持单,复数的一致,而谓语和表语或宾语没有这一要求。

eg1:Neither Jim nor Rose has passed the exam.

eg2:The Chinese people are a hardworking and brave people.

(5)主语可以由从句充当

2.2 谓语

  是对主语动作或状态的陈述或说明,指出“做什么”,“是什么”或“怎么样”,在主语后接宾语,又称受词,是一个动词的接受者。

(1)由“不及物动词”,“及物动词+宾语”或“系动词+表语”等构成,说明主语所表示的人物“干什么”,或“怎么样”

eg1:He travelled in space for the first time.

eg2:Who teaches you English this years?

eg3:The pazza has gone bad.

(2)谓语动词必须反应出人称,单,复数,时态等信息,谓语动词往往又下列词语依序排列构成:[情态动词]+[时态助动词](现在完成时)+[语态助动词](如被动语态)+[主要动词](不一定全部出现)

(3)不可用形容词,名词,代词,复词,介词短语等独立作谓语,必须在此前加连系动词???

2.3 宾语

  宾语又称受词,是指一个动作(动词)的接受者。宾语可分为直接宾语和间接宾语

(1)有名词,代词(人称代词要用宾格),不定式,动名词宾语,宾语从句充当,表示动作的承受者是“谁”或者是“何物”

eg1: The angel alse came to Joseph and told him the same thing.

eh2: He told me that the company could not afford to pay him so much money.

eg3: They enjoy watching football game so much that they often forget their lessons.

eg4:I think to be a children`s docter is very rewarding. 

(2)只有及物动词或介词才有宾语,不及物动词没有宾语,如果涉及到事物则必须在不及物动词后加适当的介词。

eg1: Listen to the radio.

(3)宾语一般放在及物动词或介词的后面,但是疑问句中,如果宾语是疑问词,则宾语放在句首。介词的宾语如果是疑问词,则可放在介词后或句首‘

eg1:What did he see?

eg2:What does he write a letter with?

eg3:With what does he write a letter?

2.4 表语

(1)说明主语的身份,性质,状况等含义的成分。通常有形容词,副词,介词短语,名词,代词等充当。

eg1: He became a doctor after he left hight school.

eg2:The rubber wheels are over there.

eg3:He does not feel like eating anything today because he has caught a bad cold.

eg4:Who is it?

(2)表语只能放在系动词(be,look,become,turn,get)之后,对表语进行提问的句子除外。

(3)形容词做表语

eg1:He was terribly sorry for his carelessness.

2.5 定语

(1)修饰名词或代词的成分,常由形容词,名词(含所有格),代词,介词短语,不定式充当。

eg1:Put it in the top drawer.

eg2:His mother and father are both college teacher.

(2)时间副词(now,then,today,yesterday,...),地点副词(here,there,in,out,home,....)做定语时放在被修饰词的后面。

eg1: I could not find my way out,so I stayed there all along

(3)介词短语修饰名词时只能放在名词的后面

eg1:The monkey in the case wad caught yesterday.

(4)形容词修饰复合不定代词,往往后置

eg1:He remembered everything unusual

(5)定语还可以从句充当。

(6)注意⚠️:由于定语属于修饰的成分,因此他常归入主语,宾语,表语中,不作为句子的主要成分。

2.6 状语

(1)说明动词“何时”,“何地”,“如何”发生,或者说明形容词或副词的程度,一般由副词,介词短语,不定式,状语从句等充当。

eg1: I was not born yesterday.

eg2:For many of these families (修饰new) a college education was something now.

eg3:He woke up to find his house onfire

eg4:You cannot leave until your work is finished.

注意:由于状语属于修饰性的成分,常归入谓语,因此不作为句子的主要成分。

2.7 宾语补足语

(1)补充说明宾语的动作、状态的成分。分为宾语补充语,常有名词,形容词,动词非谓语形式(不定式,现在分词,过去分词等),介词短语等充当

eg1:Call him Jim 

eg2:I tried my best to make him happy.

eg3:Ask her to came to dinner tomorrow

eg4:He let the smaller animals bring food to him

(2)部分表示位置、方向的副词也可以宾语补充语

eg1:Let him in.

eg2: please put it away.

参考:https://wenku.baidu.com/view/75c9e21ab207e87101f69e3143323968001cf416.html

 

posted on 2020-01-05 21:35  爱我-中华  阅读(448)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报