windows系统中Emacs的HOME目录及配置文件的正确路径

最近爱折腾的毛病又犯了,开始折腾起Emacs,在自定义Emacs的配置文件存放位置时遇到一点问题,不过,在GNU的Emacs站点,看到这么一段话

On Windows, the .emacs file may be called _emacs for backward compatibility with DOS and FAT filesystems where filenames could not start with a dot. Some users prefer to continue using such a name, because Explorer cannot create a file with a name starting with a dot, even though the filesystem and most other programs can handle it. In Emacs 22 and later, the init file may also be called.emacs.d/init.el. Many of the other files that are created by lisp packages are now stored in the.emacs.ddirectory too, so this keeps all your Emacs related files in one place.

All the files mentioned above should go in your HOME directory. The HOME directory is determined by following the steps below:

  1. If the environment variableHOME is set, use the directory it indicates.
  2. If the registry entry HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\Emacs\HOME is set, use the directory it indicates.
  3. If the registry entry HKLM\SOFTWARE\GNU\Emacs\HOME is set, use the directory it indicates. Not recommended, as it results in users sharing the same HOME directory.
  4. If C:\.emacs exists, then use C:/. This is for backward compatibility, as previous versions defaulted to C:/ if HOME was not set.
  5. Use the user's AppData directory, usually a directory called Application Data under the user's profile directory, the location of which varies according to Windows version and whether the computer is part of a domain.

也就是说,Emacs的配置文件有三种格式:.emacs文件、_emacs文件或者.emacs.d目录下的init.el(22或者更高版本)文件,但是,不管哪种格式,必须放对正确的目录Emacs才能找到,这个正确的目录就是HOME目录。


熟悉Linux的朋友一般都知道home目录,简单的用~表示,或者用全路径表示为/home/<xxx>,其中xxx表示用户名字,所以,在Linux下将.emacs和.emacs.d放到这个目录下就行了,但windows没有home目录的概念,所以,Emacs就按如下方式来查找配置文件:

  1. 如果设置了HOME环境变量,那么就用它的值作为home目录~
  2. 如果存在注册表键值HKCU\SOFTWARE\GNU\Emacs\HOME,就用它的值作为home目录~
  3. 如果存在注册表键值HKLM\SOFTWARE\GNU\Emacs\HOME,就用它的值作为home目录~(和2的区别是,2只是针对当前用户的注册表路径,3则是针对所有用户)
  4. 如果存在C:\.emacs,就用C:\作为home目录~
  5. 如果以上都不存在的话,就使用<system root>\Users\<user name>\AppData\Roaming作为home目录~(对于XP和较早windows用户,需要到Documents and Settings目录下去找)

 

从以上策略来看,1是比较好的做法,所以优先级也最高,应该是属于建议的方式,于是,新建一个HOME环境变量,将它的值设为想要放置Emacs配置文件的地方既可。

之前我是按以上方法设置的HOME目录,不过现在我后悔了,因为我发现不光是Emacs会使用HOME这个环境变量,会使用这个变量的至少还有以下程序或者插件:

  1. VIM,VIM会把_viminfo文件放在这个目录;
  2. VIM的neocomplcache插件,它会放置一个.neocon目录进去;
  3. firefox的pentadactyl插件,它会放一个pentadactyl目录进去。

 

所以,个人建议:

  1. 如果你希望有一个公共的目录存放这些配置,就像Linux下的~目录一样,那么设置HOME这个环境变量最适合不过;
  2. 如果你希望这个目录只存放Emacs的配置,那么,还是不要用HOME环境变量了,去注册表里面添加一个HOME键值吧。(至少我个人比较偏向于这个方式)
posted @ 2012-04-27 00:13  ini_always  阅读(11799)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报