linux下网卡bonding配置

章节

  1. bonding技术
  2. centos7配置bonding
  3. centos6配置bonding

 

一、bonding技术

bonding(绑定)是一种linux系统下的网卡绑定技术,可以把服务器上n个物理网卡在系统内部抽象(绑定)成一个逻辑上的网卡,能够提升网络吞吐量、实现网络冗余、负载等功能,有很多优势。

bonding技术是linux系统内核层面实现的,它是一个内核模块(驱动)。使用它需要系统有这个模块, 我们可以modinfo命令查看下这个模块的信息, 一般来说都支持.

# modinfo bonding
filename:       /lib/modules/2.6.32-642.1.1.el6.x86_64/kernel/drivers/net/bonding/bonding.ko
author:         Thomas Davis, tadavis@lbl.gov and many others
description:    Ethernet Channel Bonding Driver, v3.7.1
version:        3.7.1
license:        GPL
alias:          rtnl-link-bond
srcversion:     F6C1815876DCB3094C27C71
depends:        
vermagic:       2.6.32-642.1.1.el6.x86_64 SMP mod_unload modversions 
parm:           max_bonds:Max number of bonded devices (int)
parm:           tx_queues:Max number of transmit queues (default = 16) (int)
parm:           num_grat_arp:Number of peer notifications to send on failover event (alias of num_unsol_na) (int)
parm:           num_unsol_na:Number of peer notifications to send on failover event (alias of num_grat_arp) (int)
parm:           miimon:Link check interval in milliseconds (int)
parm:           updelay:Delay before considering link up, in milliseconds (int)
parm:           downdelay:Delay before considering link down, in milliseconds (int)
parm:           use_carrier:Use netif_carrier_ok (vs MII ioctls) in miimon; 0 for off, 1 for on (default) (int)
parm:           mode:Mode of operation; 0 for balance-rr, 1 for active-backup, 2 for balance-xor, 3 for broadcast, 4 for 802.3ad, 5 for balance-tlb, 6 for balance-alb (charp)
parm:           primary:Primary network device to use (charp)
parm:           primary_reselect:Reselect primary slave once it comes up; 0 for always (default), 1 for only if speed of primary is better, 2 for only on active slave failure (charp)
parm:           lacp_rate:LACPDU tx rate to request from 802.3ad partner; 0 for slow, 1 for fast (charp)
parm:           ad_select:803.ad aggregation selection logic; 0 for stable (default), 1 for bandwidth, 2 for count (charp)
parm:           min_links:Minimum number of available links before turning on carrier (int)
parm:           xmit_hash_policy:balance-xor and 802.3ad hashing method; 0 for layer 2 (default), 1 for layer 3+4, 2 for layer 2+3 (charp)
parm:           arp_interval:arp interval in milliseconds (int)
parm:           arp_ip_target:arp targets in n.n.n.n form (array of charp)
parm:           arp_validate:validate src/dst of ARP probes; 0 for none (default), 1 for active, 2 for backup, 3 for all (charp)
parm:           arp_all_targets:fail on any/all arp targets timeout; 0 for any (default), 1 for all (charp)
parm:           fail_over_mac:For active-backup, do not set all slaves to the same MAC; 0 for none (default), 1 for active, 2 for follow (charp)
parm:           all_slaves_active:Keep all frames received on an interface by setting active flag for all slaves; 0 for never (default), 1 for always. (int)
parm:           resend_igmp:Number of IGMP membership reports to send on link failure (int)
parm:           packets_per_slave:Packets to send per slave in balance-rr mode; 0 for a random slave, 1 packet per slave (default), >1 packets per slave. (int)
parm:           lp_interval:The number of seconds between instances where the bonding driver sends learning packets to each slaves peer switch. The default is 1. (uint)
modinfo bonding

bonding的七种工作模式: 

bonding技术提供了七种工作模式,在使用的时候需要指定一种,每种有各自的优缺点.

  1. balance-rr (mode=0)       默认, 有高可用 (容错) 和负载均衡的功能,  需要交换机的配置,每块网卡轮询发包 (流量分发比较均衡).
  2. active-backup (mode=1)  只有高可用 (容错) 功能, 不需要交换机配置, 这种模式只有一块网卡工作, 对外只有一个mac地址。缺点是端口利用率比较低
  3. balance-xor (mode=2)     不常用
  4. broadcast (mode=3)        不常用
  5. 802.3ad (mode=4)          IEEE 802.3ad 动态链路聚合,需要交换机配置,没用过
  6. balance-tlb (mode=5)      不常用
  7. balance-alb (mode=6)     有高可用 ( 容错 )和负载均衡的功能,不需要交换机配置  (流量分发到每个接口不是特别均衡)

具体的网上有很多资料,了解每种模式的特点根据自己的选择就行, 一般会用到0、1、4、6这几种模式。

二、Centos7配置bonding

环境:

系统: Centos7
网卡: em1、em2
bond0:172.16.0.183
负载模式: mode6(adaptive load balancing

服务器上两张物理网卡em1和em2, 通过绑定成一个逻辑网卡bond0,bonding模式选择mode6

注: ip地址配置在bond0上, 物理网卡不需要配置ip地址.

1、关闭和停止NetworkManager服务

systemctl stop NetworkManager.service     # 停止NetworkManager服务
systemctl disable NetworkManager.service  # 禁止开机启动NetworkManager服务

ps: 一定要关闭,不关会对做bonding有干扰

2、加载bonding模块

modprobe --first-time bonding

没有提示说明加载成功, 如果出现modprobe: ERROR: could not insert 'bonding': Module already in kernel说明你已经加载了这个模块, 就不用管了

你也可以使用lsmod | grep bonding查看模块是否被加载

lsmod | grep bonding
bonding               136705  0 

3、创建基于bond0接口的配置文件

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

修改成如下,根据你的情况:

DEVICE=bond0
TYPE=Bond
IPADDR=172.16.0.183
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=172.16.0.1
DNS1=114.114.114.114
USERCTL=no
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
BONDING_MASTER=yes
BONDING_OPTS="mode=6 miimon=100"

上面的BONDING_OPTS="mode=6 miimon=100" 表示这里配置的工作模式是mode6(adaptive load balancing), miimon表示监视网络链接的频度 (毫秒), 我们设置的是100毫秒, 根据你的需求也可以指定mode成其它的负载模式。

4、修改em1接口的配置文件

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-em1

修改成如下:

DEVICE=em1
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0                  # 需要和上面的ifcfg-bond0配置文件中的DEVICE的值对应
SLAVE=yes
BOOTPROTO=none

5、修改em2接口的配置文件

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-em2

修改成如下:

DEVICE=em2
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
MASTER=bond0                 # 需要和上的ifcfg-bond0配置文件中的DEVICE的值对应
SLAVE=yes
BOOTPROTO=none

6、测试

重启网络服务

systemctl restart network

查看bond0的接口状态信息  ( 如果报错说明没做成功,很有可能是bond0接口没起来)

# cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0

Bonding Mode: adaptive load balancing   // 绑定模式: 当前是ald模式(mode 6), 也就是高可用和负载均衡模式
Primary Slave: None
Currently Active Slave: em1
MII Status: up                           // 接口状态: up(MII是Media Independent Interface简称, 接口的意思)
MII Polling Interval (ms): 100           // 接口轮询的时间隔(这里是100ms)
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0

Slave Interface: em1                     // 备接口: em0
MII Status: up                           // 接口状态: up(MII是Media Independent Interface简称, 接口的意思)
Speed: 1000 Mbps                         // 端口的速率是1000 Mpbs
Duplex: full                             // 全双工
Link Failure Count: 0                    // 链接失败次数: 0 
Permanent HW addr: 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4      // 永久的MAC地址
Slave queue ID: 0

Slave Interface: em1                     // 备接口: em1
MII Status: up                           // 接口状态: up(MII是Media Independent Interface简称, 接口的意思)
Speed: 1000 Mbps
Duplex: full                             // 全双工
Link Failure Count: 0                    // 链接失败次数: 0
Permanent HW addr: 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d5     // 永久的MAC地址
Slave queue ID: 0

通过ifconfig命令查看下网络的接口信息

# ifconfig

bond0: flags=5187<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MASTER,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet 172.16.0.183  netmask 255.255.255.0  broadcast 172.16.0.255
        inet6 fe80::862b:2bff:fe6a:76d4  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 11183  bytes 1050708 (1.0 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 5152  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 5329  bytes 452979 (442.3 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

em1: flags=6211<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SLAVE,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 3505  bytes 335210 (327.3 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 1  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 2852  bytes 259910 (253.8 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

em2: flags=6211<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SLAVE,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d5  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 5356  bytes 495583 (483.9 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 4390  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 1546  bytes 110385 (107.7 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 17  bytes 2196 (2.1 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 17  bytes 2196 (2.1 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

测试网络高可用, 我们拔掉其中一根网线进行测试, 结论是:

  • 在本次mode=6模式下丢包1个, 恢复网络时( 网络插回去 ) 丢包在5-6个左右,说明高可用功能正常但恢复的时候丢包会比较多
  • 测试mode=1模式下丢包1个,恢复网络时( 网线插回去 ) 基本上没有丢包,说明高可用功能和恢复的时候都正常
  • mode6这种负载模式除了故障恢复的时候有丢包之外其它都挺好的,如果能够忽略这点的话可以这种模式;而mode1故障的切换和恢复都很快,基本没丢包和延时。但端口利用率比较低,因为这种主备的模式只有一张网卡在工作.

三、Centos6配置bonding

Centos6配置bonding和上面的Cetons7做bonding基本一样,只是配置有些不同. 

系统: Centos6
网卡: em1、em2
bond0:172.16.0.183
负载模式: mode1(adaptive load balancing)  # 这里的负载模式为1,也就是主备模式.

1、关闭和停止NetworkManager服务

service  NetworkManager stop
chkconfig NetworkManager off

ps: 如果有装的话关闭它,如果报错说明没有装这个,那就不用管

2、加载bonding模块

modprobe --first-time bonding

3、创建基于bond0接口的配置文件

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-bond0

修改如下 (根据你的需要):

DEVICE=bond0
TYPE=Bond
BOOTPROTO=none
ONBOOT=yes
IPADDR=172.16.0.183
NETMASK=255.255.255.0
GATEWAY=172.16.0.1
DNS1=114.114.114.114
USERCTL=no
BONDING_OPTS="mode=6 miimon=100"

4、加载bond0接口到内核

vi /etc/modprobe.d/bonding.conf

修改成如下:

alias bond0 bonding

5、编辑em1、em2的接口文件

vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-em1

修改成如下:

DEVICE=em1
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none
vim /etc/sysconfig/network-scripts/ifcfg-em2

修改成如下:

DEVICE=em2
MASTER=bond0
SLAVE=yes
USERCTL=no
ONBOOT=yes
BOOTPROTO=none

6、加载模块、重启网络与测试

modprobe bonding
service network restart

查看bondo接口的状态

cat /proc/net/bonding/bond0
Bonding Mode: fault-tolerance (active-backup)  # bond0接口当前的负载模式是主备模式
Primary Slave: None
Currently Active Slave: em2
MII Status: up
MII Polling Interval (ms): 100
Up Delay (ms): 0
Down Delay (ms): 0

Slave Interface: em1
MII Status: up
Speed: 1000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 2
Permanent HW addr: 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4
Slave queue ID: 0

Slave Interface: em2
MII Status: up
Speed: 1000 Mbps
Duplex: full
Link Failure Count: 0
Permanent HW addr: 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d5
Slave queue ID: 0

通过ifconfig命令查看下接口的状态,你会发现mode=1模式下所有的mac地址都是一致的,说明对外逻辑就是一个mac地址

ifconfig 
bond0: flags=5187<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,MASTER,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        inet6 fe80::862b:2bff:fe6a:76d4  prefixlen 64  scopeid 0x20<link>
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4  txqueuelen 0  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 147436  bytes 14519215 (13.8 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 70285  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 10344  bytes 970333 (947.5 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

em1: flags=6211<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SLAVE,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 63702  bytes 6302768 (6.0 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 64285  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 344  bytes 35116 (34.2 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

em2: flags=6211<UP,BROADCAST,RUNNING,SLAVE,MULTICAST>  mtu 1500
        ether 84:2b:2b:6a:76:d4  txqueuelen 1000  (Ethernet)
        RX packets 65658  bytes 6508173 (6.2 MiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 6001  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 1708  bytes 187627 (183.2 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

lo: flags=73<UP,LOOPBACK,RUNNING>  mtu 65536
        inet 127.0.0.1  netmask 255.0.0.0
        inet6 ::1  prefixlen 128  scopeid 0x10<host>
        loop  txqueuelen 0  (Local Loopback)
        RX packets 31  bytes 3126 (3.0 KiB)
        RX errors 0  dropped 0  overruns 0  frame 0
        TX packets 31  bytes 3126 (3.0 KiB)
        TX errors 0  dropped 0 overruns 0  carrier 0  collisions 0

进行高可用测试,拔掉其中的一条网线看丢包和延时情况, 然后在插回网线(模拟故障恢复),再看丢包和延时的情况.

一些参考:

http://www.tuicool.com/articles/b6ZVNr

http://www.cnblogs.com/dkblog/p/3613407.html  (bound的七种模式)

 

posted @ 2017-03-09 18:22  opss  阅读(55004)  评论(2编辑  收藏  举报