# 9.3 目标检测和边界框

%matplotlib inline
from PIL import Image

import sys
sys.path.append('/home/kesci/input/')
import d2lzh1981 as d2l
# 展示用于目标检测的图
d2l.set_figsize()
img = Image.open('/home/kesci/input/img2083/img/catdog.jpg')
d2l.plt.imshow(img); # 加分号只显示图

## 9.3.1 边界框

# bbox是bounding box的缩写
dog_bbox, cat_bbox = [60, 45, 378, 516], [400, 112, 655, 493]
def bbox_to_rect(bbox, color):  # 本函数已保存在d2lzh_pytorch中方便以后使用
# 将边界框(左上x, 左上y, 右下x, 右下y)格式转换成matplotlib格式：
# ((左上x, 左上y), 宽, 高)
return d2l.plt.Rectangle(
xy=(bbox[0], bbox[1]), width=bbox[2]-bbox[0], height=bbox[3]-bbox[1],
fill=False, edgecolor=color, linewidth=2)
fig = d2l.plt.imshow(img)

# 9.4 锚框

import numpy as np
import math
import torch
import os
IMAGE_DIR = '/home/kesci/input/img2083/img/'
print(torch.__version__)
1.1.0

## 9.4.1 生成多个锚框

$(s_1, r_1), (s_1, r_2), \ldots, (s_1, r_m), (s_2, r_1), (s_3, r_1), \ldots, (s_n, r_1).$

d2l.set_figsize()
img = Image.open(os.path.join(IMAGE_DIR, 'catdog.jpg'))
w, h = img.size
print("w = %d, h = %d" % (w, h))

# d2l.plt.imshow(img);  # 加分号只显示图
w = 728, h = 561
# 本函数已保存在d2lzh_pytorch包中方便以后使用
def MultiBoxPrior(feature_map, sizes=[0.75, 0.5, 0.25], ratios=[1, 2, 0.5]):
"""
# 按照「9.4.1. 生成多个锚框」所讲的实现, anchor表示成(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax).
https://zh.d2l.ai/chapter_computer-vision/anchor.html
Args:
feature_map: torch tensor, Shape: [N, C, H, W].
sizes: List of sizes (0~1) of generated MultiBoxPriores.
ratios: List of aspect ratios (non-negative) of generated MultiBoxPriores.
Returns:
anchors of shape (1, num_anchors, 4). 由于batch里每个都一样, 所以第一维为1
"""
pairs = [] # pair of (size, sqrt(ration))

# 生成n + m -1个框
for r in ratios:
pairs.append([sizes[0], math.sqrt(r)])
for s in sizes[1:]:
pairs.append([s, math.sqrt(ratios[0])])

pairs = np.array(pairs)

# 生成相对于坐标中心点的框（x,y,x,y）
ss1 = pairs[:, 0] * pairs[:, 1] # size * sqrt(ration)
ss2 = pairs[:, 0] / pairs[:, 1] # size / sqrt(ration)

base_anchors = np.stack([-ss1, -ss2, ss1, ss2], axis=1) / 2

#将坐标点和anchor组合起来生成hw（n+m-1）个框输出
h, w = feature_map.shape[-2:]
shifts_x = np.arange(0, w) / w
shifts_y = np.arange(0, h) / h
shift_x, shift_y = np.meshgrid(shifts_x, shifts_y)

shift_x = shift_x.reshape(-1)
shift_y = shift_y.reshape(-1)

shifts = np.stack((shift_x, shift_y, shift_x, shift_y), axis=1)
anchors = shifts.reshape((-1, 1, 4)) + base_anchors.reshape((1, -1, 4))

X = torch.Tensor(1, 3, h, w)  # 构造输入数据
Y = MultiBoxPrior(X, sizes=[0.75, 0.5, 0.25], ratios=[1, 2, 0.5])
Y.shape

torch.Size([1, 2042040, 4])

# 展示某个像素点的anchor
boxes = Y.reshape((h, w, 5, 4))
boxes[250, 250, 0, :]# * torch.tensor([w, h, w, h], dtype=torch.float32)
# 第一个size和ratio分别为0.75和1, 则宽高均为0.75 = 0.7184 + 0.0316 = 0.8206 - 0.0706
tensor([-0.0316,  0.0706,  0.7184,  0.8206])

# 本函数已保存在dd2lzh_pytorch包中方便以后使用
def show_bboxes(axes, bboxes, labels=None, colors=None):
def _make_list(obj, default_values=None):
if obj is None:
obj = default_values
elif not isinstance(obj, (list, tuple)):
obj = [obj]
return obj

labels = _make_list(labels)
colors = _make_list(colors, ['b', 'g', 'r', 'm', 'c'])
for i, bbox in enumerate(bboxes):
color = colors[i % len(colors)]
rect = d2l.bbox_to_rect(bbox.detach().cpu().numpy(), color)
if labels and len(labels) > i:
text_color = 'k' if color == 'w' else 'w'
axes.text(rect.xy[0], rect.xy[1], labels[i],
va='center', ha='center', fontsize=6, color=text_color,
bbox=dict(facecolor=color, lw=0))

# 展示 250 250像素点的anchor
d2l.set_figsize()
fig = d2l.plt.imshow(img)
bbox_scale = torch.tensor([[w, h, w, h]], dtype=torch.float32)
show_bboxes(fig.axes, boxes[250, 250, :, :] * bbox_scale,
['s=0.75, r=1', 's=0.75, r=2', 's=0.75, r=0.5', 's=0.5, r=1', 's=0.25, r=1'])

## 9.4.2 交并比

$J(\mathcal{A},\mathcal{B}) = \frac{\left|\mathcal{A} \cap \mathcal{B}\right|}{\left| \mathcal{A} \cup \mathcal{B}\right|}.$

# 以下函数已保存在d2lzh_pytorch包中方便以后使用
def compute_intersection(set_1, set_2):
"""
计算anchor之间的交集
Args:
set_1: a tensor of dimensions (n1, 4), anchor表示成(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
set_2: a tensor of dimensions (n2, 4), anchor表示成(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
Returns:
intersection of each of the boxes in set 1 with respect to each of the boxes in set 2, shape: (n1, n2)
"""
lower_bounds = torch.max(set_1[:, :2].unsqueeze(1), set_2[:, :2].unsqueeze(0))  # (n1, n2, 2)
upper_bounds = torch.min(set_1[:, 2:].unsqueeze(1), set_2[:, 2:].unsqueeze(0))  # (n1, n2, 2)
intersection_dims = torch.clamp(upper_bounds - lower_bounds, min=0)  # (n1, n2, 2)
return intersection_dims[:, :, 0] * intersection_dims[:, :, 1]  # (n1, n2)

def compute_jaccard(set_1, set_2):
"""
计算anchor之间的Jaccard系数(IoU)
Args:
set_1: a tensor of dimensions (n1, 4), anchor表示成(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
set_2: a tensor of dimensions (n2, 4), anchor表示成(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax)
Returns:
Jaccard Overlap of each of the boxes in set 1 with respect to each of the boxes in set 2, shape: (n1, n2)
"""
# Find intersections
intersection = compute_intersection(set_1, set_2)  # (n1, n2)

# Find areas of each box in both sets
areas_set_1 = (set_1[:, 2] - set_1[:, 0]) * (set_1[:, 3] - set_1[:, 1])  # (n1)
areas_set_2 = (set_2[:, 2] - set_2[:, 0]) * (set_2[:, 3] - set_2[:, 1])  # (n2)

# Find the union
union = areas_set_1.unsqueeze(1) + areas_set_2.unsqueeze(0) - intersection  # (n1, n2)

return intersection / union  # (n1, n2)

## 9.4.3 标注训练集的锚框

$\left( \frac{ \frac{x_b - x_a}{w_a} - \mu_x }{\sigma_x}, \frac{ \frac{y_b - y_a}{h_a} - \mu_y }{\sigma_y}, \frac{ \log \frac{w_b}{w_a} - \mu_w }{\sigma_w}, \frac{ \log \frac{h_b}{h_a} - \mu_h }{\sigma_h}\right),$

bbox_scale = torch.tensor((w, h, w, h), dtype=torch.float32)
ground_truth = torch.tensor([[0, 0.1, 0.08, 0.52, 0.92],
[1, 0.55, 0.2, 0.9, 0.88]])
anchors = torch.tensor([[0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3], [0.15, 0.2, 0.4, 0.4],
[0.63, 0.05, 0.88, 0.98], [0.66, 0.45, 0.8, 0.8],
[0.57, 0.3, 0.92, 0.9]])

fig = d2l.plt.imshow(img)
show_bboxes(fig.axes, ground_truth[:, 1:] * bbox_scale, ['dog', 'cat'], 'k')
show_bboxes(fig.axes, anchors * bbox_scale, ['0', '1', '2', '3', '4']);
compute_jaccard(anchors, ground_truth[:, 1:]) # 验证一下写的compute_jaccard函数
tensor([[0.0536, 0.0000],
[0.1417, 0.0000],
[0.0000, 0.5657],
[0.0000, 0.2059],
[0.0000, 0.7459]])

# 以下函数已保存在d2lzh_pytorch包中方便以后使用
def assign_anchor(bb, anchor, jaccard_threshold=0.5):
"""
# 按照「9.4.1. 生成多个锚框」图9.3所讲为每个anchor分配真实的bb, anchor表示成归一化(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax).
https://zh.d2l.ai/chapter_computer-vision/anchor.html
Args:
bb: 真实边界框(bounding box), shape:（nb, 4）
anchor: 待分配的anchor, shape:（na, 4）
jaccard_threshold: 预先设定的阈值
Returns:
assigned_idx: shape: (na, ), 每个anchor分配的真实bb对应的索引, 若未分配任何bb则为-1
"""
na = anchor.shape[0]
nb = bb.shape[0]
jaccard = compute_jaccard(anchor, bb).detach().cpu().numpy() # shape: (na, nb)
assigned_idx = np.ones(na) * -1  # 存放标签初始全为-1

# 先为每个bb分配一个anchor(不要求满足jaccard_threshold)
jaccard_cp = jaccard.copy()
for j in range(nb):
i = np.argmax(jaccard_cp[:, j])
assigned_idx[i] = j
jaccard_cp[i, :] = float("-inf") # 赋值为负无穷, 相当于去掉这一行

# 处理还未被分配的anchor, 要求满足jaccard_threshold
for i in range(na):
if assigned_idx[i] == -1:
j = np.argmax(jaccard[i, :])
if jaccard[i, j] >= jaccard_threshold:
assigned_idx[i] = j

def xy_to_cxcy(xy):
"""
将(x_min, y_min, x_max, y_max)形式的anchor转换成(center_x, center_y, w, h)形式的.
https://github.com/sgrvinod/a-PyTorch-Tutorial-to-Object-Detection/blob/master/utils.py
Args:
xy: bounding boxes in boundary coordinates, a tensor of size (n_boxes, 4)
Returns:
bounding boxes in center-size coordinates, a tensor of size (n_boxes, 4)
"""
xy[:, 2:] - xy[:, :2]], 1)  # w, h

def MultiBoxTarget(anchor, label):
"""
# 按照「9.4.1. 生成多个锚框」所讲的实现, anchor表示成归一化(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax).
https://zh.d2l.ai/chapter_computer-vision/anchor.html
Args:
anchor: torch tensor, 输入的锚框, 一般是通过MultiBoxPrior生成, shape:（1，锚框总数，4）
label: 真实标签, shape为(bn, 每张图片最多的真实锚框数, 5)
第二维中，如果给定图片没有这么多锚框, 可以先用-1填充空白, 最后一维中的元素为[类别标签, 四个坐标值]
Returns:
bbox_offset: 每个锚框的标注偏移量，形状为(bn，锚框总数*4)
bbox_mask: 形状同bbox_offset, 每个锚框的掩码, 一一对应上面的偏移量, 负类锚框(背景)对应的掩码均为0, 正类锚框的掩码均为1
cls_labels: 每个锚框的标注类别, 其中0表示为背景, 形状为(bn，锚框总数)
"""
assert len(anchor.shape) == 3 and len(label.shape) == 3
bn = label.shape[0]

def MultiBoxTarget_one(anc, lab, eps=1e-6):
"""
MultiBoxTarget函数的辅助函数, 处理batch中的一个
Args:
anc: shape of (锚框总数, 4)
lab: shape of (真实锚框数, 5), 5代表[类别标签, 四个坐标值]
eps: 一个极小值, 防止log0
Returns:
offset: (锚框总数*4, )
cls_labels: (锚框总数, 4), 0代表背景
"""
an = anc.shape[0]
# 变量的意义
assigned_idx = assign_anchor(lab[:, 1:], anc) # (锚框总数, )
print("a: ",  assigned_idx.shape)
print(assigned_idx)
bbox_mask = ((assigned_idx >= 0).float().unsqueeze(-1)).repeat(1, 4) # (锚框总数, 4)

cls_labels = torch.zeros(an, dtype=torch.long) # 0表示背景
assigned_bb = torch.zeros((an, 4), dtype=torch.float32) # 所有anchor对应的bb坐标
for i in range(an):
bb_idx = assigned_idx[i]
if bb_idx >= 0: # 即非背景
cls_labels[i] = lab[bb_idx, 0].long().item() + 1 # 注意要加一
assigned_bb[i, :] = lab[bb_idx, 1:]
# 如何计算偏移量
center_anc = xy_to_cxcy(anc) # (center_x, center_y, w, h)
center_assigned_bb = xy_to_cxcy(assigned_bb)

offset_xy = 10.0 * (center_assigned_bb[:, :2] - center_anc[:, :2]) / center_anc[:, 2:]
offset_wh = 5.0 * torch.log(eps + center_assigned_bb[:, 2:] / center_anc[:, 2:])
offset = torch.cat([offset_xy, offset_wh], dim = 1) * bbox_mask # (锚框总数, 4)

# 组合输出
batch_offset = []
batch_cls_labels = []
for b in range(bn):
offset, bbox_mask, cls_labels = MultiBoxTarget_one(anchor[0, :, :], label[b, :, :])

batch_offset.append(offset)
batch_cls_labels.append(cls_labels)

bbox_offset = torch.stack(batch_offset)
cls_labels = torch.stack(batch_cls_labels)

labels = MultiBoxTarget(anchors.unsqueeze(dim=0),
ground_truth.unsqueeze(dim=0))
a:  torch.Size([5])
tensor([-1,  0,  1, -1,  1])
b:  torch.Size([5, 4])
tensor([[0., 0., 0., 0.],
[1., 1., 1., 1.],
[1., 1., 1., 1.],
[0., 0., 0., 0.],
[1., 1., 1., 1.]])

labels[2]
tensor([[0, 1, 2, 0, 2]])

labels[1]
tensor([[0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 1., 1., 1., 1., 1., 1., 1., 0., 0., 0., 0., 1., 1.,
1., 1.]])

labels[0]
tensor([[-0.0000e+00, -0.0000e+00, -0.0000e+00, -0.0000e+00,  1.4000e+00,
1.0000e+01,  2.5940e+00,  7.1754e+00, -1.2000e+00,  2.6882e-01,
1.6824e+00, -1.5655e+00, -0.0000e+00, -0.0000e+00, -0.0000e+00,
-0.0000e+00, -5.7143e-01, -1.0000e+00,  4.1723e-06,  6.2582e-01]])

## 9.4.4. 输出预测边界框

anchors = torch.tensor([[0.1, 0.08, 0.52, 0.92], [0.08, 0.2, 0.56, 0.95],
[0.15, 0.3, 0.62, 0.91], [0.55, 0.2, 0.9, 0.88]])
offset_preds = torch.tensor([0.0] * (4 * len(anchors)))
cls_probs = torch.tensor([[0., 0., 0., 0.,],  # 背景的预测概率
[0.9, 0.8, 0.7, 0.1],  # 狗的预测概率
[0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.9]])  # 猫的预测概率

fig = d2l.plt.imshow(img)
show_bboxes(fig.axes, anchors * bbox_scale,
['dog=0.9', 'dog=0.8', 'dog=0.7', 'cat=0.9'])

%% Below, type any markdown to display in the Graffiti tip.
%% Then run this cell to save it.
sorted

# 以下函数已保存在d2lzh_pytorch包中方便以后使用
from collections import namedtuple
Pred_BB_Info = namedtuple("Pred_BB_Info", ["index", "class_id", "confidence", "xyxy"])

def non_max_suppression(bb_info_list, nms_threshold = 0.5):
"""
非极大抑制处理预测的边界框
Args:
bb_info_list: Pred_BB_Info的列表, 包含预测类别、置信度等信息
nms_threshold: 阈值
Returns:
output: Pred_BB_Info的列表, 只保留过滤后的边界框信息
"""
output = []
# 先根据置信度从高到低排序
sorted_bb_info_list = sorted(bb_info_list, key = lambda x: x.confidence, reverse=True)

# 循环遍历删除冗余输出
while len(sorted_bb_info_list) != 0:
best = sorted_bb_info_list.pop(0)
output.append(best)

if len(sorted_bb_info_list) == 0:
break

bb_xyxy = []
for bb in sorted_bb_info_list:
bb_xyxy.append(bb.xyxy)

iou = compute_jaccard(torch.tensor([best.xyxy]),
torch.tensor(bb_xyxy))[0] # shape: (len(sorted_bb_info_list), )

n = len(sorted_bb_info_list)
sorted_bb_info_list = [sorted_bb_info_list[i] for i in range(n) if iou[i] <= nms_threshold]
return output

def MultiBoxDetection(cls_prob, loc_pred, anchor, nms_threshold = 0.5):
"""
# 按照「9.4.1. 生成多个锚框」所讲的实现, anchor表示成归一化(xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax).
https://zh.d2l.ai/chapter_computer-vision/anchor.html
Args:
cls_prob: 经过softmax后得到的各个锚框的预测概率, shape:(bn, 预测总类别数+1, 锚框个数)
loc_pred: 预测的各个锚框的偏移量, shape:(bn, 锚框个数*4)
anchor: MultiBoxPrior输出的默认锚框, shape: (1, 锚框个数, 4)
nms_threshold: 非极大抑制中的阈值
Returns:
所有锚框的信息, shape: (bn, 锚框个数, 6)
每个锚框信息由[class_id, confidence, xmin, ymin, xmax, ymax]表示
class_id=-1 表示背景或在非极大值抑制中被移除了
"""
assert len(cls_prob.shape) == 3 and len(loc_pred.shape) == 2 and len(anchor.shape) == 3
bn = cls_prob.shape[0]

def MultiBoxDetection_one(c_p, l_p, anc, nms_threshold = 0.5):
"""
MultiBoxDetection的辅助函数, 处理batch中的一个
Args:
c_p: (预测总类别数+1, 锚框个数)
l_p: (锚框个数*4, )
anc: (锚框个数, 4)
nms_threshold: 非极大抑制中的阈值
Return:
output: (锚框个数, 6)
"""
pred_bb_num = c_p.shape[1]
anc = (anc + l_p.view(pred_bb_num, 4)).detach().cpu().numpy() # 加上偏移量

confidence, class_id = torch.max(c_p, 0)
confidence = confidence.detach().cpu().numpy()
class_id = class_id.detach().cpu().numpy()

pred_bb_info = [Pred_BB_Info(
index = i,
class_id = class_id[i] - 1, # 正类label从0开始
confidence = confidence[i],
xyxy=[*anc[i]]) # xyxy是个列表
for i in range(pred_bb_num)]

# 正类的index
obj_bb_idx = [bb.index for bb in non_max_suppression(pred_bb_info, nms_threshold)]

output = []
for bb in pred_bb_info:
output.append([
(bb.class_id if bb.index in obj_bb_idx else -1.0),
bb.confidence,
*bb.xyxy
])

batch_output = []
for b in range(bn):
batch_output.append(MultiBoxDetection_one(cls_prob[b], loc_pred[b], anchor[0], nms_threshold))

output = MultiBoxDetection(
cls_probs.unsqueeze(dim=0), offset_preds.unsqueeze(dim=0),
anchors.unsqueeze(dim=0), nms_threshold=0.5)
output
tensor([[[ 0.0000,  0.9000,  0.1000,  0.0800,  0.5200,  0.9200],
[-1.0000,  0.8000,  0.0800,  0.2000,  0.5600,  0.9500],
[-1.0000,  0.7000,  0.1500,  0.3000,  0.6200,  0.9100],
[ 1.0000,  0.9000,  0.5500,  0.2000,  0.9000,  0.8800]]])
fig = d2l.plt.imshow(img)
for i in output[0].detach().cpu().numpy():
if i[0] == -1:
continue
label = ('dog=', 'cat=')[int(i[0])] + str(i[1])
show_bboxes(fig.axes, [torch.tensor(i[2:]) * bbox_scale], label)

## 小结

• 以每个像素为中心，生成多个大小和宽高比不同的锚框。
• 交并比是两个边界框相交面积与相并面积之比。
• 在训练集中，为每个锚框标注两类标签：一是锚框所含目标的类别；二是真实边界框相对锚框的偏移量。
• 预测时，可以使用非极大值抑制来移除相似的预测边界框，从而令结果简洁。

# 9.5 多尺度目标检测

w, h = img.size
w, h
(728, 561)
d2l.set_figsize()

def display_anchors(fmap_w, fmap_h, s):
# 前两维的取值不影响输出结果(原书这里是(1, 10, fmap_w, fmap_h), 我认为错了)
fmap = torch.zeros((1, 10, fmap_h, fmap_w), dtype=torch.float32)

# 平移所有锚框使均匀分布在图片上
offset_x, offset_y = 1.0/fmap_w, 1.0/fmap_h
anchors = d2l.MultiBoxPrior(fmap, sizes=s, ratios=[1, 2, 0.5]) + \
torch.tensor([offset_x/2, offset_y/2, offset_x/2, offset_y/2])

bbox_scale = torch.tensor([[w, h, w, h]], dtype=torch.float32)
d2l.show_bboxes(d2l.plt.imshow(img).axes,
anchors[0] * bbox_scale)
display_anchors(fmap_w=4, fmap_h=2, s=[0.15])
display_anchors(fmap_w=2, fmap_h=1, s=[0.4])
display_anchors(fmap_w=1, fmap_h=1, s=[0.8])

posted @ 2020-02-23 23:11  hichens  阅读(1048)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报