这篇文章以实现一个Basic认证来了解下在 .NET CORE 下面如何去实现认证。

  首先可以肯定的是认证实现是基于 Middlerware 管道实现的,官方源码地址:https://github.com/aspnet/Security。可以看到官方已经实现了jwt、oauth、google等诸多第三方认证,其原理今天我们就不在这里介绍。

    下面我们来实现Basic认证。

  AuthenticationSchemeOptions。 负责初始化参数配置。这里我们额外需要一个验证用户的委托。代码如下:

    public class BasicOption : AuthenticationSchemeOptions
    {
        public BasicOption()
            : base()
        {
            Events = new BasicEvents();
        }

        public Func<string, string, bool> ValidateUser { get; set; }
        public new BasicEvents Events
        {
            get { return (BasicEvents)base.Events; }
            set { base.Events = value; }
        }
    }

  BasicDefault。定义一些基本常量

    public static class BasicDefault
    {
        public const string AuthenticationScheme = "Basic";
        public const string DisplayName = "Basic";
    }

  ResultContext<T>。用于认证流程中上下文扩展

    public class BasicTokenValidatedContext : ResultContext<BasicOption>
    {
        public BasicTokenValidatedContext(HttpContext context, AuthenticationScheme scheme, BasicOption options)
            : base(context, scheme, options)
        {
        }

    }

  BasicEvents。用于认证流程中各类自定义事件触发,在这里我们定义了一个 验证成功后事件,用于客户端自定义设置

    public class BasicEvents
    {
        public Func<BasicTokenValidatedContext, Task> OnTokenValidated { get; set; } = context => Task.CompletedTask;

        public virtual Task TokenValidated(BasicTokenValidatedContext context) => OnTokenValidated(context);
    }

  AuthenticationHandler<T>。这里认证流程中的核心部分,HandleAuthenticateAsync 用于处理认证。HandleChallengeAsync 用于处理认证失败后续Challenge

    public class BasicHandler : AuthenticationHandler<BasicOption>
    {
        private const string KEY_AUTHORIZATION = "authorization";
        private const string KEY_SPLIT = ":";

        protected new BasicEvents Events
        {
            get => (BasicEvents)base.Events;
            set => base.Events = value;
        }

        public BasicHandler(IOptionsMonitor<BasicOption> options, ILoggerFactory logger, UrlEncoder encoder, ISystemClock clock)
            : base(options, logger, encoder, clock)
        {
        }

        protected override async Task<AuthenticateResult> HandleAuthenticateAsync()
        {
            string authorization = Request.Headers[KEY_AUTHORIZATION];
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(authorization))
            {
                Logger.LogInformation("请求头authorization为空,目标路径{0}", Request.Path);
                return AuthenticateResult.NoResult();
            }
            string token = string.Empty;
            if (authorization.StartsWith(BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme + " ", StringComparison.CurrentCultureIgnoreCase))
            {
                token = authorization.Substring(BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme.Length).Trim();
            }
            if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(token))
            {
                Logger.LogInformation("无效的请求头authorization,目标路径{0}", Request.Path);
                return AuthenticateResult.NoResult();
            }

            var checkUser = Options.ValidateUser;
            if (checkUser == null)
            {
                Logger.LogInformation("Basic TokenValidator不能,目标路径{0}", Request.Path);
                return await Task.FromResult(AuthenticateResult.NoResult());
            }

            try
            {
                var data = Encoding.UTF8.GetString(Convert.FromBase64String(token));
                if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(data)) throw new Exception("basic token 格式错误");

                string[] array = data.Split(KEY_SPLIT.ToCharArray());
                if (array.Length != 2) throw new Exception("basic token 格式错误");

                var username = array[0];
                var password = array[1];
                if (string.IsNullOrEmpty(username) || string.IsNullOrEmpty(password)) throw new Exception("basic token 格式错误");

                if (!checkUser(username, password))
                {
                    Logger.LogInformation("token 验证失败");
                    return AuthenticateResult.Fail("token 验证失败");
                }

                var claims = new List<Claim>()
                {
                    new Claim(ClaimTypes.Name, username)
                };

                var principer = new ClaimsPrincipal(new ClaimsIdentity(claims, BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme));
                var validatedContext = new BasicTokenValidatedContext(Context, Scheme, Options)
                {
                    Principal = principer
                };

                await Events.TokenValidated(validatedContext);

                validatedContext.Success();

                return validatedContext.Result;
            }
            catch (Exception ex)
            {
                Logger.LogDebug(token + " validate failed: " + ex.Message);
                return AuthenticateResult.Fail(ex.Message);
            }

        }

        protected override async Task HandleChallengeAsync(AuthenticationProperties properties)
        {
            var authResult = await HandleAuthenticateOnceSafeAsync();

            Response.Headers.Add(HeaderNames.WWWAuthenticate, BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme);
            Response.StatusCode = 401;
            if (authResult.Failure != null && !string.IsNullOrEmpty(authResult.Failure.Message))
            {
                var byteMsg = System.Text.Encoding.Default.GetBytes(authResult.Failure.Message);
                Response.Body.Write(byteMsg, 0, byteMsg.Length);
            }

            await base.HandleChallengeAsync(properties);
        }
    }

  BasicExtensions。用于提供注册到.NET CORE的方法。

    public static class BasicExtensions
    {
        public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder)
            => builder.AddBasic(BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme, _ => { });

        public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, Action<BasicOption> configureOptions)
            => builder.AddBasic(BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme, configureOptions);

        public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, string authenticationScheme, Action<BasicOption> configureOptions)
            => builder.AddBasic(authenticationScheme, displayName: BasicDefault.DisplayName, configureOptions: configureOptions);

        public static AuthenticationBuilder AddBasic(this AuthenticationBuilder builder, string authenticationScheme, string displayName, Action<BasicOption> configureOptions)
        {
            return builder.AddScheme<BasicOption, BasicHandler>(authenticationScheme, displayName, configureOptions);
        }
    }

  以上就是完成Basic认证所有的方法。我们发现居然没有涉及到 任何Middlerware的部分。实际原因是 官方实现了默认的 Authentication,里面有一个 IAuthenticationRequestHandler 的集合,我们创建的 AuthenticationHandler<T> 扩展就会加入该集合中,Authentication 会负责对集合中的 每一个 Handler 进行处理。源码部分如下:

            var handlers = context.RequestServices.GetRequiredService<IAuthenticationHandlerProvider>();

            foreach (var scheme in await Schemes.GetRequestHandlerSchemesAsync())

            {

                var handler = await handlers.GetHandlerAsync(context, scheme.Name) as IAuthenticationRequestHandler;

                if (handler != null && await handler.HandleRequestAsync())

                {

                    return;

                }

            }

  最后我们将Basic认证注册到.NET CORE中

            services.AddAuthentication(BasicDefault.AuthenticationScheme)
                .AddBasic(options =>
                {
                    options.ValidateUser = (username, password) =>
                    {
                        var clients = Configuration.GetSection("Clients").Get<List<ClientOptions>>();
                        if (clients == null || clients.Count == 0) return false;

                        return clients.Exists(x => string.Equals(x.Appkey, username, StringComparison.CurrentCultureIgnoreCase)
                                                                    && string.Equals(x.Appsecret, password, StringComparison.CurrentCultureIgnoreCase));
                    };
                    //options.Events = new AspNetCore.Authentication.Basic.Events.BasicEvents();
                    options.Events.OnTokenValidated = context =>
                    {
                        if (context.Principal.Identity.IsAuthenticated)
                        {
                            var clients = Configuration.GetSection("Clients").Get<List<ClientOptions>>();
                            if (clients == null || clients.Count == 0) return Task.CompletedTask;
                            var appkey = context.Principal.Identity.Name;
                            var actions = clients.Single(x => string.Equals(x.Appkey, appkey, StringComparison.CurrentCultureIgnoreCase)).Actions;
                            context.Properties.SetParameter("actions", actions);
                        }

                        return Task.CompletedTask;
                    };
                });

  别忘了 在 Configure 方法中加入 

app.UseAuthentication();

  好了,我们的Basic认证完成了~~

       后续问题,测试过程中发现 即使认证不通过的话 action 也能正常访问,需要配合 Authorize 才能触发 Challenge。这里我对Authentication和Authorization又增加了一点疑惑,按道理 前者负责确认 用户,后者负责确认 用户权限,但如果用户确认为非法的情况下,为什么还要等到Authorization这块来处理??

  

posted on 2019-06-26 10:41  gt1987  阅读(1521)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报