Fork me on GitHub

[LeetCode] Serialize and Deserialize Binary Tree 二叉树的序列化和去序列化

 

Serialization is the process of converting a data structure or object into a sequence of bits so that it can be stored in a file or memory buffer, or transmitted across a network connection link to be reconstructed later in the same or another computer environment.

Design an algorithm to serialize and deserialize a binary tree. There is no restriction on how your serialization/deserialization algorithm should work. You just need to ensure that a binary tree can be serialized to a string and this string can be deserialized to the original tree structure.

For example, you may serialize the following tree

    1
   / \
  2   3
     / \
    4   5

as "[1,2,3,null,null,4,5]", just the same as how LeetCode OJ serializes a binary tree. You do not necessarily need to follow this format, so please be creative and come up with different approaches yourself.

Note: Do not use class member/global/static variables to store states. Your serialize and deserialize algorithms should be stateless.

Credits:
Special thanks to @Louis1992 for adding this problem and creating all test cases.

 

这道题让我们对二叉树进行序列化和去序列化的操作。序列化就是将一个数据结构或物体转化为一个位序列,可以存进一个文件或者内存缓冲器中,然后通过网络连接在相同的或者另一个电脑环境中被还原,还原的过程叫做去序列化。现在让我们来序列化和去序列化一个二叉树,并给了我们例子。这题有两种解法,分别为先序遍历的递归解法和层序遍历的非递归解法。先来看先序遍历的递归解法,非常的简单易懂,我们需要接入输入和输出字符串流istringstream和ostringstream,对于序列化,我们从根节点开始,如果节点存在,则将值存入输出字符串流,然后分别对其左右子节点递归调用序列化函数即可。对于去序列化,我们先读入第一个字符,以此生成一个根节点,然后再对根节点的左右子节点递归调用去序列化函数即可,参见代码如下:

 

解法一:

class Codec {
public:
    // Encodes a tree to a single string.
    string serialize(TreeNode* root) {
        ostringstream out;
        serialize(root, out);
        return out.str();
    }
    // Decodes your encoded data to tree.
    TreeNode* deserialize(string data) {
        istringstream in(data);
        return deserialize(in);
    }
private:
    void serialize(TreeNode *root, ostringstream &out) {
        if (root) {
            out << root->val << ' ';
            serialize(root->left, out);
            serialize(root->right, out);
        } else {
            out << "# ";
        }
    }
    TreeNode* deserialize(istringstream &in) {
        string val;
        in >> val;
        if (val == "#") return nullptr;
        TreeNode *root = new TreeNode(stoi(val));
        root->left = deserialize(in);
        root->right = deserialize(in);
        return root;
    }
};

 

另一种方法是层序遍历的非递归解法,这种方法略微复杂一些,我们需要借助queue来做,本质是BFS算法,也不是很难理解,就是BFS算法的常规套路稍作修改即可,参见代码如下:

 

解法二:

class Codec {
public:
    // Encodes a tree to a single string.
    string serialize(TreeNode* root) {
        ostringstream out;
        queue<TreeNode*> q;
        if (root) q.push(root);
        while (!q.empty()) {
            TreeNode *t = q.front(); q.pop();
            if (t) {
                out << t->val << ' ';
                q.push(t->left);
                q.push(t->right);
            } else {
                out << "# ";
            }
        }
        return out.str();
    }
    // Decodes your encoded data to tree.
    TreeNode* deserialize(string data) {
        if (data.empty()) return nullptr;
        istringstream in(data);
        queue<TreeNode*> q;
        string val;
        in >> val;
        TreeNode *res = new TreeNode(stoi(val)), *cur = res;
        q.push(cur);
        while (!q.empty()) {
            TreeNode *t = q.front(); q.pop();
            if (!(in >> val)) break;
            if (val != "#") {
                cur = new TreeNode(stoi(val));
                q.push(cur);
                t->left = cur;
            }
            if (!(in >> val)) break;
            if (val != "#") {
                cur = new TreeNode(stoi(val));
                q.push(cur);
                t->right = cur;
            }
        }
        return res;
    }
};

 

参考资料:

https://leetcode.com/problems/serialize-and-deserialize-binary-tree/

https://leetcode.com/problems/serialize-and-deserialize-binary-tree/discuss/74253/Easy-to-understand-Java-Solution

https://leetcode.com/problems/serialize-and-deserialize-binary-tree/discuss/74261/Easy-to-understand-java-solution

https://leetcode.com/problems/serialize-and-deserialize-binary-tree/discuss/74264/Short-and-straight-forward-BFS-Java-code-with-a-queue

 

LeetCode All in One 题目讲解汇总(持续更新中...)

posted @ 2015-10-27 13:04  Grandyang  阅读(24285)  评论(3编辑  收藏
Fork me on GitHub