[LeetCode] 8. String to Integer (atoi) 字符串转为整数

 

Implement the myAtoi(string s) function, which converts a string to a 32-bit signed integer (similar to C/C++'s atoi function).

The algorithm for myAtoi(string s) is as follows:

  1. Read in and ignore any leading whitespace.
  2. Check if the next character (if not already at the end of the string) is '-' or '+'. Read this character in if it is either. This determines if the final result is negative or positive respectively. Assume the result is positive if neither is present.
  3. Read in next the characters until the next non-digit character or the end of the input is reached. The rest of the string is ignored.
  4. Convert these digits into an integer (i.e. "123" -> 123"0032" -> 32). If no digits were read, then the integer is 0. Change the sign as necessary (from step 2).
  5. If the integer is out of the 32-bit signed integer range [-231, 231 - 1], then clamp the integer so that it remains in the range. Specifically, integers less than -231 should be clamped to -231, and integers greater than 231 - 1 should be clamped to 231 - 1.
  6. Return the integer as the final result.

Note:

  • Only the space character ' ' is considered a whitespace character.
  • Do not ignore any characters other than the leading whitespace or the rest of the string after the digits.

 

Example 1:

Input: s = "42"
Output: 42
Explanation: The underlined characters are what is read in, the caret is the current reader position.
Step 1: "42" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "42" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
         ^
Step 3: "42" ("42" is read in)
           ^
The parsed integer is 42.
Since 42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 42.

Example 2:

Input: s = "   -42"
Output: -42
Explanation:
Step 1: "-42" (leading whitespace is read and ignored)
            ^
Step 2: "   -42" ('-' is read, so the result should be negative)
             ^
Step 3: "   -42" ("42" is read in)
               ^
The parsed integer is -42.
Since -42 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is -42.

Example 3:

Input: s = "4193 with words"
Output: 4193
Explanation:
Step 1: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is no leading whitespace)
         ^
Step 2: "4193 with words" (no characters read because there is neither a '-' nor '+')
         ^
Step 3: "4193 with words" ("4193" is read in; reading stops because the next character is a non-digit)
             ^
The parsed integer is 4193.
Since 4193 is in the range [-231, 231 - 1], the final result is 4193.

Example 4:

Input: "words and 987"
Output: 0
Explanation: The first non-whitespace character is 'w', which is not a numerical 
             digit or a +/- sign. Therefore no valid conversion could be performed.

Example 5:

Input: "-91283472332"
Output: -2147483648
Explanation: The number "-91283472332" is out of the range of a 32-bit signed integer.
             Thefore INT_MIN (−231) is returned.

 

Constraints:

  • 0 <= s.length <= 200
  • s consists of English letters (lower-case and upper-case), digits (0-9), ' ''+''-', and '.'.

 

字符串转为整数是很常用的一个函数,由于输入的是字符串,所以需要考虑的情况有很多种。博主之前有一篇文章是关于验证一个字符串是否为数字的,参见 Valid Number。在那篇文章中,详细的讨论了各种情况,包括符号,自然数,小数点的出现位置,判断他们是否是数字。个人以为这道题也应该有这么多种情况。但是这题只需要考虑数字和符号的情况:

1. 若字符串开头是空格,则跳过所有空格,到第一个非空格字符,如果没有,则返回0.

2. 若第一个非空格字符是符号 +/-,则标记 sign 的真假,这道题还有个局限性,那就是在 c++ 里面,+-1 和-+1 都是认可的,都是 -1,而在此题里,则会返回0.

3. 若下一个字符不是数字,则返回0,完全不考虑小数点和自然数的情况,不过这样也好,起码省事了不少。

4. 如果下一个字符是数字,则转为整型存下来,若接下来再有非数字出现,则返回目前的结果。

5. 还需要考虑边界问题,如果超过了整型数的范围,则用边界值替代当前值。

 

C++ 解法:

class Solution {
public:
    int myAtoi(string str) {
        if (str.empty()) return 0;
        int sign = 1, base = 0, i = 0, n = str.size();
        while (i < n && str[i] == ' ') ++i;
        if (i < n && (str[i] == '+' || str[i] == '-')) {
            sign = (str[i++] == '+') ? 1 : -1;
        }
        while (i < n && str[i] >= '0' && str[i] <= '9') {
            if (base > INT_MAX / 10 || (base == INT_MAX / 10 && str[i] - '0' > 7)) {
                return (sign == 1) ? INT_MAX : INT_MIN;
            }
            base = 10 * base + (str[i++] - '0');
        }
        return base * sign;
    }
};

 

Java 解法:

public class Solution {
    public int myAtoi(String str) {
        if (str.isEmpty()) return 0;
        int sign = 1, base = 0, i = 0, n = str.length();
        while (i < n && str.charAt(i) == ' ') ++i;
        if (i < n && (str.charAt(i) == '+' || str.charAt(i) == '-')) {
            sign = (str.charAt(i++) == '+') ? 1 : -1;
        }
        while (i < n && str.charAt(i) >= '0' && str.charAt(i) <= '9') {
            if (base > Integer.MAX_VALUE / 10 || (base == Integer.MAX_VALUE / 10 && str.charAt(i) - '0' > 7)) {
                return (sign == 1) ? Integer.MAX_VALUE : Integer.MIN_VALUE;
            }
            base = 10 * base + (str.charAt(i++) - '0');
        }
        return base * sign;
    }
}

 

Github 同步地址:

https://github.com/grandyang/leetcode/issues/8

 

类似题目:

Reverse Integer

Valid Number

 

参考资料:

https://leetcode.com/problems/string-to-integer-atoi/

https://leetcode.com/problems/string-to-integer-atoi/discuss/4654/My-simple-solution

https://leetcode.com/problems/string-to-integer-atoi/discuss/4642/8ms-C%2B%2B-solution-easy-to-understand

 

LeetCode All in One 题目讲解汇总(持续更新中...)

posted @ 2014-11-27 07:35  Grandyang  阅读(28736)  评论(4编辑  收藏  举报
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