Obviously the first resource I'd point you to is the official ASP MVC website here.
Perhaps the biggest and most key aspect you need to understand about ASP.NET MVC is that MVC isn't explicitly specialised for ASP.NET - it's a very wide design pattern - MVC stands for Model-View-Controller, you should really read up on MVC and gain a general understanding before you dive straight into the ASP.NET implementation.
You may want to look into buying a book that can nicely ease you into ASP.NET MVC. The reviews on amazon are something you want to take into account, as they're usually very accurate.
You can find results of a ASP.NET MVC search here.
As far as your concerns around version 1 to version 2 of ASP.NET MVC go, you shouldn't automatically dismiss any ASP.NET MVC v1 resources you come across - the chances are it's still relevant. You may wish to check out the changelist between v1 and v2 to see if anything you learn is now redundant, updated or changed in any way.
Would C# be a good language to learn for Web Development?
then you should choose you platform to build your websites.
C# is good for ASP.NET development. but, IMHO first learn HTML then learn C# and .NET framework. until then it will be very easy to learn and understand ASP.NET.
For Web Development (skip as an experienced developer) :
http://www.w3schools.com/ is a very good resource for beginning Web Development.
For C# :
I recommend you to buy a good reference book, and here are some questions on topic : http://stackoverflow.com/questions/46048/what-is-the-best-book-to-learn-c
For starting ASP.NET Web Development :
ASP.NET QuickStart Tutorials is good for beginning ASP.NET with C# or VB.NET
To answer your specific question on "what should I learn first".
1) Take your project you have in mind and break it into steps. For example... get a number from the user, add one to the number, display the result. Think of this as your design.
2) Learn basic C#. Write a simple console application that does something. Learn what an if statement is (this is all boolean logic so it should be somewhat familiar), learn about loops, learn about mathematical operations, learn about functions (subroutines). Play with simple file i/o (reading and writing text files). The basic C# can be thought of as your wiring and discrete components (resistors, caps, transistors, etc) to your chips (object).
3) Learn how to instantiate and use objects from the framework. You have already been doing this but now it's time to delve in further. For example... play with System.Console some more... try making the speaker beep. Also start looking for objects that you may want to use for database work.
4) Learn basic SQL. Lots of help and examples online. Pick a database you want to work with. I personally think MS Access is a great beginners database. I would not use it for multi-user or cross platform desktop applications... but it is a great single user database for Windows users... and it is a great way to learn the basics of SQL. There are other simple free databases available (Open Office has one for example) if you don't want to shell out $ for Access.
5) Expand your app to do something with a database.