Android源码学习之装饰模式应用

一、装饰模式定义

装饰模式定义:
Attach additional responsibilities to an object dynamically keeping the same interface. Decoators provide a flexible alternative to subclassing for extending functionality.
动态地给一个对象添加一些额外的职责。就增加功能来说,装饰模式相比生成子类更为灵活。

     

    如上图所示(截取自《Head First Design Patterns》一书),主要包括四个部分:

    1. Component抽象组件,是一个接口或者是抽象类,就是定义我们最核心的对象,也就是最原始的对象。(注:在装饰模式中,必然有一个最基本、最核心、最原始的接口或者抽象类充当Component抽象组件)

    2. ConcreteComponent具体组件,是最核心、最原始、最基本的接口或抽象类的实现,我们需要装饰的就是它。

    3. Decorator装饰角色, 一般是一个抽象类,实现接口或者抽象方法,它的属性里必然有一个private变量指向Component抽象组件。

    4. 具体装饰角色,如上图中的ConcreteDecoratorA和ConcreteDecoratorB,我们要把我们最核心的、最原始的、最基本的东西装饰成其它东西。

二、装饰模式的优势

装饰类和被装饰类可以独立发展,而不会相互耦合。换句话说,Component类无须知道Decorator类,Decorator类是从外部来扩展Component类的功能,而Decorator也不用知道具体的组件。

装饰模式是继承关系的一个替代方案。我们看装饰类Decorator,不管装饰多少层,返回的对象还是Component,实现的还是is-a的关系。
装饰模式可以动态地扩展一个实现类的功能。

三、装饰模式在Android源码中的应用

  在Android源码中,其中一个比较经典的使用到装饰模式的就是由Context抽象类扩展出的ContextWrapper的设计。继承结构如下图所示:

     1. Context就是我们的抽象组件,它提供了应用运行的基本环境,是各组件和系统服务通信的桥梁,隐藏了应用与系统服务通信的细节,简化了上层应用的开发。所以Contex就是“装饰模式”里的Component。

     2. Context类是个抽象类,android.app.ContextImpl派生实现了它的抽象接口。ContextImpl对象会与Android框架层的各个服务(包括组件管理服务、资源管理服务、安装管理服务等)建立远程连接,通过对Android进程间的通信机制(IPC)和这些服务进行通信。所以ContextImpl就是“装饰模式”里的ConcreteComponent。

     3. 如果上层应用期望改变Context接口的实现,就需要使用android.content.ContextWrapper类,它派生自Context,其中具体实现都是通过组合的方式调用ContextImpl类的实例(在ContextWrapper中的private属性mBase)来完成的。这样的设计,使得ContextImpl与ContextWrapper子类的实现可以单独变化,彼此独立。所以可以看出ContextWrapper就是“装饰模式”里的Decorator。

     4. Android的界面组件Activity、服务组件Service以及应用基类Application都派生于ContextWrapper,它们可以通过重载来修改Context接口的实现。所以可以看出Activity、服务组件Service以及应用基类Application就是“装饰模式”里的具体装饰角色A、B、C。

注:上图可以看出界面组件基类android.app.Activity添加了界面绘制相关的实现,增加了处理界面事件的相关接口。它存放界面中各控件的对象,并与窗口管理服务建立连接,传递界面相关的事件和操作。

     现在开始看看源代码是怎么进行组织使用“装饰模式”的。

     1. Context抽象类:在该抽象类中定义了一系列get***()和set***()等抽象函数,其中有一个没有实现的startActivity抽象函数:

  

/**
 * Interface to global information about an application environment.  This is
 * an abstract class whose implementation is provided by
 * the Android system.  It
 * allows access to application-specific resources and classes, as well as
 * up-calls for application-level operations such as launching activities,
 * broadcasting and receiving intents, etc.
 */
public abstract class Context {
    /**
     * File creation mode: the default mode, where the created file can only
     * be accessed by the calling application (or all applications sharing the
     * same user ID).
     * @see #MODE_WORLD_READABLE
     * @see #MODE_WORLD_WRITEABLE
     */
。。。。。。
    /**
     * Launch a new activity.  You will not receive any information about when
     * the activity exits.
     *
     * <p>Note that if this method is being called from outside of an
     * {@link android.app.Activity} Context, then the Intent must include
     * the {@link Intent#FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK} launch flag.  This is because,
     * without being started from an existing Activity, there is no existing
     * task in which to place the new activity and thus it needs to be placed
     * in its own separate task.
     *
     * <p>This method throws {@link ActivityNotFoundException}
     * if there was no Activity found to run the given Intent.
     *
     * @param intent The description of the activity to start.
     *
     * @throws ActivityNotFoundException
     *
     * @see PackageManager#resolveActivity
     */
    public abstract void startActivity(Intent intent);
......

    2. 看android.app.ContextImpl类,找到startActivity方法,看它的实现:

  

/**
 * Common implementation of Context API, which provides the base
 * context object for Activity and other application components.
 */
class ContextImpl extends Context {
    private final static String TAG = "ApplicationContext";
    private final static boolean DEBUG = false;

    private static final HashMap<String, SharedPreferencesImpl> sSharedPrefs =
            new HashMap<String, SharedPreferencesImpl>();
。。。。。。

    @Override
    public void startActivity(Intent intent) {
        if ((intent.getFlags()&Intent.FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK) == 0) {
            throw new AndroidRuntimeException(
                    "Calling startActivity() from outside of an Activity "
                    + " context requires the FLAG_ACTIVITY_NEW_TASK flag."
                    + " Is this really what you want?");
        }
        mMainThread.getInstrumentation().execStartActivity(
            getOuterContext(), mMainThread.getApplicationThread(), null,
            (Activity)null, intent, -1);
    }
.....

  这里不在阐述是如何实现的,但至少可以看出的ContextImpl是实现了Context的抽象方法startActivity函数。

    3. 现在来看装饰类ContextWrapper如何来调用这个startActivity方法的:  

/**
 * Proxying implementation of Context that simply delegates all of its calls to
 * another Context.  Can be subclassed to modify behavior without changing
 * the original Context.
 */
public class ContextWrapper extends Context {
    Context mBase;

    public ContextWrapper(Context base) {
        mBase = base;
    }

        3.1 首先必须包含属性Context抽象类的实例对象mBase。

 @Override
    public void startActivity(Intent intent) {
        mBase.startActivity(intent);
    }

        3.2 看出它只是单纯的调用父类Context的方法mBase.startActivity(intent),并未做修改。

     4. 看看具体装饰类如何来装饰和扩展父类ContextWrapper的:

Activity类:

public class Activity extends ContextThemeWrapper
        implements LayoutInflater.Factory2,
        Window.Callback, KeyEvent.Callback,
        OnCreateContextMenuListener, ComponentCallbacks2 {
    private static final String TAG = "Activity";

    /** Standard activity result: operation canceled. */
    public static final int RESULT_CANCELED    = 0;
    /** Standard activity result: operation succeeded. */
    public static final int RESULT_OK           = -1;
    /** Start of user-defined activity results. */
    public static final int RESULT_FIRST_USER   = 1;

    private static final String WINDOW_HIERARCHY_TAG = "android:viewHierarchyState";
    private static final String FRAGMENTS_TAG = "android:fragments";
    private static final String SAVED_DIALOG_IDS_KEY = "android:savedDialogIds";
    private static final String SAVED_DIALOGS_TAG = "android:savedDialogs";
    private static final String SAVED_DIALOG_KEY_PREFIX = "android:dialog_";
    private static final String SAVED_DIALOG_ARGS_KEY_PREFIX = "android:dialog_args_";

    private static class ManagedDialog {
        Dialog mDialog;
        Bundle mArgs;
    }
    private SparseArray<ManagedDialog> mManagedDialogs;

    // set by the thread after the constructor and before onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) is called.
    private Instrumentation mInstrumentation;
    private IBinder mToken;
    private int mIdent;
    /*package*/ String mEmbeddedID;
    private Application mApplication;
    /*package*/ Intent mIntent;
    private ComponentName mComponent;
    /*package*/ ActivityInfo mActivityInfo;
    /*package*/ ActivityThread mMainThread;
    Activity mParent;
    boolean mCalled;
    boolean mCheckedForLoaderManager;
    boolean mLoadersStarted;
    /*package*/ boolean mResumed;
    private boolean mStopped;
    boolean mFinished;
    boolean mStartedActivity;
    /** true if the activity is going through a transient pause */
    /*package*/ boolean mTemporaryPause = false;
    /** true if the activity is being destroyed in order to recreate it with a new configuration */
    /*package*/ boolean mChangingConfigurations = false;
    /*package*/ int mConfigChangeFlags;
    /*package*/ Configuration mCurrentConfig;
    private SearchManager mSearchManager;
    private MenuInflater mMenuInflater;

    static final class NonConfigurationInstances {
        Object activity;
        HashMap<String, Object> children;
        ArrayList<Fragment> fragments;
        SparseArray<LoaderManagerImpl> loaders;
    }
    /* package */ NonConfigurationInstances mLastNonConfigurationInstances;
    
    private Window mWindow;

    private WindowManager mWindowManager;
    /*package*/ View mDecor = null;
    /*package*/ boolean mWindowAdded = false;
    /*package*/ boolean mVisibleFromServer = false;
    /*package*/ boolean mVisibleFromClient = true;
    /*package*/ ActionBarImpl mActionBar = null;

    private CharSequence mTitle;
    private int mTitleColor = 0;

    final FragmentManagerImpl mFragments = new FragmentManagerImpl();
    
    SparseArray<LoaderManagerImpl> mAllLoaderManagers;
    LoaderManagerImpl mLoaderManager;
    
    private static final class ManagedCursor {
        ManagedCursor(Cursor cursor) {
            mCursor = cursor;
            mReleased = false;
            mUpdated = false;
        }

        private final Cursor mCursor;
        private boolean mReleased;
        private boolean mUpdated;
    }
    private final ArrayList<ManagedCursor> mManagedCursors =
        new ArrayList<ManagedCursor>();

    // protected by synchronized (this) 
    int mResultCode = RESULT_CANCELED;
    Intent mResultData = null;

    private boolean mTitleReady = false;

    private int mDefaultKeyMode = DEFAULT_KEYS_DISABLE;
    private SpannableStringBuilder mDefaultKeySsb = null;
    
    protected static final int[] FOCUSED_STATE_SET = {com.android.internal.R.attr.state_focused};

    private final Object mInstanceTracker = StrictMode.trackActivity(this);

    private Thread mUiThread;
    final Handler mHandler = new Handler();

    /** Return the intent that started this activity. */
    public Intent getIntent() {
        return mIntent;
    }

    /** 
     * Change the intent returned by {@link #getIntent}.  This holds a 
     * reference to the given intent; it does not copy it.  Often used in 
     * conjunction with {@link #onNewIntent}. 
     *  
     * @param newIntent The new Intent object to return from getIntent 
     * 
     * @see #getIntent
     * @see #onNewIntent
     */ 
    public void setIntent(Intent newIntent) {
        mIntent = newIntent;
    }

    /** Return the application that owns this activity. */
    public final Application getApplication() {
        return mApplication;
    }

    /** Is this activity embedded inside of another activity? */
    public final boolean isChild() {
        return mParent != null;
    }
    
    /** Return the parent activity if this view is an embedded child. */
    public final Activity getParent() {
        return mParent;
    }

    /** Retrieve the window manager for showing custom windows. */
    public WindowManager getWindowManager() {
        return mWindowManager;
    }

    /**
     * Retrieve the current {@link android.view.Window} for the activity.
     * This can be used to directly access parts of the Window API that
     * are not available through Activity/Screen.
     * 
     * @return Window The current window, or null if the activity is not
     *         visual.
     */

不断扩展自己的属性和方法;

同样的Service类也是:

public abstract class Service extends ContextWrapper implements ComponentCallbacks2 {
    private static final String TAG = "Service";

    public Service() {
        super(null);
    }

    /** Return the application that owns this service. */
    public final Application getApplication() {
        return mApplication;
    }

    /**
     * Called by the system when the service is first created.  Do not call this method directly.
     */
    public void onCreate() {
    }

    /**
     * @deprecated Implement {@link #onStartCommand(Intent, int, int)} instead.
     */
    @Deprecated
    public void onStart(Intent intent, int startId) {
    }

    /**
     * Bits returned by {@link #onStartCommand} describing how to continue
     * the service if it is killed.  May be {@link #START_STICKY},
     * {@link #START_NOT_STICKY}, {@link #START_REDELIVER_INTENT},
     * or {@link #START_STICKY_COMPATIBILITY}.
     */
    public static final int START_CONTINUATION_MASK = 0xf;
    
    /**
     * Constant to return from {@link #onStartCommand}: compatibility
     * version of {@link #START_STICKY} that does not guarantee that
     * {@link #onStartCommand} will be called again after being killed.
     */
    public static final int START_STICKY_COMPATIBILITY = 0;
    
    /**
     * Constant to return from {@link #onStartCommand}: if this service's
     * process is killed while it is started (after returning from
     * {@link #onStartCommand}), then leave it in the started state but
     * don't retain this delivered intent.  Later the system will try to
     * re-create the service.  Because it is in the started state, it will
     * guarantee to call {@link #onStartCommand} after creating the new
     * service instance; if there are not any pending start commands to be
     * delivered to the service, it will be called with a null intent
     * object, so you must take care to check for this.
     * 
     * <p>This mode makes sense for things that will be explicitly started
     * and stopped to run for arbitrary periods of time, such as a service
     * performing background music playback.
     */
    public static final int START_STICKY = 1;
    
    /**
     * Constant to return from {@link #onStartCommand}: if this service's
     * process is killed while it is started (after returning from
     * {@link #onStartCommand}), and there are no new start intents to
     * deliver to it, then take the service out of the started state and
     * don't recreate until a future explicit call to
     * {@link Context#startService Context.startService(Intent)}.  The
     * service will not receive a {@link #onStartCommand(Intent, int, int)}
     * call with a null Intent because it will not be re-started if there
     * are no pending Intents to deliver.
     * 
。。。。。。

Application类同样:

public class Application extends ContextWrapper implements ComponentCallbacks2 {
    private ArrayList<ComponentCallbacks> mComponentCallbacks =
            new ArrayList<ComponentCallbacks>();
    private ArrayList<ActivityLifecycleCallbacks> mActivityLifecycleCallbacks =
            new ArrayList<ActivityLifecycleCallbacks>();

    /** @hide */
    public LoadedApk mLoadedApk;

    public interface ActivityLifecycleCallbacks {
        void onActivityCreated(Activity activity, Bundle savedInstanceState);
        void onActivityStarted(Activity activity);
        void onActivityResumed(Activity activity);
        void onActivityPaused(Activity activity);
        void onActivityStopped(Activity activity);
        void onActivitySaveInstanceState(Activity activity, Bundle outState);
        void onActivityDestroyed(Activity activity);
    }

    public Application() {
        super(null);
    }

最后让我们记住支撑“装饰模式”的设计原则:

Classes should be open for extension, but closed for modification.

本文转自:http://www.cnblogs.com/yemeishu/archive/2012/12/30/2839489.html

posted @ 2015-01-22 13:42  bamb00  阅读(498)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报