软件定义网络(SDN)第三次实验报告




实验 3:Mininet 实验——测量路径的损耗率

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一、实验目的

在实验 2 的基础上进一步熟悉 Mininet 自定义拓扑脚本,以及与损耗率相关的设定;初步了解 Mininet 安装时自带的 POX 控制器脚本编写,测试路径损耗率。


二、实验任务

图 3-1 本实验拓扑图

h0 向 h1 发送数据包,由于在 Mininet 脚本中设置了连接损耗率,在传输过程中会丢失一些包,本次实验的目的是展示如何通过控制器计算路径损耗速率(h0s0-s1-h1)。这里假设控制器预先知道网络拓扑。控制器将向 s0 和 s1 发送 flow_stats_request,当控制器接收到来自 s0 的 response 时,将特定流的数据包数保存在 input_pkts 中,当控制器接收到来自 s1 的 response 时,将接收到特定流的数据包数保存在 output_pkts 中,差值就是丢失的数据包数量。 基于上述拓扑,编写 Mininet 脚本,设置特定的交换机间的路径损耗速率,然后编写 POX 控制器脚本,实现对路径的损耗率的测量。


三、实验要求

  • 根据实验步骤重复上述实验。
  • 在博客园发表一篇博客,记录主要步骤。


四、具体实验步骤

新建并编辑 pox 脚本 flowstat.py

在 pox 安装目录下(Mininet 完整安装包含了 pox)建立 flowstat.py,输入代码执行以下命令运行 pox 脚本,能看到控制器正在运行。

$ touch flowstat.py 
$ ./pox.py flowstat 

flowstat.py 代码如下:

#!/usr/bin/python
# Copyright 2012 William Yu
# wyu@ateneo.edu
#
# This file is part of POX.
#
# POX is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
# it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
# the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
# (at your option) any later version.
#
# POX is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
# but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
# MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
# GNU General Public License for more details.
#
# You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
# along with POX. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
#
 
"""
This is a demonstration file created to show how to obtain flow 
and port statistics from OpenFlow 1.0-enabled switches. The flow
statistics handler contains a summary of web-only traffic.
"""
 
# standard includes
from pox.core import core
from pox.lib.util import dpidToStr
import pox.openflow.libopenflow_01 as of
from pox.lib.addresses import IPAddr, EthAddr
 
# include as part of the betta branch
from pox.openflow.of_json import *
from pox.lib.recoco import Timer
import time
 
log = core.getLogger()
 
src_dpid = 0
dst_dpid = 0
input_pkts = 0
output_pkts = 0
 
def getTheTime():  #fuction to create a timestamp
  flock = time.localtime()
  then = "[%s-%s-%s" %(str(flock.tm_year),str(flock.tm_mon),str(flock.tm_mday))
  
  if int(flock.tm_hour)<10:
    hrs = "0%s" % (str(flock.tm_hour))
  else:
    hrs = str(flock.tm_hour)
  if int(flock.tm_min)<10:
    mins = "0%s" % (str(flock.tm_min))
  else:
    mins = str(flock.tm_min)
  if int(flock.tm_sec)<10:
    secs = "0%s" % (str(flock.tm_sec))
  else:
    secs = str(flock.tm_sec)
  then +="]%s.%s.%s" % (hrs,mins,secs)
  return then
 
# handler for timer function that sends the requests to all the
# switches connected to the controller.
def _timer_func ():
  for connection in core.openflow._connections.values():
    connection.send(of.ofp_stats_request(body=of.ofp_flow_stats_request()))
    connection.send(of.ofp_stats_request(body=of.ofp_port_stats_request()))
  log.debug("Sent %i flow/port stats request(s)", len(core.openflow._connections))
 
# handler to display flow statistics received in JSON format
# structure of event.stats is defined by ofp_flow_stats()
def _handle_flowstats_received (event):
   #stats = flow_stats_to_list(event.stats)
   #log.debug("FlowStatsReceived from %s: %s", dpidToStr(event.connection.dpid), stats)
   global src_dpid, dst_dpid, input_pkts, output_pkts
   #print "src_dpid=", dpidToStr(src_dpid), "dst_dpid=", dpidToStr(dst_dpid)
   for f in event.stats:
     if f.match.dl_type==0x0800 and f.match.nw_dst==IPAddr("192.168.123.2") and f.match.nw_tos==0x64 and event.connection.dpid==src_dpid: 
       #print "input: ", f.byte_count, f.packet_count
       input_pkts = f.packet_count
     if f.match.dl_type==0x0800 and f.match.nw_dst==IPAddr("192.168.123.2") and f.match.nw_tos==0x64 and event.connection.dpid==dst_dpid:
       #print "output: ", f.byte_count, f.packet_count  
       output_pkts = f.packet_count
       if input_pkts !=0:
         print getTheTime(), "Path Loss Rate =", (input_pkts-output_pkts)*1.0/input_pkts*100, "%"
 
# handler to display port statistics received in JSON format
def _handle_portstats_received (event):
   #print "\n<<<STATS-REPLY: Return PORT stats for Switch", event.connection.dpid,"at ",getTheTime()
   #for f in event.stats:
      #if int(f.port_no)<65534:
        #print "   PortNo:", f.port_no, " Fwd's Pkts:", f.tx_packets, " Fwd's Bytes:", f.tx_bytes, " Rc'd Pkts:", f.rx_packets, " Rc's Bytes:", f.rx_bytes
        #print "   PortNo:", f.port_no,  " TxDrop:", f.tx_dropped, " RxDrop:", f.rx_dropped, " TxErr:", f.tx_errors, " RxErr:", f.rx_errors, " CRC:", f.rx_crc_err, " Coll:", f.collisions 
  stats = flow_stats_to_list(event.stats)
  log.debug("PortStatsReceived from %s: %s", dpidToStr(event.connection.dpid), stats)
 
def _handle_ConnectionUp (event):
  global src_dpid, dst_dpid
  print "ConnectionUp: ", dpidToStr(event.connection.dpid)
  for m in event.connection.features.ports:
    if m.name == "s0-eth0":
      src_dpid = event.connection.dpid
    elif m.name == "s1-eth0":
      dst_dpid = event.connection.dpid
 
  msg = of.ofp_flow_mod()
  msg.priority =1
  msg.idle_timeout = 0
  msg.match.in_port =1
  msg.actions.append(of.ofp_action_output(port = of.OFPP_ALL))
  event.connection.send(msg)
 
  msg = of.ofp_flow_mod()
  msg.priority =1
  msg.idle_timeout = 0
  msg.match.in_port =2
  msg.actions.append(of.ofp_action_output(port = of.OFPP_ALL))
  event.connection.send(msg)
 
  msg = of.ofp_flow_mod()
  msg.priority =10
  msg.idle_timeout = 0
  msg.hard_timeout = 0
  msg.match.dl_type = 0x0800
  msg.match.nw_tos = 0x64
  msg.match.in_port=1
  msg.match.nw_dst = "192.168.123.2"
  msg.actions.append(of.ofp_action_output(port = 2))
  event.connection.send(msg)
 
  msg = of.ofp_flow_mod()
  msg.priority =10
  msg.idle_timeout = 0
  msg.hard_timeout = 0
  msg.match.dl_type = 0x0800
  msg.match.nw_tos = 0x64
  msg.match.nw_dst = "192.168.123.1"
  msg.actions.append(of.ofp_action_output(port = 1))
  event.connection.send(msg)
    
# main functiont to launch the module
def launch ():
  # attach handsers to listners
  core.openflow.addListenerByName("FlowStatsReceived", 
    _handle_flowstats_received) 
  core.openflow.addListenerByName("PortStatsReceived", 
    _handle_portstats_received) 
  core.openflow.addListenerByName("ConnectionUp", _handle_ConnectionUp)
 
  # timer set to execute every five seconds
  Timer(1, _timer_func, recurring=True)
图 3-2 建立 flowstat.py
图 3-3 运行 pox

编辑 Mininet 脚本 mymininet3.py

参照拓扑图,新建并编辑 Mininet 脚本 mymininet3.py。控制器因为安装在本机,所以需修改参考资料代码中的控制器地址为 127.0.0.1:6633 【 127.0.0.1 是回送地址,指本地机,用来测试使用】。设置 s0 和 s1 之间链路的丢包率为 0 ,再执行命令运行 Mininet 脚本 mymininet3.py 【同时需要另一个终端开着 pox】。

$ touch mymininet3.py
$ sudo python mymininet3.py 

mymininet3.py 代码如下:

#!/usr/bin/python
 
from mininet.net import Mininet
from mininet.node import Node
from mininet.link import TCLink
from mininet.log import  setLogLevel, info
from threading import Timer
from mininet.util import quietRun
from time import sleep
 
def myNet(cname='controller', cargs='-v ptcp:'):
    "Create network from scratch using Open vSwitch."
    info( "*** Creating nodes\n" )
    controller = Node( 'c0', inNamespace=False )
    switch = Node( 's0', inNamespace=False )
    switch1 = Node( 's1', inNamespace=False )
    h0 = Node( 'h0' )
    h1 = Node( 'h1' )
    
    info( "*** Creating links\n" )
    linkopts0=dict(bw=100, delay='1ms', loss=0)
    linkopts1=dict(bw=100, delay='1ms', loss=10)
    link0=TCLink( h0, switch, **linkopts0)
    link1 = TCLink( switch, switch1, **linkopts1)     
    link2 = TCLink( h1, switch1, **linkopts0)
    #print link0.intf1, link0.intf2
    link0.intf2.setMAC("0:0:0:0:0:1")
    link1.intf1.setMAC("0:0:0:0:0:2")
    link1.intf2.setMAC("0:1:0:0:0:1") 
    link2.intf2.setMAC("0:1:0:0:0:2")
 
    info( "*** Configuring hosts\n" )
    h0.setIP( '192.168.123.1/24' )
    h1.setIP( '192.168.123.2/24' )
       
    info( "*** Starting network using Open vSwitch\n" )
    switch.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl del-br dp0' )
    switch.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl add-br dp0' )
    switch1.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl del-br dp1' )
    switch1.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl add-br dp1' )
 
    controller.cmd( cname + ' ' + cargs + '&' )     
    for intf in switch.intfs.values():
        print intf
        print switch.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl add-port dp0 %s' % intf )
    for intf in switch1.intfs.values():
        print intf
        print switch1.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl add-port dp1 %s' % intf )
   
    # Note: controller and switch are in root namespace, and we
    # can connect via loopback interface
    switch.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl set-controller dp0 tcp:127.0.0.1:6633' )
    switch1.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl set-controller dp1 tcp:127.0.0.1:6633' )
  
    info( '*** Waiting for switch to connect to controller' )
    while 'is_connected' not in quietRun( 'ovs-vsctl show' ):
        sleep( 1 )
        info( '.' )
    info( '\n' )
 
    #info( "*** Running test\n" )
    h0.cmdPrint( 'ping -Q 0x64 -c 20 ' + h1.IP() )
    
    sleep( 1 ) 
    info( "*** Stopping network\n" )
    controller.cmd( 'kill %' + cname )
    switch.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl del-br dp0' )
    switch.deleteIntfs()
    switch1.cmd( 'ovs-vsctl del-br dp1' )
    switch1.deleteIntfs()
    info( '\n' )
 
if __name__ == '__main__':
    setLogLevel( 'info' )
    info( '*** Scratch network demo (kernel datapath)\n' )
    Mininet.init()
    myNet()

图 3-4 无丢包率脚本测试

可以看到由于设置了所有链路丢包率为0,发送的20个数据包全部接受成功,丢包率为 0 %【负值当作 0 来看,认定为没有丢包】。

修改 mymininet3.py 丢包率

修改代码中 s0 和 s1 之间链路的丢包率为 10。 重新运行 Mininet 脚本 mymininet3.py,20 秒时间的 ping 过程中有 icmp_seq 为 4/7/10/16/18 共 5 次 ping 不通,所以丢包率计算为 25%。

linkopts0=dict(bw=100, delay='1ms', loss=0)
linkopts1=dict(bw=100, delay='1ms', loss=10)
图 3-5 有丢包率脚本测试



五、注意事项与心得体会

注意事项

  • 使用前要使用 sudo mn -c ;
图 3-6 拓扑遗留文件
图 3-7 清空拓扑遗留文件
  • 要记得先开 POX,挂在后台后再打开另一个 Terminal 运行 .py 文件;
  • 再次打开 POX 运行的时候,会显示端口已占用,目前找到的方法有:1、重启;2、修改运行端口。
图 3-8 端口被占用

心得体会

  • 感觉这次直接调用代码,改了改参数做完了实验,还没有真正领会到这两份代码的精髓,有时间可以细细看一下。


posted @ 2020-09-23 00:57  _CLF  阅读(382)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报
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