Linxu下 expect的实用实例_1

案例

例1:
从本机自动登录到远程机器192.168.1.200(端口是22,密码是:PASSWORD)
登录到远程机器后做以下几个操作:
1)useradd wangshibo
2)mkdir /opt/test
3) exit自动退出

[root@xw4 tmp]# cat test-ssh.sh 
#!/bin/bash
passwd='PASSWORD'
/usr/local/bin/expect <<-EOF
set time 30
spawn ssh -p22 root@192.168.1.201
expect {
"*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue }
"*password:" { send "$passwd\r" }
}
expect "*#"
send "useradd wangshibo\r"
expect "*#"
send "mkdir /opt/test\r"
expect "*#"
send "exit\r"
interact
expect eof
EOF

[root@xw4 tmp]# sh test.sh
spawn ssh -p22 root@192.168.1.201
root@192.168.1.201's password: 
Last login: Fri Sep 23 16:21:20 2016 from 192.168.1.23
[root@vm-002 ~]# useradd wangshibo
[root@vm-002 ~]# mkdir /opt/test
[root@vm-002 ~]# [root@xw4 tmp]#

例2:我们在部署无密码访问时,手工建立ssh互信需要好几个步骤,并且中途人工交互(输入密码等),如果机器数目多,则很繁琐!
下面方法用于自动化生成authorized_keys,免去了手工数据.
方法: 利用expect编写sshkey.exp在远程主机上生成id_rsa,并重定向到本地.在利用noscp.exp.把文件复制到远程主机
为了节省自己的时间,可以写个expect自动化脚本,分享如下:

(1)
如上expect安装后的路径是:
[root@xw4 ~]# which expect
/usr/local/bin/expect

(2)
做个expect执行文件的软件
[root@xw4 ~]# ln -s /usr/local/bin/expect /usr/bin/expect
[root@xw4 ~]# ll /usr/bin/expect

(3)
编写expect脚本:
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
1)
[root@xw4 ~]# cat sshkey.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect

#sshkey.exp

if {$argc<3} {
puts stderr "Usage: $argv0 host user passwd "
exit 1
}

set host [ lindex $argv 0 ]
set user [ lindex $argv 1 ]
set pwd [ lindex $argv 2 ]

set timeout 30

#spawn ssh ${user}@${host} "rm -rf ~/.ssh/id_rsa*"
#
#expect {
# "*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue }
# "*password:" { send "$pwd\r"; exp_continue }
#}

spawn ssh ${user}@${host} "ssh-keygen -t rsa"

expect {
"*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue }
"*password:" { send "$pwd\r"; exp_continue }
"Enter file in which to save the key*" { send "\n\r"; exp_continue }
"Overwrite*" { send "y\n"; exp_continue } 
"Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase):" { send "\n\r"; exp_continue }
"Enter same passphrase again:" { send "\n\r" }
}

spawn ssh ${user}@${host} "cat ~/.ssh/id_rsa.pub"

expect {
"*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue }
"*password:" { send "$pwd\r" }
}

expect eof

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
2)
[root@xw4 ~]# cat noscp.exp 
#!/usr/bin/expect

#noscp.exp

if {$argc<4} {
puts stderr "Usage: $argv0 localfile remotefile user passwd "
exit 1
}

set localfile [ lindex $argv 0 ]
set remotefile [ lindex $argv 1 ]
set user [ lindex $argv 2 ]
set pwd [ lindex $argv 3 ]

set timeout 30

spawn scp ${localfile} ${user}@${remotefile}

expect {
"*yes/no" { send "yes\r"; exp_continue }
"*password:" { send "$pwd\r" }
}

expect eof

------------------------------------------------------------------------

[root@xw4 ~]# chmod 755 sshkey.exp
[root@xw4 ~]# chmod 755 noscp.exp

(4)
脚本说明
./sshkey.exp 主机名 用户名 密码 (在远程主机生成id_rsa)
./noscp.exp 本地文件 远程路径 远程用户密码 (无密码拷贝文件)

(5)验证:
[root@xw4 ~]# ./sshkey.exp 192.168.1.201 root PASSWORD |grep ssh-rsa >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
[root@xw4 ~]# ./noscp.exp ~/.ssh/authorized_keys 192.168.1.201:~/.ssh root PASSWORD
spawn scp /root/.ssh/authorized_keys root@192.168.1.201:~/.ssh
root@192.168.1.201's password: 
authorized_keys

这样,就能无密码登陆了!
[root@xw4 ~]# ssh 192.168.1.201
Last login: Fri Sep 23 18:33:21 2016 from 192.168.1.7
[root@vm-002 ~]#

--------------------------------------------------------------------------
如果是多台机器的话,可以结合shell脚本进行批量执行

[root@xw4 ~]# cat /root/ip.list
192.168.1.100
192.168.1.101
192.168.1.102
192.168.1.103
192.168.1.104
......
......

[root@xw4 ~]# cat sshkey.sh
#!/bin/bash
user='root'
password='PASSWORD'
for ip in `cat /root/ip.list`
do
/root/sshkey.exp $ip $user $password |grep ssh-rsa >> ~/.ssh/authorized_keys
/root/noscp.exp ~/.ssh/authorized_keys $user@$ip:~/.ssh root PASSWORD 
done

 

其他

dispatch_copy.exp

#! /usr/local/bin/expect
if { $argc != 3 } {
   send_user "usage :expect dispatch_sshkey.expect file host dest \n"
}

#define var
set timeout 3
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set dest [lindex $argv 2]  
set password "hhh"
#spawn scp /home/omd/2017-08-23 root@192.168.25.137:/home/omd
#spawn scp -P11544 $file root@$host:$dir
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i $file "-p 11544 root@$host:$dir"
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i  .ssh/id_dsa.pub omd@192.168.25.137
spawn scp $file oldgirl@$host:$dest
expect of {      
   #timeout 1
   "yes/no"    {send "yes\r"}
   "*password" {send "$password\r"} 
   timeout {puts "Expect was timeout please contact ftl at XXXXX"; return}
}   

exit -onexit {
      send_user "good bye!! see you \n" 
} 

 

dispatch-sshkey.exp

#! /usr/local/bin/expect
if { $argc !=2 } {
   send_user "usage :expect dispatch_sshkey.expect file host \n"
   exit
}
#define var
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set password "hhh"
#spawn scp /home/omd/2017-08-23 root@192.168.25.137:/home/omd
#spawn scp -P11544 $file root@$host:$dir
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i $file "-p 11544 root@$host:$dir"
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i  .ssh/id_dsa.pub omd@192.168.25.137
spawn ssh-copy-id -i $file oldgirl@$host
expect {     
   "yes/no"    {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
   "*password" {send "$password\r"}
}
expect eof
 

dispatch-sshkey2.exp[更完善]

#! /usr/local/bin/expect
if { $argc !=2 } {
   send_user "usage :expect dispatch_sshkey.expect file host \n"
   exit
}
#define var
set timeout 1
set file [lindex $argv 0]
set host [lindex $argv 1]
set password "hhh"
#spawn scp /home/omd/2017-08-23 root@192.168.25.137:/home/omd
#spawn scp -P11544 $file root@$host:$dir
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i $file "-p 11544 root@$host:$dir"
#spawn ssh-copy-id -i  .ssh/id_dsa.pub omd@192.168.25.137
spawn ssh-copy-id -i $file oldgirl@$host
expect {     
   #timeout 1
   "yes/no"    {send "yes\r";exp_continue}
   "*password" {send "$password\r"}
   timeout {puts "Expect was timeout "; return}
}
expect eof
exit -onexit {
                     exec rm $tmpfile
                     send_user "good bye\n"
}
posted @ 2018-07-15 14:59  小a玖拾柒  阅读(351)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报