python自动化之使用allure生成测试报告

Allure测试报告框架帮助你轻松实现”高大上”报告展示。本文通过示例演示如何从0到1集成Allure测试框架。重点展示了如何将Allure集成到已有的自动化测试工程中、以及如何实现报表的优化展示。Allure非常强大,支持多种语言多种测试框架,无论是Java/Python还是Junit/TestNG,其他语言或者框架实现的流程和本文一致,具体配置参照各语言框架规范
安装
  • 安装allure
    • Windows用户:
      • scoop install allure    (需要先下载并安装Scoop,该方法无需配置环境变量)
    • MAC用户:
      • 通过Homebrew进行自动安装
      • brew install allure   (如果Homebrew版本比较旧,需要先升级Homebrew,否则安装的allure版本也很老,可能会与Python插件不兼容)
    • 手动安装:
      • 可以从官网 https://repo.maven.apache.org/maven2/io/qameta/allure/allure-commandline/ 手动下载
      • 目前最新版本为2.13.6    
      •  

        下载后解压并配置环境变量 

  • 安装allure-pytest插件
    • pip install allure-pytest

 

allure常用特性

希望在报告中看到测试功能,子功能或场景,测试步骤,包括测试附加信息可以使用@feature,@story,@step,@attach

步骤:

  • import allure
  • 功能上加@allure.feature("功能名称")
  • 子功能上加@allure.story("子功能名称")
  • 步骤上加@allure.step("步骤细节")
  • @allure.attach("具体文本信息"),需要附加的信息,可以是数据,文本,图片,视频,网页
  • 如果只测试部分功能运行的时候可以加限制过滤:
    • pytest 文件名 --allure-features "需要运行的功能名称" 

allure特性—feature/story

@allure.feature与@allure.store的关系

  • feature相当于一个功能,一个大的模块,将case分类到某个feature中,报告中在behaviore中显示,相当于testsuite
  • story相当于对应这个功能或者模块下的不同场景,分支功能,属于feature之下的结构,报告在features中显示,相当于testcase
  • feature与story类似于父与子关系

step特性

  • 测试过程中每个步骤,一般放在具体逻辑方法中
  • 可以放在关键步骤中,在报告中显示
  • 在app,web自动化测试中,建议每切换到一个新的页面当做一个step
  • 用法:
    • @allure.step() 只能以装饰器的形式放在类或方法上面
    • with allure.step():  可以放在测试用例方法里面,但测试步骤的代码需要被该语句包含

运行:

  在测试执行期间收集结果

  pytest [测试文件] -s -q --alluredir=./result --clean-alluredir

      • --alluredir这个选项,用于指定存储测试结果的路径
      • --clean-alluredir 这个选项用来清除之前生成的结果

查看测试报告:

  方法一:测试完成后查看实际报告,在线看报告,会直接打开默认浏览器展示当前报告

      allure serve ./result 

  方法二:从结果生成报告,这是一个启动tomcat的服务,需要两个步骤

      生成报告:

          allure generate ./result -o ./report --clean   (注意:--clean用来清除之前已生成的报告)

      打开报告:

          allure open -h 127.0.0.1 -p 8883 ./report   (该方法直接生成一个tomcat服务,可远程访问)

 举个例子:

有如下代码文件

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
"""
@author:chenshifeng
@file:test_allure.py
@time:2020/10/10
"""
import allure
import pytest


@allure.feature('登录模块')
class TestLogin():
    @allure.story('登录成功')
    @allure.title('登录成功标题')
    def test_login_sucess(self):
        with allure.step('步骤1:打开应用'):
            print('应用已打开')
        with allure.step('步骤2:进入登录页面'):
            print('登录页面已打开')
        with allure.step('步骤3:输入用户名和密码'):
            print('用户名和密码输入成功')
        print('登录测试用例:登录成功')

    @allure.story('登录成功')
    def test_login_sucess2(self):
        assert '1' == 1
        print('登录测试用例:登录成功')

    @allure.story('登录失败')
    def test_login_failure_a(self):
        print('登录测试用例:登录失败,用户名缺失')

    @allure.story('登录失败')
    def test_login_failure_b(self):
        print('登录测试用例:登录失败,密码缺失')

    @allure.story('登录失败')
    def test_login_failure_c(self):
        with allure.step('输入用户名'):
            print('已输入用户名')
        with allure.step('输入密码'):
            print('已输入密码')
        with allure.step('点击登录'):
            print('已点击登录')
        print('登录测试用例:登录失败,密码错误')


@allure.feature('搜索模块')
class TestSearch():
    def test_search1(self):
        print('搜索用例1')

    TEST_CASE_LINK = 'https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/'
    @allure.testcase(TEST_CASE_LINK,'测试用例连接')
    def test_search2(self):
        print('搜索用例2')
    @allure.step('搜索步骤')
    def test_search3(self):
        print('搜索用例3')
View Code

依次执行命令: 

  pytest test_allure.py --alluredir=./result --clean-alluredir

   allure serve ./result 

chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ pytest test_allure.py --alluredir=./result --clean-alluredir
============================================================================= test session starts =============================================================================
platform darwin -- Python 3.9.0, pytest-6.1.1, py-1.9.0, pluggy-0.13.1
rootdir: /Users/chenshifeng/MyCode/PythonCode/SFDSZL/test_pytest, configfile: pytest.ini
plugins: allure-pytest-2.8.18
collected 8 items                                                                                                                                                             

test_allure.py .F......                                                                                                                                                 [100%]

================================================================================== FAILURES ===================================================================================
________________________________________________________________________ TestLogin.test_login_sucess2 _________________________________________________________________________

self = <test_allure.TestLogin object at 0x7fef3d5cba90>

    @allure.story('登录成功')
    def test_login_sucess2(self):
>       assert '1' == 1
E       AssertionError: assert '1' == 1

test_allure.py:27: AssertionError
=========================================================================== short test summary info ===========================================================================
FAILED test_allure.py::TestLogin::test_login_sucess2 - AssertionError: assert '1' == 1
========================================================================= 1 failed, 7 passed in 0.07s =========================================================================
chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ allure serve ./result 
Generating report to temp directory...
Report successfully generated to /var/folders/p0/3_7fwrvx6n3ftpfd4wjb01300000gn/T/7024790777193223986/allure-report
Starting web server...
2020-10-13 21:39:56.174:INFO::main: Logging initialized @6818ms to org.eclipse.jetty.util.log.StdErrLog
Server started at <http://192.168.12.100:58977/>. Press <Ctrl+C> to exit
View Code

生成的报告:

allure特性-testcase

关联测试用例(可以直接给测试用例的地址链接)

例子:

TEST_CASE_LINK = 'https://mirrors.huaweicloud.com/'
@allure.testcase(TEST_CASE_LINK,'测试用例连接')
def test_search(self):
    print('搜索用例')

 

 

按重要性级别进行一定范围测试

通常测试有P0、冒烟测试、验证上线测试。按重要性级别来执行的,比如上线要把主流程和重要模块都跑一遍,可通过以下方法解决

  • 通过附加@pytest.mark标记
  • 通过allure.feature,allure.story
  • 也可以通过allure.severity来附加标记
    • 级别:
    • trivial:不重要,轻微缺陷(必输项无提示,或者提示不规范)
    • minor 不太重要,次要缺陷(界面错误与UI需求不符)
    • normal:正常问题,普通缺陷(数值计算错误)
    • critical:严重,临界缺陷(功能点缺失)
    • blocker:阻塞,中断缺陷(客户端程序无响应,无法执行下一步操作)

使用方法:

   在方法、函数和类上面加 @allure.severity(allure.severity_level.TRIVIAL)

执行:

   pytest -s -v 文件名 --allure-severities normal,critical

举例说明:

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
"""
@author:chenshifeng
@file:test_severity.py
@time:2020/10/11
"""
import allure
import pytest


# 不加任何标记,默认normal
def test_with_no_severity():
    pass


# trivial:不重要,轻微缺陷(必输项无提示,或者提示不规范)
@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.TRIVIAL)
def test_with_trivial_severity():
    pass


# minor 级别 不太重要,次要缺陷(界面错误与UI需求不符)
@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.MINOR)
def test_with_minor_severity():
    pass


# normal:正常问题,普通缺陷(数值计算错误)
@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.NORMAL)
def test_with_normal_severity():
    pass


# critical:严重,临界缺陷(功能点缺失)
@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.CRITICAL)
def test_with_ritical_severity():
    pass


# blocker:阻塞,中断缺陷(客户端程序无响应,无法执行下一步操作)
@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.BLOCKER)
def test_with_blocker_severity():
    pass


@allure.severity(allure.severity_level.NORMAL)
class TestClassWithNormalSeverity(object):

    # 不加任何标记,默认为同class级别
    def test_inside_with_normal_severity(self):
        pass

    # 重新设置了critical级别
    @allure.severity(allure.severity_level.CRITICAL)
    def test_inside_with_critical_severity(self):
        pass

执行:

chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ pytest test_severity.py --alluredir=./result --clean-alluredir -vs
============================================================================= test session starts =============================================================================
platform darwin -- Python 3.9.0, pytest-6.1.1, py-1.9.0, pluggy-0.13.1 -- /usr/local/bin/python3.9
cachedir: .pytest_cache
rootdir: /Users/chenshifeng/MyCode/PythonCode/SFDSZL/test_pytest, configfile: pytest.ini
plugins: allure-pytest-2.8.18
collected 8 items                                                                                                                                                             

test_severity.py::test_with_no_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::test_with_trivial_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::test_with_minor_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::test_with_normal_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::test_with_ritical_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::test_with_blocker_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::TestClassWithNormalSeverity::test_inside_with_normal_severity PASSED
test_severity.py::TestClassWithNormalSeverity::test_inside_with_critical_severity PASSED

============================================================================== 8 passed in 0.03s ==============================================================================
chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ allure serve ./result 
Generating report to temp directory...
Report successfully generated to /var/folders/p0/3_7fwrvx6n3ftpfd4wjb01300000gn/T/17788207943997663035/allure-report
Starting web server...
2020-10-13 22:27:49.842:INFO::main: Logging initialized @6620ms to org.eclipse.jetty.util.log.StdErrLog
Server started at <http://192.168.12.100:59696/>. Press <Ctrl+C> to exit

 

终极用例:

百度搜索:

#!/usr/bin/python
# -*- coding: UTF-8 -*-
"""
@author:chenshifeng
@file:test_baidudemo.py
@time:2020/10/13
"""
import pytest
import allure
from selenium import webdriver
import time

@allure.testcase('https://www.github.com')
@allure.feature("百度搜索")
@pytest.mark.parametrize('test_data1',['allure','pytest','unittest'])
def test_steps_demo(test_data1):
    with allure.step('打开百度网页'):
        driver=webdriver.Chrome()
        driver.get('http://www.baidu.com')
        driver.maximize_window()
    with allure.step(f'输入搜索词:{test_data1}'):
        driver.find_element_by_id('kw').send_keys(test_data1)
        time.sleep(2)
        driver.find_element_by_id('su').click()
        time.sleep(2)
    with allure.step('保存图片'):
        driver.save_screenshot('./screenshot/baidu.png')
        allure.attach.file('./screenshot/baidu.png',attachment_type=allure.attachment_type.PNG)
    with allure.step('关闭浏览器'):
        driver.quit()

执行:

chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ pytest test_baidudemo.py --alluredir=./result --clean-alluredir -vs
============================================================================= test session starts =============================================================================
platform darwin -- Python 3.9.0, pytest-6.1.1, py-1.9.0, pluggy-0.13.1 -- /usr/local/bin/python3.9
cachedir: .pytest_cache
rootdir: /Users/chenshifeng/MyCode/PythonCode/SFDSZL/test_pytest, configfile: pytest.ini
plugins: allure-pytest-2.8.18
collected 3 items                                                                                                                                                             

test_baidudemo.py::test_steps_demo[allure] PASSED
test_baidudemo.py::test_steps_demo[pytest] PASSED
test_baidudemo.py::test_steps_demo[unittest] PASSED

============================================================================= 3 passed in 24.65s ==============================================================================
chenshifengdeMacBook-Pro:testcode chenshifeng$ allure serve ./result 
Generating report to temp directory...
Report successfully generated to /var/folders/p0/3_7fwrvx6n3ftpfd4wjb01300000gn/T/18005664130273264423/allure-report
Starting web server...
2020-10-13 23:03:39.221:INFO::main: Logging initialized @7360ms to org.eclipse.jetty.util.log.StdErrLog
Server started at <http://192.168.12.100:60775/>. Press <Ctrl+C> to exit

报告:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

如果您觉得本篇文章还不错,欢迎点赞,转发分享(转发请注明出处),感谢~~
posted @ 2020-10-13 22:06  尘世风  阅读(1356)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报
*/