.NET Core 3.0之深入源码理解HttpClientFactory(二)

 

写在前面

上一篇文章讨论了通过在ConfigureServices中调用services.AddHttpClient()方法,并基于此进一步探讨了DefaultHttpClientFactory是如何创建HttpClient实例和HttpMessageHandler实例的,并了解了DefaultHttpClientFactory内部维护者一个定时器和两个HttpMessageHandler对象集合,以定期清理无效的 HttpMessageHandler对象,详细的内容可以点击链接跳转,接下来我会接着前一篇文章继续展开相关讨论。

详细介绍

HttpMessageHandlerBuilder

该类是一个抽象类,起到生成器的作用,可用于用于配置HttpMessageHandler实例。HttpMessageHandlerBuilder会在ServiceCollection中被注册为Transient服务。调用方要为每个要创建的HttpMessageHandler实例检索一个新实例。实现者应该确保每个实例都只使用一次。

HttpMessageHandlerBuilder里面有三个比较重要的属性:

   1:  /// <summary>
   2:  /// 主HttpMessageHandler实例
   3:  /// </summary>
   4:  public abstract HttpMessageHandler PrimaryHandler { get; set; }
   5:   
   6:  /// <summary>
   7:  /// 这个是一个附加实例,用于配置HttpClient管道
   8:  /// </summary>
   9:  public abstract IList<DelegatingHandler> AdditionalHandlers { get; }
  10:   
  11:  /// <summary>
  12:  /// 可用于从依赖项注入容器解析服务的IServiceProvider
  13:  /// </summary>
  14:  public virtual IServiceProvider Services { get; }

这三个属性意味着每个HttpMessageHandlerBuilder都需要维护自身的HttpMessageHandler实例和管道。

其内部还有一个抽象方法:

   1:  public abstract HttpMessageHandler Build();

当然,内部最核心的方法就是管道的创建过程了,需要传入主派生类自身的HttpMessageHandler和管道列表对象。它会将primaryHandler实例付给管道列表的第一个Item的InnerHandler,其他对象会依此后移,这也为我们自定义HttpMessageHandler(各种中间件)提供了无限可能。

相关实现如下:

   1:  var next = primaryHandler;
   2:  for (var i = additionalHandlersList.Count - 1; i >= 0; i--)
   3:  {
   4:      var handler = additionalHandlersList[i];
   5:      if (handler == null)
   6:      {
   7:          var message = Resources.FormatHttpMessageHandlerBuilder_AdditionalHandlerIsNull(nameof(additionalHandlers));
   8:          throw new InvalidOperationException(message);
   9:      }
  10:   
  11:      if (handler.InnerHandler != null)
  12:      {
  13:          var message = Resources.FormatHttpMessageHandlerBuilder_AdditionHandlerIsInvalid(
  14:              nameof(DelegatingHandler.InnerHandler),
  15:              nameof(DelegatingHandler),
  16:              nameof(HttpMessageHandlerBuilder),
  17:              Environment.NewLine,
  18:              handler);
  19:          throw new InvalidOperationException(message);
  20:      }
  21:   
  22:      handler.InnerHandler = next;
  23:      next = handler;
  24:  }

接下来我们看一下HttpMessageHandlerBuilder一个派生类DefaultHttpMessageHandlerBuilder,其构造函数会传入IServiceProvider实例,我们的自定义操作也可以参照这个类。

关于Build方法的实现如下,比较简单主要是调用了CreateHandlerPipeline方法:

   1:  public override HttpMessageHandler Build()
   2:  {
   3:      if (PrimaryHandler == null)
   4:      {
   5:          var message = Resources.FormatHttpMessageHandlerBuilder_PrimaryHandlerIsNull(nameof(PrimaryHandler));
   6:          throw new InvalidOperationException(message);
   7:      }
   8:      
   9:      return CreateHandlerPipeline(PrimaryHandler, AdditionalHandlers);
  10:  }

ITypedHttpClientFactory

这是一个抽象工厂,该组件可以使用给定逻辑名称的自定义配置创建类型化HttpClient实例,与命名方式创建HttpClient具有相同的的功能。类型化客户端可能用于单个后端终结点,并封装此终结点的所有处理逻辑。 另一个优势是它们使用 DI 被注入到应用中需要的位置,下一篇文章会再次讨论相关功能。

我们首先看一下调用方式:

   1:  public static IHttpClientBuilder AddHttpClient<TClient>(this IServiceCollection services)
   2:      where TClient : class
   3:  {
   4:      if (services == null)
   5:      {
   6:          throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(services));
   7:      }
   8:   
   9:      AddHttpClient(services);
  10:   
  11:      var name = TypeNameHelper.GetTypeDisplayName(typeof(TClient), fullName: false);
  12:      var builder = new DefaultHttpClientBuilder(services, name);
  13:      builder.AddTypedClient<TClient>();
  14:      return builder;
  15:  }

可以看出此处的调用与普通的HttpClient没有什么太大区别,只是增加了一个泛型标记,而且该类型没有特殊的要求,只要是个类就行。其内部依然调用AddHttpClient(services),但它调用了另一个扩展方法,如下所示:

   1:  public static IHttpClientBuilder AddTypedClient<TClient>(this IHttpClientBuilder builder)
   2:      where TClient : class
   3:  {
   4:      if (builder == null)
   5:      {
   6:          throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(builder));
   7:      }
   8:   
   9:      builder.Services.AddTransient<TClient>(s =>
  10:      {
  11:          var httpClientFactory = s.GetRequiredService<IHttpClientFactory>();
  12:          var httpClient = httpClientFactory.CreateClient(builder.Name);
  13:   
  14:          var typedClientFactory = s.GetRequiredService<ITypedHttpClientFactory<TClient>>();
  15:          return typedClientFactory.CreateClient(httpClient);
  16:      });
  17:   
  18:      return builder;
  19:  }

可以看到最终的代码调用了ITypedHttpClientFactory的CreateClient方法,Microsoft.Extensions.Http包中有一个默认的ITypedHttpClientFactory派生类,DefaultTypedHttpClientFactory<TClient>,该类提供了了构造函数用于接收IServiceProvider实例,以及一个内部类声明的缓存对象,该对象十分重要,它被注册为singleton类型,已达到全局使用,并可以充当相关实例激活时的对象池。它也允许它的外部类注册为transient,这样它就不会在应用根服务提供程序上被关掉了。

相关代码如下:

   1:  public TClient CreateClient(HttpClient httpClient)
   2:  {
   3:      if (httpClient == null)
   4:      {
   5:          throw new ArgumentNullException(nameof(httpClient));
   6:      }
   7:   
   8:      return (TClient)_cache.Activator(_services, new object[] { httpClient });
   9:  }

内部缓存对象:

   1:  public class Cache
   2:  {
   3:      private readonly static Func<ObjectFactory> _createActivator = () => ActivatorUtilities.CreateFactory(typeof(TClient), new Type[] { typeof(HttpClient), });
   4:   
   5:      private ObjectFactory _activator;
   6:      private bool _initialized;
   7:      private object _lock;
   8:   
   9:      public ObjectFactory Activator => LazyInitializer.EnsureInitialized(
  10:          ref _activator, 
  11:          ref _initialized, 
  12:          ref _lock, 
  13:          _createActivator);
  14:  }

最后我们看一下源码中提供的范例:

   1:  class ExampleClient
   2:  {
   3:      private readonly HttpClient _httpClient;
   4:      private readonly ILogger _logger;
   5:      // typed clients can use constructor injection to access additional services
   6:      public ExampleClient(HttpClient httpClient, ILogger<ExampleClient> logger)
   7:      {
   8:          _httpClient = httpClient;
   9:          _logger = logger;     
  10:      }
  11:      // typed clients can expose the HttpClient for application code to call directly
  12:      public HttpClient HttpClient => _httpClient;
  13:      // typed clients can also define methods that abstract usage of the HttpClient
  14:      public async Task SendHelloRequest()
  15:      {
  16:          var response = await _httpClient.GetAsync("/helloworld");
  17:          response.EnsureSuccessStatusCode();
  18:      }
  19:  }
  20:  //This sample shows how to consume a typed client from an ASP.NET Core middleware.
  21:  public void Configure(IApplicationBuilder app, ExampleClient exampleClient)
  22:  {
  23:      app.Run(async (context) =>
  24:      {
  25:          var response = await _exampleClient.GetAsync("/helloworld");
  26:          await context.Response.WriteAsync("Remote server said: ");
  27:          await response.Content.CopyToAsync(context.Response.Body);
  28:      });
  29:  }
  30:  //This sample shows how to consume a typed client from an ASP.NET Core MVC Controller.
  31:  public class HomeController : ControllerBase(IApplicationBuilder app, ExampleClient exampleClient)
  32:  {
  33:      private readonly ExampleClient _exampleClient;
  34:      public HomeController(ExampleClient exampleClient)
  35:      {
  36:          _exampleClient = exampleClient;
  37:      }
  38:      public async Task<IActionResult> Index()
  39:      {
  40:          var response = await _exampleClient.GetAsync("/helloworld");
  41:          var text = await response.Content.ReadAsStringAsync();
  42:          return Content("Remote server said: " + text, "text/plain");
  43:      };
  44:  }
posted @ 2019-07-29 09:57 艾心❤ 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏