nginx限制请求之三:Nginx+Lua+Redis 对请求进行限制

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高可用服务设计之二:Rate limiting 限流与降级

nginx限制请求之一:(ngx_http_limit_conn_module)模块

nginx限制请求之二:(ngx_http_limit_req_module)模块

nginx限制请求之三:Nginx+Lua+Redis 对请求进行限制

nginx限制请求之四:目录进行IP限制

Redis实现访问控制频率

 

一、概述

需求:所有访问/myapi/**的请求必须是POST请求,而且根据请求参数过滤不符合规则的非法请求(黑名单), 这些请求一律不转发到后端服务器(Tomcat)

实现思路:通过在Nginx上进行访问限制,通过Lua来灵活实现业务需求,而Redis用于存储黑名单列表。

相关nginx上lua或redis的使用方式可以参考我之前写的一篇文章:

=======================================================

一、概述:

1.研究目标:nginx中使用lua脚本,及nginx直接访问mysql,redis

2.需要安装的内容:

openresty,mysql,redis

3.OpenResty (也称为 ngx_openresty)是一个全功能的 Web 应用服务器。它打包了标准的 Nginx 核心,很多的常用的第三方模块,以及它们的大多数依赖项。http://openresty.org/cn/index.html

 

 

二、安装说明

 

0.环境准备

$yum install -y gcc gcc-c++ readline-devel pcre-devel openssl-devel tcl perl

1、安装drizzle http://wiki.nginx.org/HttpDrizzleModule

cd /usr/local/src/ 
wget http://openresty.org/download/drizzle7-2011.07.21.tar.gz 
tar xzvf drizzle-2011.07.21.tar.gz 
cd drizzle-2011.07.21/ 
./configure --without-server 
make libdrizzle-1.0 
make install-libdrizzle-1.0 
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=/usr/local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH

2、安装openresty 
wget http://openresty.org/download/ngx_openresty-1.7.2.1.tar.gz 
tar xzvf ngx_openresty-1.7.2.1.tar.gz 
cd ngx_openresty-1.7.2.1/ 
./configure --with-http_drizzle_module 
gmake 
gmake install

 

三、nginx配置nginx.conf

 

/usr/local/openresty/nginx/conf/nginx.conf

# 添加MySQL配置(drizzle) 
upstream backend { 
    drizzle_server 127.0.0.1:3306 dbname=test user=root password=123456 protocol=mysql; 
    drizzle_keepalive max=200 overflow=ignore mode=single; 
}

server { 
    listen       80; 
    server_name  localhost;

    #charset koi8-r; 
    #access_log  logs/host.access.log  main;

    location / { 
        root   html; 
        index  index.html index.htm; 
    }

    location /lua { 
        default_type text/plain; 
        content_by_lua 'ngx.say("hello, lua")'; 
    }


    location /lua_redis { 
        default_type text/plain; 
        content_by_lua_file /usr/local/lua_test/redis_test.lua; 
    } 

    location /lua_mysql { 
            default_type text/plain; 
            content_by_lua_file /usr/local/lua_test/mysql_test.lua; 
    }


    location @cats-by-name { 
        set_unescape_uri $name $arg_name; 
        set_quote_sql_str $name; 
        drizzle_query 'select * from cats where name=$name'; 
        drizzle_pass backend; 
        rds_json on; 
    }

    location @cats-by-id { 
        set_quote_sql_str $id $arg_id; 
        drizzle_query 'select * from cats where id=$id'; 
        drizzle_pass backend; 
        rds_json on; 
    }

    location = /cats { 
        access_by_lua ' 
            if ngx.var.arg_name then 
                return ngx.exec("@cats-by-name") 
            end

            if ngx.var.arg_id then 
                return ngx.exec("@cats-by-id") 
            end 
        ';

        rds_json_ret 400 "expecting \"name\" or \"id\" query arguments"; 
    }

    # 通过url匹配出name,并编码防止注入,最后以json格式输出结果 
    location ~ '^/mysql/(.*)' { 
        set $name $1; 
        set_quote_sql_str $quote_name $name; 
        set $sql "SELECT * FROM cats WHERE name=$quote_name"; 
        drizzle_query $sql; 
        drizzle_pass backend; 
        rds_json on; 
    }

    # 查看MySQL服务状态 
    location /mysql-status { 
        drizzle_status; 
    } 

 

四、lua测试脚本

/usr/local/lua_test/redis_test.lua
复制代码
local redis = require "resty.redis"
local cache = redis.new()
cache.connect(cache, '127.0.0.1', '6379')
local res = cache:get("foo")
if res==ngx.null then
    ngx.say("This is Null")
    return
end
ngx.say(res)
复制代码

 

/usr/local/lua_test/mysql_test.lua
复制代码
local mysql = require "resty.mysql"
local db, err = mysql:new()
if not db then
    ngx.say("failed to instantiate mysql: ", err)
    return
end

db:set_timeout(1000) -- 1 sec

-- or connect to a unix domain socket file listened
-- by a mysql server:
--     local ok, err, errno, sqlstate =
--           db:connect{
--              path = "/path/to/mysql.sock",
--              database = "ngx_test",
--              user = "ngx_test",
--              password = "ngx_test" }

local ok, err, errno, sqlstate = db:connect{
    host = "127.0.0.1",
    port = 3306,
    database = "test",
    user = "root",
    password = "123456",
    max_packet_size = 1024 * 1024 }

if not ok then
    ngx.say("failed to connect: ", err, ": ", errno, " ", sqlstate)
    return
end

ngx.say("connected to mysql.")

local res, err, errno, sqlstate =
    db:query("drop table if exists cats")
if not res then
    ngx.say("bad result: ", err, ": ", errno, ": ", sqlstate, ".")
    return
end

res, err, errno, sqlstate =
    db:query("create table cats "
             .. "(id serial primary key, "
             .. "name varchar(5))")
if not res then
    ngx.say("bad result: ", err, ": ", errno, ": ", sqlstate, ".")
    return
end

ngx.say("table cats created.")

res, err, errno, sqlstate =
    db:query("insert into cats (name) "
             .. "values (\'Bob\'),(\'\'),(null)")
if not res then
    ngx.say("bad result: ", err, ": ", errno, ": ", sqlstate, ".")
    return
end

ngx.say(res.affected_rows, " rows inserted into table cats ",
        "(last insert id: ", res.insert_id, ")")

-- run a select query, expected about 10 rows in
-- the result set:
res, err, errno, sqlstate =
    db:query("select * from cats order by id asc", 10)
if not res then
    ngx.say("bad result: ", err, ": ", errno, ": ", sqlstate, ".")
    return
end

local cjson = require "cjson"
ngx.say("result: ", cjson.encode(res))

-- put it into the connection pool of size 100,
-- with 10 seconds max idle timeout
local ok, err = db:set_keepalive(10000, 100)
if not ok then
    ngx.say("failed to set keepalive: ", err)
    return
end

-- or just close the connection right away:
-- local ok, err = db:close()
-- if not ok then
--     ngx.say("failed to close: ", err)
--     return
-- end
';
复制代码

 

五、验证结果

curl测试

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/lua_test' 
hello, lua

$ redis-cli set foo 'hello,lua-redis' 
OK 
$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/lua_redis' 
hello,lua-redis

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/lua_mysql' 
connected to mysql. 
table cats created. 
3 rows inserted into table cats (last insert id: 1) 
result: [{"name":"Bob","id":"1"},{"name":"","id":"2"},{"name":null,"id":"3"}]

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/cats' 
{"errcode":400,"errstr":"expecting \"name\" or \"id\" query arguments"}

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/cats?name=bob' 
[{"id":1,"name":"Bob"}]

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/cats?id=2' 
[{"id":2,"name":""}]

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/mysql/bob' 
[{"id":1,"name":"Bob"}]

$ curl 'http://127.0.0.1/mysql-status' 
worker process: 32261

upstream backend 
  active connections: 0 
  connection pool capacity: 0 
  servers: 1 
  peers: 1

 

 

六、参考资料

1.openresty http://openresty.org/cn/index.html

2.tengine  http://tengine.taobao.org/documentation_cn.html

 

如何安装nginx_lua_module模块 
http://www.cnblogs.com/yjf512/archive/2012/03/27/2419577.html


nginx+lua 项目使用记(二) 
http://blog.chinaunix.net/uid-26443921-id-3213879.html


nginx_lua模块基于mysql数据库动态修改网页内容 
https://www.centos.bz/2012/09/nginx-lua-mysql-dynamic-modify-content/

突破log_by_lua中限制Cosocket API的使用 
http://17173ops.com/2013/11/11/resolve-cosocket-api-limiting-in-log-by-lua.shtml

17173 Ngx_Lua使用分享 
http://17173ops.com/2013/11/01/17173-ngx-lua-manual.shtml

关于 OPENRESTY 的两三事 
http://zivn.me/?p=157

Nginx_Lua 
http://www.ttlsa.com/nginx/nginx-lua/


Nginx 第三方模块-漫谈缘起 
http://www.cnblogs.com/yjf512/archive/2012/03/30/2424726.html

CentOS6.4 安装OpenResty和Redis 并在Nginx中利用lua简单读取Redis数据 
http://www.cnblogs.com/kgdxpr/p/3550633.html

Nginx与Lua 
http://huoding.com/2012/08/31/156

由Lua 粘合的Nginx生态环境 
http://blog.zoomquiet.org/pyblosxom/oss/openresty-intro-2012-03-06-01-13.html

Nginx 第三方模块试用记 
http://chenxiaoyu.org/2011/10/30/nginx-modules.html

 

agentzh 的 Nginx 教程(版本 2013.07.08) 
http://openresty.org/download/agentzh-nginx-tutorials-zhcn.html

 

CentOS下Redis 2.2.14安装配置详解 
http://www.cnblogs.com/hb_cattle/archive/2011/10/22/2220907.html

 

nginx安装 
http://blog.csdn.net/gaojinshan/article/details/37603157

=======================================================

 

二、具体实现

1.lua代码

本例中限制规则包括(post请求,ip地址黑名单,请求参数中imsi,tel值和黑名单)

复制代码
 1 -- access_by_lua_file '/usr/local/lua_test/my_access_limit.lua';
 2 ngx.req.read_body()
 3 
 4 local redis = require "resty.redis"
 5 local red = redis.new()
 6 red.connect(red, '127.0.0.1', '6379')
 7 
 8 local myIP = ngx.req.get_headers()["X-Real-IP"]
 9 if myIP == nil then
10    myIP = ngx.req.get_headers()["x_forwarded_for"]
11 end
12 if myIP == nil then
13    myIP = ngx.var.remote_addr
14 end
15         
16 if ngx.re.match(ngx.var.uri,"^(/myapi/).*$") then
17     local method = ngx.var.request_method
18     if method == 'POST' then
19         local args = ngx.req.get_post_args()
20         
21         local hasIP = red:sismember('black.ip',myIP)
22         local hasIMSI = red:sismember('black.imsi',args.imsi)
23         local hasTEL = red:sismember('black.tel',args.tel)
24         if hasIP==1 or hasIMSI==1 or hasTEL==1 then
25             --ngx.say("This is 'Black List' request")
26             ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN)
27         end
28     else
29         --ngx.say("This is 'GET' request")
30         ngx.exit(ngx.HTTP_FORBIDDEN)
31     end
32 end
复制代码

 

2.nginx.conf

location / {
root html;
index index.html index.htm;

access_by_lua_file /usr/local/lua_test/my_access_limit.lua;

proxy_pass http://127.0.0.1:8080;
client_max_body_size 1m;
}

 

3.添加黑名单规则数据

#redis-cli sadd black.ip '153.34.118.50'
#redis-cli sadd black.imsi '460123456789' 
#redis-cli sadd black.tel '15888888888'

 

可以通过redis-cli smembers black.imsi 查看列表明细

 

4.验证结果

#curl -d "imsi=460123456789&tel=15800000000" "http://www.mysite.com/myapi/abc"

posted on 2014-11-18 21:50  duanxz  阅读(4962)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报