《手把手教你》系列技巧篇(二十五)-java+ selenium自动化测试-FluentWait(详细教程)

1.简介

 其实今天介绍也讲解的也是一种等待的方法,有些童鞋或者小伙伴们会问宏哥,这也是一种等待方法,为什么不在上一篇文章中竹筒倒豆子一股脑的全部说完,反而又在这里单独写了一篇。那是因为这个比较重要,所以宏哥专门为她量身定制了一篇。

FluentWait是Selenium中功能强大的一种等待方式,翻译成中文是流畅等待的意思。在介绍FluentWait之前,我们来讨论下为什么需要设置等待,我们前面介绍了隐式等待和显式等待。在现在很多软件产品为了加强前端的效果,采取了大量的AJAX 和Jquery技术,很多窗体内的数据,需要等待一会,才能加载完数据,才能出现一些元素,driver才能操作这些元素做一些事情。还有就是我们做一些操作,本身可能也需要等待一会才有数据显示。所以在自动化脚本开发过程,合理的设置时间等待是非常必要的,可以说百分之90以上的自动化测试用例执行失败,基本上是很时间等待有关系,造成元素没有及时在界面上显示,而报no such element子类的错误。

2.FluentWait的定义

简单来说,FluentWait就是一个普通的类,我们使用这个类能支持一直等待直到特定的条件出现。

1)是一个类而且是包org.openqa.selenium.support.ui的一部分

2)是Wait接口的一种实现

3)每个Fluent wait,我们可以设置等待最大时间,而且可以做设置等待的频率去检查一些特定的条件。

FluentWait 和 Explicit Wait的区别:简单来说就是Explicit Wait里有一些设定好了的前置条件的等待方式,而Fluent wait你可以设置自己的方法去处理各种等待的问题。

3.核心代码

3.1源码

宏哥先看一下FluentWait的源码,如何查看宏哥这里就不做赘述了。源码如下:

// Licensed to the Software Freedom Conservancy (SFC) under one
// or more contributor license agreements.  See the NOTICE file
// distributed with this work for additional information
// regarding copyright ownership.  The SFC licenses this file
// to you under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the
// "License"); you may not use this file except in compliance
// with the License.  You may obtain a copy of the License at
//
//   http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
//
// Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing,
// software distributed under the License is distributed on an
// "AS IS" BASIS, WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY
// KIND, either express or implied.  See the License for the
// specific language governing permissions and limitations
// under the License.

package org.openqa.selenium.support.ui;

import com.google.common.base.Throwables;
import com.google.common.collect.ImmutableList;

import org.openqa.selenium.TimeoutException;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriverException;
import org.openqa.selenium.internal.Require;

import java.time.Clock;
import java.time.Duration;
import java.time.Instant;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collection;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.function.Function;
import java.util.function.Supplier;

/**
 * An implementation of the {@link Wait} interface that may have its timeout and polling interval
 * configured on the fly.
 *
 * <p>
 * Each FluentWait instance defines the maximum amount of time to wait for a condition, as well as
 * the frequency with which to check the condition. Furthermore, the user may configure the wait to
 * ignore specific types of exceptions whilst waiting, such as
 * {@link org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchElementException NoSuchElementExceptions} when searching for an
 * element on the page.
 *
 * <p>
 * Sample usage: <pre>
 *   // Waiting 30 seconds for an element to be present on the page, checking
 *   // for its presence once every 5 seconds.
 *   Wait&lt;WebDriver&gt; wait = new FluentWait&lt;WebDriver&gt;(driver)
 *       .withTimeout(30, SECONDS)
 *       .pollingEvery(5, SECONDS)
 *       .ignoring(NoSuchElementException.class);
 *
 *   WebElement foo = wait.until(new Function&lt;WebDriver, WebElement&gt;() {
 *     public WebElement apply(WebDriver driver) {
 *       return driver.findElement(By.id("foo"));
 *     }
 *   });
 * </pre>
 *
 * <p>
 * <em>This class makes no thread safety guarantees.</em>
 *
 * @param <T> The input type for each condition used with this instance.
 */
public class FluentWait<T> implements Wait<T> {

  protected static final long DEFAULT_SLEEP_TIMEOUT = 500;

  private static final Duration DEFAULT_WAIT_DURATION = Duration.ofMillis(DEFAULT_SLEEP_TIMEOUT);

  private final T input;
  private final java.time.Clock clock;
  private final Sleeper sleeper;

  private Duration timeout = DEFAULT_WAIT_DURATION;
  private Duration interval = DEFAULT_WAIT_DURATION;
  private Supplier<String> messageSupplier = () -> null;

  private List<Class<? extends Throwable>> ignoredExceptions = new ArrayList<>();

  /**
   * @param input The input value to pass to the evaluated conditions.
   */
  public FluentWait(T input) {
    this(input, Clock.systemDefaultZone(), Sleeper.SYSTEM_SLEEPER);
  }

  /**
   * @param input   The input value to pass to the evaluated conditions.
   * @param clock   The clock to use when measuring the timeout.
   * @param sleeper Used to put the thread to sleep between evaluation loops.
   */
  public FluentWait(T input, java.time.Clock clock, Sleeper sleeper) {
    this.input = Require.nonNull("Input", input);
    this.clock = Require.nonNull("Clock", clock);
    this.sleeper = Require.nonNull("Sleeper", sleeper);
  }

  /**
   * Sets how long to wait for the evaluated condition to be true. The default timeout is
   * {@link #DEFAULT_WAIT_DURATION}.
   *
   * @param timeout The timeout duration.
   * @return A self reference.
   */
  public FluentWait<T> withTimeout(Duration timeout) {
    this.timeout = timeout;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the message to be displayed when time expires.
   *
   * @param message to be appended to default.
   * @return A self reference.
   */
  public FluentWait<T> withMessage(final String message) {
    this.messageSupplier = () -> message;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Sets the message to be evaluated and displayed when time expires.
   *
   * @param messageSupplier to be evaluated on failure and appended to default.
   * @return A self reference.
   */
  public FluentWait<T> withMessage(Supplier<String> messageSupplier) {
    this.messageSupplier = messageSupplier;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Sets how often the condition should be evaluated.
   *
   * <p>
   * In reality, the interval may be greater as the cost of actually evaluating a condition function
   * is not factored in. The default polling interval is {@link #DEFAULT_WAIT_DURATION}.
   *
   * @param interval The timeout duration.
   * @return A self reference.
   */
  public FluentWait<T> pollingEvery(Duration interval) {
    this.interval = interval;
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * Configures this instance to ignore specific types of exceptions while waiting for a condition.
   * Any exceptions not whitelisted will be allowed to propagate, terminating the wait.
   *
   * @param types The types of exceptions to ignore.
   * @param <K>   an Exception that extends Throwable
   * @return A self reference.
   */
  public <K extends Throwable> FluentWait<T> ignoreAll(Collection<Class<? extends K>> types) {
    ignoredExceptions.addAll(types);
    return this;
  }

  /**
   * @param exceptionType exception to ignore
   * @return a self reference
   * @see #ignoreAll(Collection)
   */
  public FluentWait<T> ignoring(Class<? extends Throwable> exceptionType) {
    return this.ignoreAll(ImmutableList.<Class<? extends Throwable>>of(exceptionType));
  }

  /**
   * @param firstType  exception to ignore
   * @param secondType another exception to ignore
   * @return a self reference
   * @see #ignoreAll(Collection)
   */
  public FluentWait<T> ignoring(Class<? extends Throwable> firstType,
                                Class<? extends Throwable> secondType) {

    return this.ignoreAll(ImmutableList.of(firstType, secondType));
  }

  /**
   * Repeatedly applies this instance's input value to the given function until one of the following
   * occurs:
   * <ol>
   * <li>the function returns neither null nor false</li>
   * <li>the function throws an unignored exception</li>
   * <li>the timeout expires</li>
   * <li>the current thread is interrupted</li>
   * </ol>
   *
   * @param isTrue the parameter to pass to the {@link ExpectedCondition}
   * @param <V>    The function's expected return type.
   * @return The function's return value if the function returned something different
   * from null or false before the timeout expired.
   * @throws TimeoutException If the timeout expires.
   */
  @Override
  public <V> V until(Function<? super T, V> isTrue) {
    Instant end = clock.instant().plus(timeout);

    Throwable lastException;
    while (true) {
      try {
        V value = isTrue.apply(input);
        if (value != null && (Boolean.class != value.getClass() || Boolean.TRUE.equals(value))) {
          return value;
        }

        // Clear the last exception; if another retry or timeout exception would
        // be caused by a false or null value, the last exception is not the
        // cause of the timeout.
        lastException = null;
      } catch (Throwable e) {
        lastException = propagateIfNotIgnored(e);
      }

      // Check the timeout after evaluating the function to ensure conditions
      // with a zero timeout can succeed.
      if (end.isBefore(clock.instant())) {
        String message = messageSupplier != null ?
                         messageSupplier.get() : null;

        String timeoutMessage = String.format(
            "Expected condition failed: %s (tried for %d second(s) with %d milliseconds interval)",
            message == null ? "waiting for " + isTrue : message,
            timeout.getSeconds(), interval.toMillis());
        throw timeoutException(timeoutMessage, lastException);
      }

      try {
        sleeper.sleep(interval);
      } catch (InterruptedException e) {
        Thread.currentThread().interrupt();
        throw new WebDriverException(e);
      }
    }
  }

  private Throwable propagateIfNotIgnored(Throwable e) {
    for (Class<? extends Throwable> ignoredException : ignoredExceptions) {
      if (ignoredException.isInstance(e)) {
        return e;
      }
    }
    Throwables.throwIfUnchecked(e);
    throw new RuntimeException(e);
  }

  /**
   * Throws a timeout exception. This method may be overridden to throw an exception that is
   * idiomatic for a particular test infrastructure, such as an AssertionError in JUnit4.
   *
   * @param message       The timeout message.
   * @param lastException The last exception to be thrown and subsequently suppressed while waiting
   *                      on a function.
   * @return Nothing will ever be returned; this return type is only specified as a convenience.
   */
  protected RuntimeException timeoutException(String message, Throwable lastException) {
    throw new TimeoutException(message, lastException);
  }
}

3.2语法

宏哥从源码中的Sample usage提取FluentWait的使用语法如下:

Wait wait = new FluentWait(WebDriver reference)
.withTimeout(timeout, SECONDS)
.pollingEvery(timeout, SECONDS)
.ignoring(Exception.class);

WebElement foo=wait.until(new Function<WebDriver, WebElement>() {
public WebElement applyy(WebDriver driver) {
return driver.findElement(By.id("foo"));
}
});

3.3例子

有了语法,按照语法写一个简单例子,如下:

Wait wait = new FluentWait<WebDriver>(driver)
.withTimeout(45, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
.pollingevery(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
.ignoring(NoSuchElementException.class);

FluentWait主要使用两个参数–超时值(withTimeout)和轮询频率(pollingevery)。在上面的语法中,我们将超时值设置为45秒,轮询频率设置为5秒。等待条件的最长时间(45秒)和检查指定条件成功或失败的频率(5秒)。如果元素在此时间范围内可以查找到,它将执行下一步操作,否则它将抛出“ElementNotVisibleException”。

3.4完整代码

简单例子的完整代码如下:

package lessons;
 
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;
 
import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.NoSuchElementException;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.FluentWait;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.Wait;
 
import com.google.common.base.Function;
 
public class FluentWait {
    public static void main(String[] args) throws Exception {
        
        System.setProperty("webdriver.chrome.driver", ".\\Tools\\chromedriver.exe");
        
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        
        driver.get("www.test.com");
        driver.manage().window().maximize();
        
        Wait<WebDriver> wait = new FluentWait<WebDriver>(driver)
                
                   .withTimeout(45, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
             
                   .pollingEvery(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
             
                   .ignoring(NoSuchElementException.class);
             
        WebElement ele1 = wait.until(new Function<WebDriver, WebElement>() {
             
             public WebElement apply(WebDriver driver) {
         
               return driver.findElement(By.id("xxxxxxx"));
         
             }
         
           });     
        
 
    }
 
}

4.项目实战

 由于没有现成的网页或者网站以供宏哥进行演示,因此宏哥自己简单写了一个demo以便演示使用。

4.1测试网页代码

宏哥这个网页主要思想就是点击按钮后10s倒计时,倒计时结束出现元素(一段英文文字)。

测试网页test.html,参考代码如下所示:

<html>
<head> 
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=utf-8" /> 
<title>北京-宏哥</title> 
</head> 
<style>
#click {
    background-color: #4CAF50;
    border: none;
    color: white;
    padding: 15px 32px;
    text-align: center;
    text-decoration: none;
    display: inline-block;
    font-size: 16px;
    margin: 4px 2px;
    cursor: pointer;
}
.button {
    background-color: #f44336; 
    border: none;
    color: white;
    padding: 15px 32px;
    text-align: center;
    text-decoration: none;
    display: inline-block;
    font-size: 28px;
    margin-bottom: 100px;
}
#myAnchor
{
  text-decoration:none;
  color: white;
}
</style>
<body>
    <div style=" text-align:center;">
        <div style="height: 100px;margin-top: 200px;">
        <button class="button"><a id="myAnchor" href="https://www.cnblogs.com/du-hong/">北京-宏哥</a></button></br>
        <input type="button" value="Click Me - Fluent Wait" id="click" onclick="foo(this, 10000);"/>
        <p style='color:red; font-family: verdana; font-size: 20;align="center";' id="demo">Click and Wait for <b>10 seconds</b> to view a message - "Software Testing Material - DEMO PAGE"</p>
        </div>
    </div>     
</body>
<script>
function foo(obj, time) {
    obj.disabled = true;

    setTimeout(function() {
        var x = setInterval(function(){
                time= time - 1000; //reduce each second
                obj.value = (time/1000)%60;
                if(time==0){
                        clearInterval(x);
                        obj.value = document.getElementById("demo").innerHTML = "Software Testing Material - DEMO PAGE";
                        obj.disabled = false;
                }
        }, 1000);
    }, time-10000);
}    

</script>
</html>

下边宏哥编写java测试脚本。

4.2代码设计

设计思路:打开网页后,点击按钮开始5s频率的轮训查找元素,第一次没有找到,第二次10s刚好出现,代码也轮训查找也刚结束,没有找到,等到第三次英文文字出现了,代码也查找到,结束轮训,继续下一步操作。代码设计如下图所示:

4.3Java参考代码

宏哥首页用单元测试Junit测试一下写的方法有没有问题,没有问题,然后再调用。

4.3.1运行代码

1.运行代码,右键Run AS->JUnit Test,控制台输出,绿色的进度条证明写的方法没有问题,而且控制台也循环了2次(每次5s,一共10s),等待到了元素的出现并将其打印出来。如下图所示:

2.运行代码后电脑端的浏览器的动作,如下小视频所示:

4.4Java优化参考代码

通过上边的单元测试我们知道写的方法没有问题,那么下边我们直接调用该方法即可。优化后代码如下:

package lessons;
import org.junit.Test;

import java.util.NoSuchElementException;
import java.util.concurrent.TimeUnit;

import org.openqa.selenium.By;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.WebElement;
import org.openqa.selenium.chrome.ChromeDriver;
import org.openqa.selenium.support.ui.FluentWait;

import com.google.common.base.Function;

/**
 * @author 北京-宏哥
 * 
 *《手把手教你》系列技巧篇(二十五)-java+ selenium自动化测试-FluentWait(详细教程)
 *
 * 2021年8月31日
 */
public class FluentWaitClass {
    
    @Test
    public static void fluentWaitMethod(){
        System.setProperty("webdriver.gecko.driver", ".\\Tools\\chromedriver.exe"); //指定驱动路径
        WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();
        //最大化窗口  
        long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取开始时间
        driver.manage().window().maximize();  
        long endTime = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取结束时间
        System.out.println("程序运行时间1:" + (endTime - startTime) + "ms"); //输出程序运行时间
        driver.get("file:///C:/Users/DELL/Desktop/test/test.html");
        driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='click']")).click();
        
        
        FluentWait<WebDriver> wait = new FluentWait<WebDriver>(driver)
           .withTimeout(45, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
           .pollingEvery(5, TimeUnit.SECONDS)
           .ignoring(NoSuchElementException.class);
        long startTime1 = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取开始时间
        WebElement element = wait.until(new Function<WebDriver, WebElement>() {
            public WebElement apply(WebDriver driver) {
                WebElement element = driver.findElement(By.xpath("//*[@id='demo']"));
                String getTextOnPage = element.getText();
                if(getTextOnPage.equals("Software Testing Material - DEMO PAGE")){
                    System.out.println(getTextOnPage);
                    return element;
                }else{
                    System.out.println("FluentWait Failed");
                    return null;
                }
            }
        });
        long endTime1 = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取结束时间
        System.out.println("程序运行时间3:" + (endTime1 - startTime1) + "ms"); //输出程序运行时间
        //driver.close();
    }
    
    public  static  void  main(String [] args){
        long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取开始时间
        fluentWaitMethod();
        long endTime = System.currentTimeMillis(); //获取结束时间
        System.out.println("程序运行时间2:" + (endTime - startTime) + "ms"); //输出程序运行时间
    }
}
4.4.1运行代码

1.运行代码,右键Run AS->java Application,控制台输出,如下图所示:

2.运行代码后电脑端的浏览器的动作,如下小视频所示:

5.小结 

1.在设计代码过程中会报错:Type mismatch: cannot convert from Test to Annotation   如下图所示:

查了好多都说是:类名不能和注解名称相同的原因。后来宏哥检查了一下,不相同啊,但是宏哥为啥这里还会报这个错了。原来是宏哥没有导入单元测试的包,但是也没有提示导入包,因此宏哥将包导入,代码错误消失。如下图所示:

  好了,今天就分享到这里了,感谢你耐心的阅读!

 



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posted @ 2021-09-13 15:16  北京-宏哥  阅读(103)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报
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