HTTP 请求头中的 X-Forwarded-For,X-Real-IP

 X-Forwarded-For

 


 

在使用nginx做反向代理时,我们为了记录整个的代理过程,我们往往会在配置文件中做如下配置:

location / {
       省略...
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_pass http://1xx.xxx.xxx.xxx;
    
    }
            

红色部分就是为了记录代理过程做的配置,在http header中添加代理的信息,我们可以把X-Forwarded-For当成http扩展头,其格式一般为:

X-Forwarded-For:192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132

注意,引用X-Forwarded-For时要这样$http_x_forwarded_for

 

 

做一下测试

 


 

1.我们测试一下请求经过三层代理的情况,测试设备分配:

  • win10 一台
  • 运行在win10上的虚拟机centos6-0,ip:192.168.247.131,一级代理
  • 运行在win10上的虚拟机centos6-1, ip:192.168.247.132 ,二级代理
  • 运行在win10上的虚拟机centos6-2, ip:192.168.247.133 ,三级代理
  • 云服务器,应用服务器

 

 

2.测试环境配置:

  • win10 在/etc/hosts文件中添加192.168.247.131 http://test.proxy.com
  • centos6-0,ip:192.168.247.131,安装nginx,把所有请求转发到192.168.247.132
  • centos6-1, ip:192.168.247.132安装nginx,把所有请求转发到192.168.247.133
  • centos6-2, ip:192.168.247.133,安装nginx,把所有请求转发到云服务器
  • 在云服务器上的日志中打印http header中的X-Forwarded-For信息
  • 防火墙可以关闭掉,防止win10请求无法进入代理链

 

3.nginx配置文件

 

#centos6-0,ip:192.168.247.131 ,nginx.conf
location / { root html; index index.html index.htm index.php;
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr; proxy_set_header X
-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://192.168.247.132; }
#centos6-1,ip:192.168.247.132 ,nginx.conf

    location / {
      root   html;
      index  index.html index.htm index.php;
 #proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr; proxy_set_header X
-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for; proxy_pass http://192.168.247.133; } #centos6-2,ip:192.168.247.133 ,nginx.conf location / {
        root   html;
        index  index.html index.htm index.php;  
#
proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;
        proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
        proxy_pass http://123.206.96.111; }


#云服务器方便起见在日志中设置打印$http_x_forwarded_for,进行观察
 log_format  main  '$http_x_forwarded_for|$http_x_real_ip|$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
                      '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
                      '"$http_user_agent" "$http_x_forwarded_for"';

 

 

 

4.基于上面的配置在win10浏览器输入:"http://test.proxy.com" 查看云服务器日志打印结果如下:

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:18:20:27 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132$http_x_forwarded_for内容,显然记录了代理过程,其中192.168.247.1是客户端ip
192.168.247.1 为基于上述设置的真实IP(不一定准确)

101.254.182.6 公网IP


继续。。。

我们要仔细测试一下在不同代理服务器设置X-FORWARDED-FOR在应用服务器拿到的$http_x_forwarded_for有何不同

1.只在proxy01设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy02,proxy03配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.1|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:18:52:49 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1"
2.只在proxy02设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy01,proxy03配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.131|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:18:59:59 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.131"
3.只在proxy03设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy01,proxy02配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.132|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:19:01:27 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.132"
4.只在proxy01,proxy03设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy02配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:19:05:49 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.132"
5.只在proxy02,proxy03设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy01配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:19:08:39 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"
6.只在proxy01,proxy02设置X-FORWARDED-FOR, 在proxy03配置文件中注释掉proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;
192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [22/May/2017:19:10:40 +0800] "GET /admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F HTTP/1.0" 200 623 "http://test.proxy.com/admin/login/?next=%2Fadmin%2F" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131"

 小结:

1.通过以上几种情况我们可以了解到设置X-Forwarded-For是一个可叠加的过程,后面的代理会把前面代理的IP加入X-Forwarded-For,类似于python的列表append的作用.

2.我们看到在三层代理情况下无论如何设置,应用服务器不可能从$http_x_forwarded_for拿到与它直连的这台服务器的ip(proxy03 ip),此时我们可以使用$remote_addr(远程ip,表示直连的那台代理).一句话,当前服务器无法通过$http_x_forwarded_for获得上级代理或者客户端的ip,应该使用$remote_addr.

 3.在代理过程中至少有一个代理设置了proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;否则后面代理或者应用服务器无法获得相关信息.

4.注意,应用服务器可以通过$proxy_add_x_forwarded_for客户端IP(只要至少proxy01代理设置了proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;我们取第一IP就好了),但是我们要考虑客户端伪造头部的情况,如下示例:

假设我们在所有代理都加上了proxy_set_header X-Forwarded-For $proxy_add_x_forwarded_for;然后我们在proxy01机器上本机curl代替win10模拟一个客户端请求,

在proxy01上执行: curl localhost/admin -H 'X-Forwarded-For: 1.1.1.1' -H 'X-Real-IP: 2.2.2.2'

 

1.1.1.1, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|127.0.0.1|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:02:09 +0800] "GET /admin HTTP/1.0" 301 263 "-" "curl/7.15.5 (i386-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8b zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5" "1.1.1.1, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

可以看到,1.1.1.1放到了最前面,所以我们不能够想当然的去取第一个ip作为客户端的这是IP.这里127.0.0.1是真实IP.

5.虽然X-Forwarded-For可以伪造,但是对我们依然有用,比如我们就从proxy01代理往后截取就行了,这样就能做到直接忽视伪造得IP.

 

 X-Real-IP


下面我们看一下有多级代理存在时如何获取客户端真实IP.

首先要明确在header里面的 X-Real-IP只是一个变量,后面的设置会覆盖前面的设置(跟X-Forwarded-For的追加特性区别明显),所以我们一般只在第一个代理设置proxy_set_header X-Real-IP $remote_addr;就好了,然后再应用端直接引用$http_x_real_ip就行.

1.假如我们只在proxy01设置了 X-Real-IP

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.1|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:23:00 +0800] "GET /test/ HTTP/1.0" 200 9 "http://test.proxy.com/test/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

 

2.假如我们只在proxy02设置了X-Real-IP

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.131|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:26:22 +0800] "GET /test/ HTTP/1.0" 200 9 "http://test.proxy.com/test/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

 

3.假如我们只在proxy03设置了X-Real-IP

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.132|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:27:21 +0800] "GET /test/ HTTP/1.0" 200 9 "http://test.proxy.com/test/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

4.所有代理都设置X-Real-IP

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.132|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:29:09 +0800] "GET /test/ HTTP/1.0" 200 9 "http://test.proxy.com/test/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

 

 

 

5.强迫症来了,再试一个只设置proxy01,proxy02的看看

 

192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.131|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:30:36 +0800] "GET /test/ HTTP/1.0" 200 9 "http://test.proxy.com/test/" "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; WOW64) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/57.0.2987.110 Safari/537.36" "192.168.247.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

 

假如有人假冒X-Real-IP呢?

 

6. 在proxy01上执行: curl localhost/admin -H 'X-Forwarded-For: 1.1.1.1' -H 'X-Real-IP: xx.xx.xx.xx'

1.1.1.1, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132|192.168.247.131|101.254.182.6 - - [23/May/2017:11:36:02 +0800] "GET /admin HTTP/1.0" 301 263 "-" "curl/7.15.5 (i386-redhat-linux-gnu) libcurl/7.15.5 OpenSSL/0.9.8b zlib/1.2.3 libidn/0.6.5" "1.1.1.1, 127.0.0.1, 192.168.247.131, 192.168.247.132"

并没有影响.

 

IT'S OVER.

 

posted @ 2017-05-23 12:49  weelin_area  阅读(60763)  评论(7编辑  收藏