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整个spring mvc的架构如下图所示:

上篇文件讲解了DispatcherServlet通过request获取控制器Controller的过程,现在来讲解DispatcherServletDispatcherServlet的第二步:通过request从Controller获取ModelAndView。

DispatcherServlet调用Controller的过程:

DispatcherServlet.java

doService()--->doDispatch()--->handlerAdapter的handle()方法

                try {// Actually invoke the handler.
                    mv = ha.handle(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler.getHandler());
                }
                finally {
                    if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                        return;
                    }
                }

最常用的实现了HandlerAdapter接口是SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter类,该类将

两个不兼容的类:DispatcherServlet 和Controller 类连接到一起。
  Adapter to use the plain {@link Controller} workflow interface with
  the generic {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet}.
  Supports handlers that implement the {@link LastModified} interface.
 
  <p>This is an SPI class, not used directly by application code.

类之间的转换代码如下所示,调用了Controller类的handleRequest()方法来处理请求:

    @Override
    public ModelAndView handle(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, Object handler)
            throws Exception {

        return ((Controller) handler).handleRequest(request, response);
    }

重量级人物控制器Controller开始闪亮登场,Controller是一个基本的接口,它接受request和response,从这点上来说,它有点像servlet,但不同之处在于它在mvc模式流程中起作用,它和struts中的Action作用类似。继承该接口的控制器或者类应该保证是线程安全的,可复用的,能够在一个应用生命周期中处理大量的request。为了使Controller的配置更便捷,通常使用javaBeans来继承Controller。

 

/**
 * Base Controller interface, representing a component that receives
 * {@code HttpServletRequest} and {@code HttpServletResponse}
 * instances just like a {@code HttpServlet} but is able to
 * participate in an MVC workflow. Controllers are comparable to the
 * notion of a Struts {@code Action}.
 *
 * <p>Any implementation of the Controller interface should be a
 * <i>reusable, thread-safe</i> class, capable of handling multiple
 * HTTP requests throughout the lifecycle of an application. To be able to
 * configure a Controller easily, Controller implementations are encouraged
 * to be (and usually are) JavaBeans.
 * </p>
 *
 * <p><b><a name="workflow">Workflow</a></b></p>
 *
 * <p>
 * After a <cde>DispatcherServlet</code> has received a request and has
 * done its work to resolve locales, themes and suchlike, it then tries
 * to resolve a Controller, using a
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.HandlerMapping HandlerMapping}.
 * When a Controller has been found to handle the request, the
 * {@link #handleRequest(HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse) handleRequest}
 * method of the located Controller will be invoked; the located Controller
 * is then responsible for handling the actual request and - if applicable -
 * returning an appropriate
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.ModelAndView ModelAndView}.
 * So actually, this method is the main entrypoint for the
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet DispatcherServlet}
 * which delegates requests to controllers.</p>
 *
 * <p>So basically any <i>direct</i> implementation of the Controller interface
 * just handles HttpServletRequests and should return a ModelAndView, to be further
 * interpreted by the DispatcherServlet. Any additional functionality such as
 * optional validation, form handling, etc should be obtained through extending
 * one of the abstract controller classes mentioned above.</p>
 *
 * <p><b>Notes on design and testing</b></p>
 *
 * <p>The Controller interface is explicitly designed to operate on HttpServletRequest
 * and HttpServletResponse objects, just like an HttpServlet. It does not aim to
 * decouple itself from the Servlet API, in contrast to, for example, WebWork, JSF or Tapestry.
 * Instead, the full power of the Servlet API is available, allowing Controllers to be
 * general-purpose: a Controller is able to not only handle web user interface
 * requests but also to process remoting protocols or to generate reports on demand.</p>
 *
 * <p>Controllers can easily be tested by passing in mock objects for the
 * HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse objects as parameters to the
 * {@link #handleRequest(HttpServletRequest, HttpServletResponse) handleRequest}
 * method. As a convenience, Spring ships with a set of Servlet API mocks
 * that are suitable for testing any kind of web components, but are particularly
 * suitable for testing Spring web controllers. In contrast to a Struts Action,
 * there is no need to mock the ActionServlet or any other infrastructure;
 * HttpServletRequest and HttpServletResponse are sufficient.</p>
 *
 * <p>If Controllers need to be aware of specific environment references, they can
 * choose to implement specific awareness interfaces, just like any other bean in a
 * Spring (web) application context can do, for example:</p>
 * <ul>
 * <li>{@code org.springframework.context.ApplicationContextAware}</li>
 * <li>{@code org.springframework.context.ResourceLoaderAware}</li>
 * <li>{@code org.springframework.web.context.ServletContextAware}</li>
 * </ul>
 *
 * <p>Such environment references can easily be passed in testing environments,
 * through the corresponding setters defined in the respective awareness interfaces.
 * In general, it is recommended to keep the dependencies as minimal as possible:
 * for example, if all you need is resource loading, implement ResourceLoaderAware only.
 * Alternatively, derive from the WebApplicationObjectSupport base class, which gives
 * you all those references through convenient accessors - but requires an
 * ApplicationContext reference on initialization.
 *
 * <p>Controllers can optionally implement the {@link LastModified} interface.
*/

Controller的handleRequest()方法处理请求,并返回ModelAndView给DispatcherServlet去渲染render。

Controller接口的抽象实现类为:AbstractController,它通过互斥锁(mutex)来保证线程安全。

    /**
     * Set if controller execution should be synchronized on the session,
     * to serialize parallel invocations from the same client.
     * <p>More specifically, the execution of the {@code handleRequestInternal}
     * method will get synchronized if this flag is "true". The best available
     * session mutex will be used for the synchronization; ideally, this will
     * be a mutex exposed by HttpSessionMutexListener.
     * <p>The session mutex is guaranteed to be the same object during
     * the entire lifetime of the session, available under the key defined
     * by the {@code SESSION_MUTEX_ATTRIBUTE} constant. It serves as a
     * safe reference to synchronize on for locking on the current session.
     * <p>In many cases, the HttpSession reference itself is a safe mutex
     * as well, since it will always be the same object reference for the
     * same active logical session. However, this is not guaranteed across
     * different servlet containers; the only 100% safe way is a session mutex.
     * @see AbstractController#handleRequestInternal
     * @see org.springframework.web.util.HttpSessionMutexListener
     * @see org.springframework.web.util.WebUtils#getSessionMutex(javax.servlet.http.HttpSession)
     */

线程安全实现:

    public ModelAndView handleRequest(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {

        // Delegate to WebContentGenerator for checking and preparing.
        checkAndPrepare(request, response, this instanceof LastModified);

        // Execute handleRequestInternal in synchronized block if required.
        if (this.synchronizeOnSession) {
            HttpSession session = request.getSession(false);
            if (session != null) {
                Object mutex = WebUtils.getSessionMutex(session);
                synchronized (mutex) {
                    return handleRequestInternal(request, response);
                }
            }
        }

        return handleRequestInternal(request, response);
    }
handleRequestInternal()为抽象方法,留待具体实现类来实现。它的直接子类有:

简单Controller实现
在web.xml中有时候定义节点<welcome-list>index.html</welcome-list>等,这种简单的请,Controller是如何实现的呢?我们来看看UrlFilenameViewController,它是Controller的一个间接实现,实现了AbstractUrlViewController。它把url的虚拟路径转换成一个view的名字,然后返回这个view。
    protected ModelAndView handleRequestInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) {
        String lookupPath = getUrlPathHelper().getLookupPathForRequest(request);
        String viewName = getViewNameForRequest(request);
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Returning view name '" + viewName + "' for lookup path [" + lookupPath + "]");
        }
        return new ModelAndView(viewName, RequestContextUtils.getInputFlashMap(request));
    }

复杂Controller实现

一个可以处理多种请求类型的Controller实现:MultiActionController。它类似于struts中的DispatcherAction,但更灵活,而且支持代理。

/**
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.Controller Controller}
 * implementation that allows multiple request types to be handled by the same
 * class. Subclasses of this class can handle several different types of
 * request with methods of the form
 *
 * <pre class="code">public (ModelAndView | Map | String | void) actionName(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, [,HttpSession] [,AnyObject]);</pre>
 *
 * A Map return value indicates a model that is supposed to be passed to a default view
 * (determined through a {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.RequestToViewNameTranslator}).
 * A String return value indicates the name of a view to be rendered without a specific model.
 *
 * <p>May take a third parameter (of type {@link HttpSession}) in which an
 * existing session will be required, or a third parameter of an arbitrary
 * class that gets treated as the command (that is, an instance of the class
 * gets created, and request parameters get bound to it)
 *
 * <p>These methods can throw any kind of exception, but should only let
 * propagate those that they consider fatal, or which their class or superclass
 * is prepared to catch by implementing an exception handler.
 *
 * <p>When returning just a {@link Map} instance view name translation will be
 * used to generate the view name. The configured
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.RequestToViewNameTranslator} will be
 * used to determine the view name.
 *
 * <p>When returning {@code void} a return value of {@code null} is
 * assumed meaning that the handler method is responsible for writing the
 * response directly to the supplied {@link HttpServletResponse}.
 *
 * <p>This model allows for rapid coding, but loses the advantage of
 * compile-time checking. It is similar to a Struts {@code DispatchAction},
 * but more sophisticated. Also supports delegation to another object.
 *
 * <p>An implementation of the {@link MethodNameResolver} interface defined in
 * this package should return a method name for a given request, based on any
 * aspect of the request, such as its URL or an "action" parameter. The actual
 * strategy can be configured via the "methodNameResolver" bean property, for
 * each {@code MultiActionController}.
 *
 * <p>The default {@code MethodNameResolver} is
 * {@link InternalPathMethodNameResolver}; further included strategies are
 * {@link PropertiesMethodNameResolver} and {@link ParameterMethodNameResolver}.
 *
 * <p>Subclasses can implement custom exception handler methods with names such
 * as:
 *
 * <pre class="code">public ModelAndView anyMeaningfulName(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response, ExceptionClass exception);</pre>
 *
 * The third parameter can be any subclass or {@link Exception} or
 * {@link RuntimeException}.
 *
 * <p>There can also be an optional {@code xxxLastModified} method for
 * handlers, of signature:
 *
 * <pre class="code">public long anyMeaningfulNameLastModified(HttpServletRequest request)</pre>
 *
 * If such a method is present, it will be invoked. Default return from
 * {@code getLastModified} is -1, meaning that the content must always be
 * regenerated.
 *
 * <p><b>Note that all handler methods need to be public and that
 * method overloading is <i>not</i> allowed.</b>
 *
 * <p>See also the description of the workflow performed by
 * {@link AbstractController the superclass} (in that section of the class
 * level Javadoc entitled 'workflow').
 *
 * <p><b>Note:</b> For maximum data binding flexibility, consider direct usage of a
 * {@link ServletRequestDataBinder} in your controller method, instead of relying
 * on a declared command argument. This allows for full control over the entire
 * binder setup and usage, including the invocation of {@link Validator Validators}
 * and the subsequent evaluation of binding/validation errors.*/

 根据方法名决定处理的handler

    protected ModelAndView handleRequestInternal(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)
            throws Exception {
        try {
            String methodName = this.methodNameResolver.getHandlerMethodName(request);
            return invokeNamedMethod(methodName, request, response);
        }
        catch (NoSuchRequestHandlingMethodException ex) {
            return handleNoSuchRequestHandlingMethod(ex, request, response);
        }
    }

触发执行方法:

protected final ModelAndView invokeNamedMethod(
            String methodName, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {

        Method method = this.handlerMethodMap.get(methodName);
        if (method == null) {
            throw new NoSuchRequestHandlingMethodException(methodName, getClass());
        }

        try {
            Class<?>[] paramTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
            List<Object> params = new ArrayList<Object>(4);
            params.add(request);
            params.add(response);

            if (paramTypes.length >= 3 && paramTypes[2].equals(HttpSession.class)) {
                HttpSession session = request.getSession(false);
                if (session == null) {
                    throw new HttpSessionRequiredException(
                            "Pre-existing session required for handler method '" + methodName + "'");
                }
                params.add(session);
            }

            // If last parameter isn't of HttpSession type, it's a command.
            if (paramTypes.length >= 3 &&
                    !paramTypes[paramTypes.length - 1].equals(HttpSession.class)) {
                Object command = newCommandObject(paramTypes[paramTypes.length - 1]);
                params.add(command);
                bind(request, command);
            }

            Object returnValue = method.invoke(this.delegate, params.toArray(new Object[params.size()]));
            return massageReturnValueIfNecessary(returnValue);
        }
        catch (InvocationTargetException ex) {
            // The handler method threw an exception.
            return handleException(request, response, ex.getTargetException());
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            // The binding process threw an exception.
            return handleException(request, response, ex);
        }

处理返回结果,要么返回null要么返回ModelAndView实例。当返回一个Map类型时,ModelAndView实例包装的Map类型。

    /**
     * Processes the return value of a handler method to ensure that it either returns
     * {@code null} or an instance of {@link ModelAndView}. When returning a {@link Map},
     * the {@link Map} instance is wrapped in a new {@link ModelAndView} instance.
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private ModelAndView massageReturnValueIfNecessary(Object returnValue) {
        if (returnValue instanceof ModelAndView) {
            return (ModelAndView) returnValue;
        }
        else if (returnValue instanceof Map) {
            return new ModelAndView().addAllObjects((Map<String, ?>) returnValue);
        }
        else if (returnValue instanceof String) {
            return new ModelAndView((String) returnValue);
        }
        else {
            // Either returned null or was 'void' return.
            // We'll assume that the handle method already wrote the response.
            return null;
        }
    }

小结:

   DispatcherServlet接受一个请求,然后解析完locales, themes等后,通过HadlerMapping解析控制器Controller去处理请求。

   找到Controller后,出发当前controller的handleRequest()方法,此controller负责真正处理请求,然后一个ModelAndView实例。

  DispatcherServlet 代理此Controller,接收返回结果,然后进行渲染。

 

 




 

posted on 2014-11-24 19:36 一天不进步,就是退步 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏