requests模块--python发送http请求

requests模块

        在Python内置模块(urllib、urllib2、httplib)的基础上进行了高度的封装,从而使得Pythoner更好的进行http请求,使用Requests可以轻而易举的完成浏览器可有的任何操作。Requests 是使用 Apache2 Licensed 许可证的 基于Python开发的HTTP 库。


requests使用

一、GET请求

向 https://github.com/timeline.json 发送一个GET请求,将请求和响应相关均封装在 ret 对象中。

1、无参数实例

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import requests
  
ret = requests.get('https://github.com/timeline.json')
  
print ret.url
print ret.text

2、有参数实例

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import requests
  
payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
ret = requests.get("http://httpbin.org/get", params=payload)
  
print ret.url
print ret.text

二、POST请求

向https://api.github.com/some/endpoint发送一个POST请求,将请求和相应相关的内容封装在 ret 对象中。

1、基本POST实例

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import requests
  
payload = {'key1': 'value1', 'key2': 'value2'}
ret = requests.post("http://httpbin.org/post", data=payload)
  
print ret.text


2、发送请求头和数据实例

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import requests
import json
  
payload = {'some': 'data'}
headers = {'content-type': 'application/json'}
  
ret = requests.post(url, data=json.dumps(payload), headers=headers)
  
print ret.text
print ret.cookies


3、其他请求

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requests.get(url, params=None, **kwargs)
requests.post(url, data=None, json=None, **kwargs)
requests.put(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.head(url, **kwargs)
requests.delete(url, **kwargs)
requests.patch(url, data=None, **kwargs)
requests.options(url, **kwargs)
  
# 以上方法均是在此方法的基础上构建
requests.request(method, url, **kwargs)


更多参数

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def request(method, url, **kwargs):
    """Constructs and sends a :class:`Request <Request>`.
 
    :param method: method for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param url: URL for the new :class:`Request` object.
    :param params: (optional) Dictionary or bytes to be sent in the query string for the :class:`Request`.
    :param data: (optional) Dictionary, bytes, or file-like object to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param json: (optional) json data to send in the body of the :class:`Request`.
    :param headers: (optional) Dictionary of HTTP Headers to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param cookies: (optional) Dict or CookieJar object to send with the :class:`Request`.
    :param files: (optional) Dictionary of ``'name': file-like-objects`` (or ``{'name': ('filename', fileobj)}``) for multipart encoding upload.
    :param auth: (optional) Auth tuple to enable Basic/Digest/Custom HTTP Auth.
    :param timeout: (optional) How long to wait for the server to send data
        before giving up, as a float, or a :ref:`(connect timeout, read
        timeout) <timeouts>` tuple.
    :type timeout: float or tuple
    :param allow_redirects: (optional) Boolean. Set to True if POST/PUT/DELETE redirect following is allowed.
    :type allow_redirects: bool
    :param proxies: (optional) Dictionary mapping protocol to the URL of the proxy.
    :param verify: (optional) whether the SSL cert will be verified. A CA_BUNDLE path can also be provided. Defaults to ``True``.
    :param stream: (optional) if ``False``, the response content will be immediately downloaded.
    :param cert: (optional) if String, path to ssl client cert file (.pem). If Tuple, ('cert', 'key') pair.
    :return: :class:`Response <Response>` object
    :rtype: requests.Response
 
    Usage::
 
      >>> import requests
      >>> req = requests.request('GET', 'http://httpbin.org/get')
      <Response [200]>
    """
 
    # By using the 'with' statement we are sure the session is closed, thus we
    # avoid leaving sockets open which can trigger a ResourceWarning in some
    # cases, and look like a memory leak in others.
    with sessions.Session() as session:
        return session.request(method=method, url=url, **kwargs)

更多详细资料

更多requests模块相关的​文档见:http://cn.python-requests.org/zh_CN/latest/

















posted @ 2016-05-11 22:46  大亮头  阅读(9600)  评论(0编辑  收藏