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【英语魔法俱乐部——读书笔记】 1 初级句型-简单句(Simple Sentences)

第一部分 1 初级句型-简单句(Simple Sentences):(1.1)基本句型&补语、(1.2)名词短语&冠词、(1.3)动词时态、(1.4)不定式短语、(1.5)动名词、(1.6)分词、(1.7)形容词、(1.8)副词、(1.9)语气词、(1.10)介词、(1.11)主谓一致性
 
1.1 五种基本句型&补语
1.1.1 五中基本句型
主谓(sv)
主谓宾(svo)
主谓宾宾(svoo)
主谓补(svc)
主谓宾补(svoc)
一个句子需要“主语”+“动词(谓语)”才能表达完整的意思,主语是动作的“叙述对象”,而动词构成“叙述的主要内容”。
 
1.1.2 补语(Complement):有且仅有解释为“是”的动词是空洞而没有叙述能力的,只起到连接主语和后边构成叙述的部分的作用,故称为“连缀动词(linking verb)”,这种连缀动词后边的部分因替代了动词所扮演的叙述角色,补足句子完整的意思,因而称为“补语”。
 
1.1.3 “不及物”和“及物”动词:可独立发生,不牵扯到别的人或物的动词即为不及物动词。必须发生在另一个对象上的动词,即为及物动词,通常必须后接宾语来“接受”这个动作。
 
1.1.4 所有的后接补语的“连缀动词”都可以解释为各种各样的“是”或“为”(“为不过是文言文的“是””):主语配上以下任意动词而不能构成完整有意义的句子,该动词就是空洞的,需要补语来补足。
     look 看起来是
     seem 似乎是
     appear 显的是
     sound 听起来是
     feel 摸起来是
     taste 尝起来是
     turn 转变为
     prove 证实为
     become 成为
     make 作为
以上动词在主谓补(svc)的句型中,将动词通通换成纯粹的be动词,其意义基本不发生变化。
主谓补(svc)句型是用补语来说明主语是什么,中间用“是”动词串联起来,而主谓宾补(svoc)句型则是用补语说明宾语是什么,中间暗示有个“是”的关系存在。如果把宾语和补语拿出来,中间加入一个be动词,则会构成一个主谓补(svc)的句子。
 
1.1.5 补语的词类可以是名词(noun)或形容词(adj)。
 
1.1.6 be动词后接补语时,是解释为“是或为”的最纯粹的连缀动词,通产不会翻译出“是或为”这个字眼(尤其,补语是形容词时)。而be动词后没有补语时,是单纯的“主谓(sv)结构”,通常需要解释为“存在”而不是“是或为”。
 
1.1.7 主谓宾宾(svoo)和主谓宾补(svoc)区别:前者涉及3个对象,分别是主语(动作发起者)、第一宾语(动作接收者)、第二宾语(具体的物品),第一宾语和第二宾语都是名词,但是并不相等。后者句型中,宾语是名词,并且补语也可以是名词,但是宾语和补语之间存在“等于是”的关系。
 
 
1.1 本小节示例及练习:
John Smith died in World War Two. (sv结构,die为不及物动词,主语+不及物动词可以构成意思完整的句子)
John Smith killed three enemy soldiers. (svo结构,kill为及物动词,主语+及物动词+宾语构成意思完整的句子)
John Smith was a soldier. (svc结构,注意be动词后边的补语是名词)
John smith was courageous. (svc结构,be动词后边接形容词补语,通常不翻译"是或为")
Taroko Gorge is beautiful. (svc结构,太鲁阁峡谷很美,不翻译是)
The soup is too hot. (svc结构,不翻译是)
The dress looks pretty. (svc结构,look可换成be,那件裙子很好看)
The dog seems friendly. (svc结构,seem可换成be,那只狗好像很友善)
His demands appear reasonable. (svc结构,appear可换成be,他的要求显得很合理)
His trip sound exciting. (svc结构,sound可换成be,他的旅行听起来很刺激)
I feel sick. (svc结构,feel可换成be,我感觉不舒服)
The drug tastes bitter. (svc结构,taste可换成be,药很苦)
The story proved false. (svc结构,prove可换成be,故事经证实是捏造的)
He became a teacher. (svc结构,become可换成be,他当了老师)
A nurse makes a good wife. (svc结构,make可换成be,娶护士做太太真不错)
I find the dress pretty. (svoc结构,形容词做宾语的补语,我觉得这衣服很漂亮)
The meat made the dog friendly. (svoc结构,形容词做宾语的补语,肉让狗变得很友善)
They consider his demands reasonable. (svoc结构,形容词做宾语的补语,他们认为他的要求是合理的)
He found the trip exciting. (svoc结构,形容词做补语,他觉得这次旅行很刺激)
The food made me sick. (svoc结构,形容词做补语,这种食物使我想吐)
I don't find the drug bitter. (svoc结构,形容词做补语,我并不觉得药很苦)
I consider the story false. (svoc结构,形容词做补语,我认为故事是捏造的)
His college training made him a teacher. (svoc结构,名词做补语,他的大学教育使他成为一名教师)
Most people consider a nurse a good wife. (svoc结构,名词做补语,大多数人认为护士会是称职的太太)
I think; therefore I am. (sv结构,be动词后无补语,翻译为”存在“。笛卡尔:”我思故我在“)
To be or not to be, that is the question. (sv结构,be动词后无补语,翻译为”存在“。汉姆雷特:”要存在还是不要存在(要不要活下去),那是个问题“)
John's father give him a dog. (svoo结构,”主语“给”宾语“一个”物品“,两个宾语一个是给的接收对象,一个是给的东西)
John's father called him a dog. (svoc结构,”主语“骂”宾语“是”物品“,宾语和补语隐含”等于是“的关系)
 
 
The magician moved his fingers quickly. (svo)
The police found the letter missing. (svoc)
The police found the missing letter. (svo)
He ordered himself a steak and a bottle of red wine. (svoo)
Don't you like dancing? (svo)
■The President has gone abroad on a visit. (sv,abroad译为”到国外、在国外“,其本身是adj或adv,主语President和谓语has gone已构成完整的意思”总统走了“,不需要补语。)
■That sounds like a good idea. (svc)
The box feels heavy. (svc)
■He told his guests a dirty joke at the party. (svoo)
The people elected Bill Clinton President. (svoc)
The child asks her mother a million questions a day. (svoo)
Monkeys love bananas. (svo)
■You can leave the door open. (svoc,door和open有”等于是“的暗示,谓语为普通动词)
■The company has gone bankrupt. (svc,主语company配上谓语has gone不能说明完整的意思,需要补语banrupt补充说明,并且谓语has gone可以换为be动词)
Why don't you answer me? (svo)
■I consider you a member of family. (svoo,一个是称呼的对象,一个是称呼。)
It never rains in California. (sv)
You'll look better with these designer glasses on. (svc)
■I can see better without these reading glasses. (sv,主语I和谓语see已构成完整的意思”我能看见“,不需要补语)
Do you call me a liar? (svoc)
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1.2 名词短语&冠词
1.2.1 名词短语可以用做主语、宾语、补语、介词后的宾语,使用频率极高。像大多数拼音文字一样,英语用名词“词尾的变化”来表示单、复数,用其前面的限定词(Determiners)与词尾的单复数相呼应,共同限定名词的范围,例如:冠词就是Determiners的一种。

1.2.2 名词短语常见的标准形式为:“限定词(Determiner)”+“形容词(adjective)”+“名词(noun)”,这三个部分都可以省略,省略后可以是“限定词”+“名词”(a book)、“限定词”+“形容词”(the bese)、甚至只是“限定词”(those)的形式。

1.2.3 从词源学(etymology)来说,冠词a(an)可视为one一字的弱化(reduction)结果,只是语气较弱,它和one一样用来交代后边的名词是“一个”的概念,若名词不适合以“一个”来交代,则可以把限定词空置下来,即:名词不适合加"a(an)",则其前方就不能加限定词。如:复数名词不能用“一个”来交代、抽象名词(honesty、bribery)没有具体的形态,也不能以“一个”来表示、物质名词(water、food)虽然是具体东西,可是形状不固定,也不能以“一个”来表示,这些不能以a(an)来引到的词就可以把限定词省略掉。简言之,对于名词,如果词尾加“s”则表示名词为复数,如果加“a(an)”则表示为单数;如果不能加“s“则名词通常不可数,也就不能加"a(an)",此时,就可以省略限定词。{bribery:n:受贿,行贿,贿赂行为;}

1.2.4 表示人名或地名的专有名词,代表的对象只有一个,因此可以不加a(an),若加了"a(an)"则表明是”一个长城“的意思,也就暗示了还有”另外的长城“存在。因此,加”a(an)“和加”s“是一体的两个方面,我们分别用这两种符号来区分单、复数,若一个名词不能加"s"或者说名词不能做不规则的复数变化,则它也不能添加a(an)。

1.2.5 要注意在不同范围下,名词可能是专有名词也可能是可数名词。如:There are 5 Sundays this month.(可数名词,非专有名词)、I am not at home on Sunday.(专有名词)。此外,尤其要注意补语位置的专有名词,”补语“和”主语或宾语“是有同等关系的,若主语或宾语是专有名词,则它的补语作为同等关系的内容也必须具有”唯一“的性质,因此可以用专有名词来诠释补语,所以不用加a(an)或s。若补语不具有”唯一“的性质,则会看做普通名词对待。如:Some say he was a better president than Mr. Robert.(比较两任的校长功绩的时候,总统将作为普通名词使用)。当”同位语“是补语时,也需要留意专有名词的问题,判断方式也同样是”是否具有唯一“的性质。遇到主语补语或者宾语补语时,要注意其是否为专有名词。

1.2.6 在语源学上,定冠词"the"可视为指示形容词that或those的弱化形式,其具有明确的指示功能。凡是上下文中有明指或暗示时,即有”那个“的指示功能时,便要使用定冠词"the"。先了解a(an)是one(一个)的弱化,the则是that/those(那个)的弱化,即使上下文没有明确指明,但有清楚的暗示时,仍然要用定冠词the。

1.2.7 专有名词和定冠词是冲突的,不能并存。加了the就表示”某个东西有两个以上或者有两个以上的方面,专指这一个或这一方面“,而专有名词则表示”某个东西只有一个对象存在“,因此就没有”这个、那个“一说。

1.2.8 注意名词短语的省略形式,在不引起歧义的原则下,名词短语可以省略以便精简句子。如:the Pacific (Ocean)、the Indian Ocean,前者无歧义可以省略,后者可能会误认为印第安人所以不可省略。
 
1.2 本小节示例及练习
注:(Determiner、Adjective、Noun)
a new book (DAN)
many good students (DAN)
his beautiful wife (DAN)
the best answer (DAN)
those sweet roses (DAN)
Of these answers, this one is the best. (省略名词,只保留限定词和形容词的名词短语)
I want those. (指着玫瑰花说,限定词those做省略的名词短语)
Unmarried men are rare species these days. ("未婚男性目前是稀有品种了",men指名是复数,不能加限定词) {rare:adj:罕见的,珍贵的,煎的嫩的;species:n:种类,(单复同)物种;}
Honesty is not necessarily the best policy. (抽象名词无形状不能用"一个"来形容)
Fresh water is a precious resource in Saudi Arabia. (无形状的物质名词也不能用"一个"来形容)
There are five Sundays this month. (在月份的范围下,星期五有多个,其作为可数名词)
I have an appointment on Sunday. (在本周范围下,星期一仅一个,其作为专有名词)
Mr. Elson was president of the high school. (补语位置的专有名词,president本身为普通名词,但其作为句意内独一无二的专有名词Mr.Elson的补语,起补充说明作用的补语是可以和主语划等号的,故是president也可视为专有名词)
Some say he was a better president than Mr. Robert. (句意是比较两任校长,president可以加s,因此非专有名词)
Mr. Elson is also a member of the Council of the city. (补语位置的名词短语表示的是一组人里边的一个,不能做专有名词)
Mattin Wales, Head of the football team, at the time, wore a mustache. (补语作同位语,本句的补语实际上是形容词从句who was Head of the football team at the time的省略,who代表Mattin Wales,Head作为主语补语等同于Mattin Wales,因此可看作专有名词)
Clinton made Gorle campaign partner of the Presidential election. (不光是主语的补语,宾语的补语也要注意专有名词的问题。本句中的竞选搭档[副总统]是宾语Gorle的补语,具有相等的意味且在句意中唯一,故作为专有名词。)
I need a book to read on my trip. (带本书读,不特指哪一本)
I have finished the book you lent me. (你借我的那本书,特指那本书)
Modern history is my favorite subject. (history是抽象名词,不可数因而也不能加a,modern只是修饰词不具有明确指示的功能)
The history of recent China is a sorry record. (特指近代中国的那段历史,需要定冠词the)
He should be home; I saw a light in his house. (虽然有in the house修饰,但一所房子的灯很多,看到的只是一盏灯,不具有明确指示。"a(an)是one的弱化")
Turn off the portal light. (特指大门口的那盏灯灯,通常只有一个。"the 是that和those的弱化")
I am goting to the office now. (虽未明确指示,但有清楚的暗示:老婆知道是说的"老公上班的办公室",需要定冠词the)
Do you mind if I open the window? (虽未明确指示,但对话情景暗示是"身旁"的那扇,需要定冠词)
Do you mind if i open a window? (a window表示一扇窗户或任意窗户,无明确指代,其意思是"打开车内的一扇窗户",尤其在公交车上,对着某人说打开车内的任何一扇窗户会不和情理。但如果是多人在轿车中抽烟时,在征求车内所有人的意见时,"想打开随便一扇窗户透气"的情形确实合理的。)
This is not the John Smith I know. (专有名词和定冠词是冲突的,不能并存。若使用了the,则表示还有其他的或两个以上的个体存在,而特指这一个,因此也就不能称其为专有名词了。本句中隐含着用于比较的两个John,而特指出不是我认识的那个,因此加定冠词是合理的。)
This is a photography show of the Taibei 50 years ago. (“这是展示50年前的台北的摄影展”,50年前的台北和如今的台北明显不同,句中的专有名词Taibei加了定冠词the后成为普通名词,特指50年前的那个。)
the Pacific (Ocean) (Pacific是形容词,而Ocean有多个,加the表示名为"太平洋"的那个,只不过因为不会引起歧义而省略了普通名词Ocean。完完全全的普通名词,而非所谓的专有名词。)
the Atlantic (Ocean) (省略Ocean的普通名词,"大西洋")
the Indian Ocean (此处因省略Ocean后会引起歧义,不能区分是印第安人还是印度洋,所以不能省略)
the Mediterranean (Sea) (地中海)
the Dead Sea (不能省略sea,否则无法区分the Dead[死者]还是表示死海)
the Philippine Islands = the Philippines (省略Island并把群岛的s移到philippine的后边,用来表示菲律宾群岛,同时也能区分菲律宾人和菲律宾群岛,是很合理的省略)
the Alp Mountains = the Alps (省略Mountain并把s移到Alp后边,表示阿尔卑斯群山)
the Mississippi (River) (密西西比河)
the Titanic (Ship) (泰坦尼克号)
the Hilton (Hotel) (希尔顿酒店)
the United States of America (形容词和普通名词组成的名词短语,加the表示特指称为"美国"的那个联合州,而America是专有名词,因此不加the)
the United Nations (省略of the world的普通名词,有时简称为the UN)
 
 
■The carpenter repaired D.
[A] the table's legs     [B] table's legs     [C] legs of the table     [D] the legs of the table
注释:所有格的两种表现形式,用于人和其他生物时用s形式;而用于无生命的物体则用of。本句属无生物,应用of,并且of the table指出是"那些"桌腿,所以需要定冠词the。
■Mr.Smith has three A under his name.
[A] shoe stores     [B] shoes stores    [C] shoe store     [D] shoestores
注释:复合名词时,前面的名词放在形容词位置,当形容词而用只能为单数。句中有three限定,因此用stores,故选A。
The house sits on a C road.
[A] twelve feet in width     [B] of twelve feet     [C] twelve-foot-wide     [D] twelve-feet
注释:空格位置是形容词,只能放单词并且做形容词时只能用单数,故选C。
These men and women are all C.
[A] language's teachers     [B] languages teachers     [C] language teachers     [D] languages' teachers
注释:"语言教师"是复合名词,只能从B、C选,且language做形容词为单数,故C。
He ordered C for breakfast.
[A] orange juice, bread and butter, coffee, and bacon, and eggs
[B] orange, juice, bread, and butter, coffee and bacon, and eggs
[C] orange juice, bread and butter, coffee, and bacon and eggs
注释:bread and butter"奶油土司"是一种食品,并且两个词都不可数,因此不需要限定词;bacon and eggs"火腿蛋"亦是,虽然eggs是可数的,但领头的bacon不可数,因此也不加限定词。
The prime minister is the real ruler and prince is merely a C.
[A] little     [B] small     [C] nobody     [D] none
注释:nobody译为"无名小卒",作为普通名词看待,可以加a。A、B都是形容词,而none就是no one,因为no已经就是限定词了,因此不能加冠词。{prime minister首要大臣,即重臣。merely仅仅,只不过}
■Living in the city, he was always being annoyed by noises of C.
[A] one sort of other     [B] one sort of the other     [C] one sort or another     [D] one or others sorts
注释:one sort or another是常用短语,译为"各种各样的"。它本身其实就是one sort or another sort省略重复单词的结果。
■Writing is one thing and talking is quite B.
[A] the other     [B] another     [C] others     [D] the others
注释:another thing和one thing是相对应得两个常用短语,表示"不同的两件事",其中another 是省略了重复词thing的结果。
The majority of the Members of Parliament are men, but there are D women, of course.
[A] few     [B] little     [C] any     [D] quite a few
注释:any用于否定句或疑问句,疑问句时译为"一些",否定句中译为"任何",再次此不合适。little修饰不可数名词,few修饰可数名词,但是few具有"没多少"的否定意味,a few则是"有一些"的肯定意味。副词quite用来强调语气,表示"还不少",并且有连接词but也可以看出上下文要求肯定语气。
A is what he said: Don't go out!
[A] This     [B] That     [C] The     [D] These
注释:表示上文讲过的一句话,可以用this或that。如:There's going to be a raise.Isn't this/that great? 但是代表下文要说的一句话只能用this。
■Whether you serve coffee or tea doesn't matter; B will do.
[A] any     [B] either     [C] some     [D] all
注释:两者之间选一个用either,三者之间选一个用any。
As we hac finished the first chapter, now we will read B.
[A] second     [B] the second     [C] second one     [D] the two
注释:the second对称于前面的the first,并且学生和老师都明白特指的是哪一章。
He has two daughters; one is singer and C an actress.
[A] another    [B] other     [C] the other     [D] the others
注释:两个,除去唱歌的,就是指明了剩下的"那一个",需要定冠词the。注意the other后省略了is。
■He asked if eighty dollars was enough, and I said that B twenty would do.
[A] more     [B] another     [C] other     [D] the other
注释:80刀中已有4个20刀,所以再来一个another,就凑够100刀了。
■Mary Kurt, A of the troupe, was strongly against smoking.
[A] alto     [B] the alto     [C] an alto     [D] altos
注释:空格位置是Mary Kurt的同位语,同位语时要考虑专有名词,有根据was判断是单数,因此符合专有名词,不加冠词。alto男高音或女高音,troupe(演出的)一个团或一个班}
■This kid of ball-pen holds A ink than that.
[A] less     [B] fewer     [C] much     [D] little
注释:ink不可数,排除fewer。并且than that比较级,应该用选A。可数时,多用many(比较级more),少用few(less);不可数时,多用much(more),少用little(less);
John woeks harder than B boy in his class.
[A] all other     [B] any other     [C] all the other     [D] any
注释:空格后边是boy,因此用单数的B或D。英语要求严格的比较级,只能说比班上"别的"同学用功,不然会造成"自己比自己用功"的语病,所以需要other来限定范围。
■I was told to take the pills B six hours.
[A] each     [B] every     [C] other     [D] the other
注释:多久一次,需要用限定词every来限定,例如:every day,every week,every two months,every century,every hundred years。虽然six hours是复数,但是像hours、miles、pounds等代表"单位"的字眼也可当单数使用,例如:Three miles is a long way to walk,因此这里并不冲突。
The man was badly wounded, but there could still be C hope.
[A] little     [B] few     [C]  a little      [D] a few
注释:空格后为不可数名词,因此用A或C,根据句意因选择C,表示还有些希望,A则表示"基本没希望了"。
B these people are going to the concert.
[A] The most     [B] Most of     [C] Most     [D] Almost
注释:空格后有完整的名词且已有限定词these,因此不能直接加限定词,需要用介词of隔开,而且这里most表示"大部分"而非高级因而也不用加the,故选B。
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1.3 动词时态
1.3.1 现代语法中,时间(time)和状态(aspect)是分开处理的。时间观念(过去、现在、将来)比较简单,状态观念则比较繁杂,如果再加入主动、被动语态(voice),变化就更多了。本书采取以简驭繁的办法来解释"动词时态":把be动词当做动词,其后的分词则视为形容词补语。即:把be动词抽离出来当做动词看待,剩下的部分则视为以be动词引导的"简单式"或用have been动词引导的"完成式"两种状态,而分词则视为形容词补语,不放在动词短语中。

1.3.2 简单式。简单式的动词会清楚交代动作发生的时间段,与它搭配的时间副词通常会明确标示出一个时间段。即:简单式的时间是"括弧形式",可用括弧把即简单式的时间括起来。简单式中包含现在时、过去时和将来时:将过去、现在、将来看成一个坐标轴的话,现在时就是以now为中心的括弧,用一般动词表示;过去时是发生在now左边的时间括弧(时间段),用动词过去式表示;将来时是发生在now右边的时间括弧,用will等表示将来意味的助动词+动词原型表示。
注意:这个括弧大小不拘,可以扩大到无限也可以小到一点,但必须明确标示出来。

1.3.3 完成式。从功能上看,简单式是交代动作发生的时间段,而完成式则并不对动作发生的时间段作明确交代,只表示"曾经"、"做过"的意思。即:完成式是以箭头形状来表达时间,表示动作的截止时间。完成式中也包括过去时、现在时、将来时:将过去、现在、将来看成一个坐标轴的话,现在时就是以now为截止点的箭头,用have/has+动词来表示到现在为止,做过哪些动作(动作发生在现在之前);过去时就是截止点在now左边的箭头,用had+动词来表示到过去某个时间为止,做过哪些动作(动作发生在过去时间点之前);将来时就是截止点在now右边的箭头,用will have+动词来表示到将来某个时间位置,做过哪些动作(动作发生在将来某个时间之前)。

1.3.4 过去分词词尾-ed视为表达被动意味的形容词字尾。现在分词词尾-ing视为表示一种持续性动作的形容词词尾,相当于中文的"正在"、"一直"的口吻。其前的be动词是无意义的连缀动词,用来连接主语和形容词补语,不需要翻译,只负责交代时态。

1.3.5 简言之,把be动词当做普通动词看之后,句子就划分为两种状态:简单式与完成式。简单式以括弧型的时间段来表示,而完成式以箭头型的时间箭头来表示。至于be动词后的分词当做形容词补语来看待,现在分词有正在进行、持续的意思,过去分词有被动的意思。
 
1.3 本小节示例及练习
Huang piches a fast ball. Li swings. It looks like a hit. The shortstop fails to stop it. It's a double!
释意:黄[平洋]投出快速球,李[居明]挥棒,好像是安打,游击手没有拦到球,是二垒安打!{pich:投出,用沥青覆盖,推销,球场,沥青,街头商贩摊位;swing:摇摆,旋转,动摇;hit:安打;shortstop:(棒球)游击手}
注释:体育播报比赛经常会用到一连串的现在简单式,虽然其并未交代时间副词,可每一句都是现在发生的,也就是now的一瞬间的最小的括弧。
      pitches…
-------(*)-------->
        now
Bush is the U.S. President.
布什是现任总统,早几年或晚几年都不是,所以句子的时间是以now为中心的括弧,故用现在简单式。
           is
-----(---*---)----->
         now
All mothers love their children.
古今皆然,妈妈爱小孩,这是以now为中心的一个极大的括弧,用现在简单式。
      love
(-----*----->)
      now
7-ELEVEN is selling big cokes at a discount this month.
be动词当动词看,时间副词this month是以now为核心的括弧,故用简单式is。而打折活动是持续动作,因此用现在分词做补语来强调持续性。
          is
----(---*---)---->
        now
     this month
According to the NASA survey, the ozone layer is being depleted.
本句是以now为中心的较大的括弧,因此动词用简单式,其动词is作为连缀动词则不要被翻译。being depleted当作补语看待,being只有词尾-ing的意义"正在…",depleted的过去分词词尾-ed有被动的意思"被消耗",being depleted解释为"正在被消耗",当作形容词补语看待,用来形容主语"臭氧层"。{survey:调查,研究,测量;ozone layer:臭氧层;deplete:耗尽,使空竭}
        is
--(---*---)-->
     now
The U.S. established diplomatic relations with the P.R.C. in 1979.
in 1979来修饰动词establish(建立)的时间,表示中美见交发生在这段时间内,因此可用括弧将in 1979括起来,并且括弧在now的左边,属于过去时间,故用established。{diplomatic:外交的,老练的}
    established
----(-----------)-----*---->
        in 1979       now
The movable print was introduced to England in 1485.
时间副词in 1485是一个发生在过去的括弧,其处在now的左边,因此动词采用was,虽然be动词是无意义的连缀动词,只用来连接主语和补语,其虽不需要翻译但必须用be动词来决定时态。过去分词introduced当作形容词补语看待,其过去分词词尾-ed表达被动的意义。
       was
--(----------)----*--->
     in 1485     now
I was visiting clients the whole day yesterday.
把be动词视为动词,时间副词the whole day yesterday作为一个过去时间的括弧,因此动词时态为过去式的was,虽然be动词是无意义的连缀动词,用来连接主语和补语,其不需要翻译但要用来决定时态。现在分词visiting当作形容词补语看待,其现在分词词尾-ing表达一种持续性,即"正在"、"一直"的口吻。
                   was
--(--------------------------------)------*---->
      the whole day yesterday          now
I was watching TV when I heard the doorbell.
时间副词when I heard the doorbell是过去发生的很短的瞬间的时间括弧,所以动词需要用过去简单式。be动词用于连接主语和形容词补语,其本身并无具体意义,现在分词watching表示持续动作,"正在"、"一直"看电视。
                       was
--(----------------------------------)-----*---->
      when I heard the doorbell         now
The witness was being questioned in court when he had a heart attack.
时间副词when he had a heart attack是心脏病突发瞬间的最小的时间括弧,而其中的had表示是过去发生的时间,故该句是be动词选用was的过去简单式。be动词连接主语和形容词补语,即:being和questioned两个分词都视为形容词,be动词本身无意义,此处的being用形容词词尾-ing表示"正在",过去分词questioned用形容词词尾-ed表示"被质询",因此做主语补语的being questioned解释为"正在被质询"。{witness:证人}
                        was
--(------------------------------------)------*----->
       when he had a heart arrack         now
There will be a major election in March.
时间副词in March是发生在未来的时间括弧,因此采用简单式。因为事情还未发生,尚不确定,所以要加助动词will,译为"到时候会"。
                     will be
------*-----(-------------)--->
     now        in March
Don't call me at six tomorrow. I'll still be sleeping then.
时间副词then,代表明天早上6:00那一刻,是最小的时间括弧,因为在now右边故采用未来简单式。把be动词当做动词,未来式will be后边的sleeping做形容词补语,其词尾-ing表示持续性,译为:"在睡觉"。未来式动词will be中,连缀动词be无意义不需要翻译,只需要解释will部分"会"即可。
                             will be
------*-------(--------------------)---->
     now                  then
                     at six tomorrow
The building will be razed next month.
时间副词next month是发生在未来的时间括弧,故用未来简单式。未来式will be后面的过去分词做形容词补语,用来修饰主语"房子",其过去分词词尾-ed表示被动的意味,译为:"被拆除"。
                        will be
------*-------(---------------)----->
     now          next month
I'm sure I have seen this face somewhere.
I'm sure的动词am可以表示是现在时间,除此之外,再无时间副词交代具体时间,也就是说:"看到"这个动作没有明确括出是哪个时间段发生的,只有个箭头状的描述,表示截止到现在为止。这就是典型的现在完成式的条件,故用have been,译为:"看过"。
     have seen……|
--------------------*----->
                       now
We have been working overtime for a week to fill your order.
译为:我们持续加班一个星期赶出你定的货。
把be动词当动词看,则动词时态划分为简单式和完成式两种。时间副词for a week表示“到现在,算算有一个星期之久了”,这时候重点在于“算到现在已经有……了”,因此强调的是截止时间,是箭头形状的时间状态,故采用完成式have been来配合。be动词后的现在分词working做补语,其形容词词尾-ing表示持续性,表达“一直在加班”的意思,用来形容主语We。have been中,be作为无意思的连缀动词而不必翻译,只要翻译出完成式的部分“已经”和时间副词“有一个星期”即可。
     have seen…………|
------------------------*--->
     for a week        now
The house has been redecorated twice since they moved in.
时间副词since they moved in虽然是表示开始计算的时间点,但语气重点是“算到现在是多久,截止到现在是多久”,所以仍用完成式。redecorated是过去分词形式的形容词补语,表示被动的意味。
          |……>have seen…………|
-------*---------------------------*--->
     moved in                         now
Many soldiers had died from pneumonia before the discovery of penicillin.
时间副词before the discovery of penicillin(盘尼西林发现于1928年)是一个以1928年为截止的箭头,并且其发生在now的左侧,故用过去完成式had died。过去完成式就是用来表示发生于过去的某个截止时间点之前的事情。
              had died
--------------------------------*------------*----->
                                    discovery      now
   before the discovery………|
I had been smoking three packs of cigarettes a day before I decided to quit.
时间副词before I decided to quit表示“在我决定之间”,是到“我决定”的那个时间点的箭头,其时间副词的动词用了过去式decided,表示是过去下的决定,所以用过去完成式had been。形容词短语smoking three packs做补语,-ing词尾表示持续性,即:其每天都抽三包烟并且“一直如此”,来形容主语。
          had been
---------------------------*----------*----->
                             decided      now
   before I decided………|
Japan had not been defeated yet by the time Germany surrendered unconditionally.
时间副词是“算到德国无条件投降为止”,是一个截止在过去时间的箭头,要用过去完成式。连缀动词be无意义不必翻译,形容词补语是过去分词defeated,具有被动的意味,即:“被打败”,用来形容日本。
                   had not been
-----------------------------------------------*---------------*----->
                                                     surrendered       now
   by the time Germany surrendered………|
Next April, I will have worked here for 20 years.
本句中,虽然有时间副词Next April表示一个括弧的时间,似乎应该用简单式。但本句真实的另一个时间副词是for 20 years,表示“算到四月为止有20年了”,因此是一个箭头时间的形式。再者,一个人不能再四月为公司工作20年,这里的next april表示的是一个截止时间,所以要用完成式。这个截止时刻在now的右侧,因此动词前加will,是未来完成式。
                       will have worked
----*-------------------(----)---------------->
   now                   next April
        for 20 years………|
Come back at 5:00. Your car will have been fixed by then.
翻译:五点再来吧,那时候你的车肯定已经修好了。
时间副词by then表示“到那个时候”,而时间副词5:00表示具体时刻,也就是“到5点的时候”是箭头时间形式,并且截止时间在now的右侧,故要用未来完成式will have been。连缀动词be无意义不必翻译,只要翻译时态“已经”来连接主语和过去分词补语("-ed词尾表示被修好")即可。
                       will have been
----*-------------------*---------------->
   now                    5:00
            by then………|
In two more minutes, she will have been talking on the phone for three hours!
时间副词In two more minutes和for 3 hours表示“再过2分钟,算到那时就有3个小时了”,是一个发生在将来的now右侧的箭头时间形式,应该用将来完成式will have been。be动词无意义不翻译,因此只要翻译时态“已经”即可。形容词补语talking on the phone表示持续性,即:一直在说。
                       will have been
----*-------------------*---------------->
   now                in 2 minutes
       for 3 hours………|
 
 
So far we C nothing from him.
[A] have been heard     [B] did not hear     [C] have heard     [D] have not heard
注释:时间副词so far表示"到目前为止",是个箭头时间形式,故用完成式。而主语是we,表示"听到……消息"时应该用主动语态,故从C和D中选择,应为空格后跟有否定词nothing,因此选择C。
At present a new road D in that part of the city.
[A] is building     [B] will be built     [C] will have built     [D] is being built
注释:时间副词at present表示"现在",应用现在简单式,因此从A和D中选择。而主语road和动词build配合应表明"被建造"的意思,故形容词补语选择具有"被动"意味的,故选D。
Our city B a great deal. It doesn't resemble the one of three years ago.
[A] changes     [B] has changed     [C] is changing     [D] will change
注释:句子的后半句表示"现在它和三年前以大不相同",因此可以看出空格部分表示的是从三年前到现在的变化,强调的是"到现在"这个时间点,是箭头时间形式,因此用现在完成式,即B。如果没有第二句的描述,A和C也是正确的,表示"经常在变"。{resemble:动词,表示"与……相似","像"的意思;}
When Anna phoned me I had just finished my work and A to take a bath.
[A] was starting     [B] have started     [C] starting     [D] will start
注释:时间副词when Anna phoned me和已知动词had just finished可知动作发生在过去,是发生在过去的时间括弧,所以排除现在式B和将来式D。空格是由对等连接And连接的,其要求对称,因此只能选择仅有的动词短语A,以便于had just finished对称。另外,时间副词是过去的时间括弧,前半句I had just finished强调一种"截止到那时刚完成作业"的意味,所以用过去完成式,而I was starting则表示"在那段时间括弧我要做什么",因此用过去简单式,形容词补语starting表示”正在……,持续的意思“。
■There C some very bad storms recently.
[A] is     [B] are     [C] have been     [D] have
注释:时间副词recently表示"不久前到现在为止",是箭头时间形式,故用完成式。表示"有"的句型用there is/are,其完成式为There have been。
The future price of this stock D by several factors.
[A] is going to determine     [B] will determine     [C] will be determine     [D] will be determined
注释:主语future price表示未来价格,因此时间是在未来。整句的意思是在"未来时间括弧"内的价格由多种因素决定,故用将来简单式B或D,而主语和动词determin明显应该用被动态配合,因此形容词补语采用被动式,故选D。
The camera was invented in the 19th century. At that time, most photographers B professionals.
[A] are     [B] were     [C] have been     [D] bad been
注释:时间副词at that time(the 19th century),表示过去的那段时间括弧。因此用过去简单式,即B。
The whole area was flooded because it C for weeks.
[A] rains     [B] has rained     [C] had been raining     [D] was raining
注释:时间副词for weeks和动词was flooded,表示是过去时间,而且for weeks强调已经有数周了,强调一种"截止到目前"已经有数周了的意味,故选用过去完成式。形容词补语rainning采用-ing词尾表示动作的持续,故C。
By next Sunday you A with us for three months.
[A] will have stayed     [B] will stay     [C] shall stay     [D] have stayed
解释:时间副词by next Sunday,表示到下个周日为止,是发生在将来的箭头时间形式,而且for three months也有强调"到那时已有三个月了"的意味,因此选用将来完成式A。
■We could smell that some one C a cigar.
[A] would be smoking     [B] was smoked     [C] had been smoking     [D] would be smoked
注释:主语some one和动词smoke应采用主动语态,因此形容词补语表示不能为被动语态,故排除B和D。而would be somking表示"将抽未抽",如此就不能闻出来,只能选择过去完成式,表示"到闻到烟味这个时刻为止,我们可以闻出来",是箭头时间形式,故选择C。
 
Boy: Do you want to go and see Gone with the Wind with me tonight?
■Girl: No! I have seen (see) it.
注释:强调的是看过,而不是何时看的。即"到现在为止,已经看过",因此是箭头时间形式,故have seen。
Boy: Oh, really? When did you see it?
Girl: I went (go) to see it the first day it was on -- last Monday.
注释:时间副词the first day it was on,表示它第一次上映的那个时间括弧,应用过去简单式,故went.
■Boy: To tell you the truth, I have seen it too. In fact, I had seen (see) it before you did.
注释:时间副词before you did,表示截止到你看之前,是箭头时间形式,引用过去完成式had seen。
Girl: That's impossible. I tole you I saw it the first day it was on.
■Boy: But it's the truth! I saw (see) it seven or eight years ago, the last time that old picture came (come) in town.
注释:时间副词seven or eight years ago,清楚的标示出动作发生在"七八年前这个时间段",是括弧时间形式,故用过去简单式。如果用过去完成式had seen也没错,表示"到七八年前为止的以前,已经看过"的意思,强调的语气侧重点稍有不同。
时间副词the last time,则表示动作发生在上次来镇里的那个时间括弧段,故用过去简单式。
Girl: In that case, why did you ask me to go in the first place?
■Boy: Well, I just wanted (want) to go out with you tonight. Since you have seen the picture, will you go to the baseball game with me instead?
注释:句子的问题是why did you……, 故回答是wanted。此外,句子问题是"为啥一开始请我去(时间段)?",回答"那个时间括弧段",我是想约你今晚出去,因为发生的时间确切,故用过去简单式。
Girl: I guess (guess) I will, if Father says Okay. But you will have to pick me up at my place.
注释:发生时间就是now,应用现在简单式。
Boy: Great! I will see (see) you at 5:30 then. I'll bring my car.
注释:发生在确切的5:30这个瞬间的时间括弧段,故用未来简单式。
Girl: But why 5:30? Why not seven o' clock?
■Boy: Because the game will have been starting (start) by then. These evening games will begin (begin) at 6:30, you know. Don't forget now, 5:30 at your place!
注释:时间副词by then,表示"到了那个时候,已经开始了",是箭头时间形式,并且发生在未来,故为将来完成式will have been。而比赛是个持续性动作,故形容词补语用-ing形式表示持续性,即will have been starting。注意,这里也可以使用would have started,用would表示假设语气,"如果拖到7点才去,那就看不成了"这样的口吻。
时间副词at 6:30,表示所有的这些比赛(these evening games)发生在确定的6:30这个时间括弧中,又因为还未开始,故为将来简单式will begin。
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1.4 不定式短语
1.4.1 不定式短语就是to加上动词原型所组成的短语,对其最合理的解释就是将其视为助动词的变化。即:不定式其实就是把句子中的助动词改写为to的形式,从而进一步省略重复内容,以达到简化句子的目的。

1.4.2 不定式与助动词共同点:a.后面都要接动词原型;b.都有"不确定"的语气,不定式和助动词都只能用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情,这种重要的不确定语气可用来判断何时该用不定式;c.都要用完成式来表示相对的过去时间,助动词和不定式都没有过去式的拼法,像may、might这种类似过去式的写法其实表示的是猜测语气的强弱,并不是表示过去的意味。因此,他们需要采用完成式来表示相对的过去。;d.所有重要的语气助动词,都可以改写为不定式,例如:
must -- have to
should -- ought to
will/would -- be going to
can/could -- be able to
may/might -- be likely to(be probably to)

1.4.3 不定式与动名词的区分。传统语法的动状词(verbals)包括现在分词(Ving)、过去分词(Ven)、动名词(Ving)、不定式(to V)等等,其中现在分词、过去分词只能当形容词类使用,动名词可当名词类使用,而不定式则是"不一定什么词类",它可当名词类、形容词类和副词类使用。例如:不定式和动名词都能当名词使用(都拿做宾语举例),其区别是:不定式表示一种"计划做或将要做的事,但不能百分百确定做"的情景,只要还没做就含有不确定的因素在里边;而动名词则表示已经即成实事的事情。此外,不定式还表示一种意愿做、将会去做的含义,而动名词则没有这种意思,尤其在否定意味的动词后,既然是"否定"了,用不定式又表示"将会做",会显得不合情理(当然,也有用否定动词,但表达"即使错也不得不做"的意味时,也会用不定式),故此时用动名词会更合理。

1.4.4 从不定式看"使役动词后接动词原型"的问题:使役动词具有强制语气,它的结果是确定的、无从选择的,这种确定性语气排除了助动词的空间,因而也就不能用不定式,而应用动词原型。而普通动词的动作,别人是否愿意是不确定的,所以会牵涉语气助词,也进而就会出现不定式。当然,使役动词后并不是一定要强制接动词原型,如:John had his car painted over,其中had……done表示让别人帮自己做了什么事。

1.4.5 从不定式看"感官动词后接动词原型"的问题:感官动词后接动词原型的原因和使役动词是相同的,即:不定式的不确定性不适合这个上下文。像see、hear、watch等感官动词后面不能接不定式,是因为不定式是助动词的变化,具有不确定的语气(例如:to play the violin表示想要或将要去拉小提琴),而感官动词只能配合确实发生的事使用,因而不能与带有"不确定、未发生"涵义的不定式连用。现在分词表示持续性动作,放在感官动词后边强调经历了整个或一段持续过程,但如果是短暂发生的动作就不适合用现在分词,而过去分词表示被动,其并不适合感官动词的适用场景,那就只剩下动词原型了,即:感官动词后接现在分词表示持续性动作,接动词原型表示短暂性的动作。

1.4 本小节示例及练习:
I am glad to know you.
本句是很常见的简单句子,但是“为什么用不定式,而不用动名词knowing you”? 原因是:不定式来自助动词的变化,如该句可改写成:I am glad because I can know you. ---> 进一步改写成:I am glad because I am able to know you. 此时,句子是连接词because引导的副词从句,从句的主语I和主句的主语I相同,可以省略重复元素,而be动词是无意义的连缀动词,这样就可以省略从句中的“I am”。但是,当从句省略了主语I和连缀动词be之后,剩下的内容已经不能构成一个完整的从句结构了,如此一来,连接词becuase也就没有存在的必要,剩下的不定式to know you本身就带有able to的暗示,所以就变成:I am glad to know you. 翻译为“很高兴能认识你”,这里的to know就是able to know,也就是can know的变化。
I will go. (不定式与助动词共同点——后均接动词原型)
I want to go. (不定式与助动词共同点——后均接动词原型)
He is right.
He may be right. (不定式与助动词共同点——均有“不确定”的语气)
He seems to be right. (不定式与助动词共同点——均有“不确定”的语气)
It must be raining now. (助动词用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情)
听到外边“哗啦哗啦“的声音,一定下雨了。must本身没有过去式的拼法,must用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情。
     must be
-------*-------->
       now
It may rain any minute. (助动词用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情)
看到天空乌云密布,随时都可能下雪。
It might even snow. (助动词用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情)
翻译为:说不定还会下雪。这两句都是未来时态,这时的may、might不表示现在式或过去式,仅表示比较保留、比较没有把握的猜测语气,might比may更没有把握。本句中,may、might是用来猜测现在或未来时间的事情,由此可见不定式和助动词都只能用来猜测现在和未来的事情,这种重要的”不确定语气“可以用来判断何时该用不定式。
                       may rain
                     might snow
------*------(-----------------)--->
     now          any minute
It must have rained last night. (不定式与助动词共同点——均缺乏表达过去时间的能力,需要用完成式来表达相对的过去时间)
早上起来看到地上湿湿的,昨晚一定下过雨。
         must have rained
----(------------------------)------*--->
               last night               now
It seems to have rained last night. (不定式与助动词共同点——均缺乏表达过去时间的能力,需要用完成式来表达相对的过去时间)
翻译为:昨晚好像下过雨。句中的seems是现在式,表示"现在看起来"、"现在推测",可是推测的是昨天晚上的事情,所以下雨应该是过去式。不定式和助动词都只能表示语气强弱的差别,无法表达过去时间,并且因此其后要跟动词原型,故也不能用动词过去式表示过去时间,因此只好用完成式来表示过去。
         to have rained         seems
----(--------------------)--------*------>
             last night               now
They plan to marry next month. (svo) 本句中的to marry next month是plan的宾语,宾语位置应该放名词,可为什么不放动名词,而放不定式呢?原句可转变为They plan that they will marry next month,而marry是计划中的事情,下月才发生,故用未来式,然后再把they will marry改成they are to marry,这时候省略掉重复的主语和连缀动词be,就成了不定式They plan to marry next month。此外,不定式表示对”现在或将来的猜测“,是不确定的语气,而动名词适合描述既成事实的事情。
I avoid making the same mistake twice. (svo) 本局中使用动名词making会比不定式to make恰当,因为to make其实就是will make的省略,既然主句意义为”避免“,而不定式又表示”将会做“,意思就变得矛盾不清楚了, 因此这里适合动名词。
I avoid something. (svo) avoid表示"避免",其后的宾语位置应该放名词,因此只有动名词和不定式可以做名词。而不定式有"将会做"的意思,即:I will make the same mistake twice,这样就与句意有冲突,所以这就是传统语法所说的avoid后只能接动名词的原因。
I hate to say this, but I think you're mistaken. (svo) 本句中,hate虽然也有否定的意味,但其后依然接了不定式to say ,这是因为to say是must say的变化,在句中表示"虽然很不愿意说,但是不得不说"的意味,因此是符合句子的语意的。
I like to be the first. (svo) 翻译为:我喜欢排第一。不定式to be是I can be的变化,使用不定式是合理的。
I don't like to wait too long. (svo) 不定式to wait是I will wait的变化,使用不定时也是合理的。
I dislike standing in long lines. (svo) 本句中,dislike表示不喜欢,其本身具有否定的意味,而不定式意味着"将会去做",并且dislike也没有"不得不做"的意思,所以这里"不喜欢"和"不定式的将会做"会冲突,所以这里适用动名词。
I always try to be on time. (svo) 本句中,to be on time视为I can be on time的变化,主语动词try有"尝试"的不确定意味,所以后接不定式to be on time表示"希望能够准时"。
Why don't you try being late for a change? (svo) 本句中,假设主语每次约会都很准时,结果对方迟到很久,别人会指点他说:"下次故意迟到试试看"。准时不是哪么容易做到的,不确定的不可控因素太多,所以可以说try to be on time(I try if I can be on time),但本句的迟到确实很容易一定做得到的,不存在不确定性的因素,所以不适合用不定式。此句中,如果用不定式就成为I try to be late(I try if I can be late,我努力尝试迟到,但不确定能够成功),听起来很怪异。而本句中的try being late for a change,是表示"迟到"是一定能做到的,不存在不确定性,所以没用不定式,但try所暗示的不确定性,不再"迟到"一事本身,而是在"试试迟到一下的后果会如何"。
Please remember to give me a wake-up call at 6:00 tomorrow. (vo) 本句中,要求服务生明天打电话叫起床,也就是(Please remember you must give me a call),但是电话还没打,还是存在不确定性的,所以must give或will give就演化成to give。
I remember calling her at 6:00 last night. (svo) 本句汇总,没有用不定式而用了动名词,表示"我记得昨天曾打过电话(I remember that I called her last night)",是既成事实而没有不确定的语气,故用动名词calling。
The speaker stopped talking at the second bell. (svo) 本句的talking可以视为he was talking的变化,表示演讲是一直持续的动作,然后才停下来,表示动作的持续性。
The speaker stopped a second to drink some water. (sv) 本句中的不定式to drink是he could drink的变化:The speaker stopped a second so that he could drink some water,so that引到的副词从句表示"为了要喝口水",从句是为了修饰动词stopped的原因,改成不定式表示"停下来,将要喝口水(to drink some water)",这个不定式短语仍然是副词类用来修饰动词stopped。
The little girl asked her mother to come to the PTA meeting. (svoc) 本句翻译为:小女孩邀请她妈妈来开母姊会。句子可以改写成:The little girl asked if her mother would come to the PTA meeting. (svo),ask是普通动词,邀请人参加,但别的意愿是不确定的,所以会牵涉到语气助词would come,进而演化为不定式to come。
The teacher made the little girl stay behind. (svoc) 翻译为:老师叫小女孩留下来。本句描述祈使句中的使役动词后接动词原型的情况,祈使句(命令句)中使用动词原型,像let、have、make等使役动词后要接动词原型,就是因为这种强迫性质的语气,其结果是确定的,已没有助动词存在的空间,所以不会演变为不定式。
The teacher asked the little girl to stay behind. (svoc) 如果老师客气的问道,Will you stay behind?这是小女孩就有选择的自由,其是否留下来的结果是不确定的,所以会有助动词,进而演化为不定式。
John had his car painted over. (svoc) 本句翻译为:约翰把车子让人重新漆过了。使役动词后便不仅仅可以跟动词原型,因为had……done表示让别人帮自己做了什么事。
I heard her playing the violin. (svoc) 本句翻译为:我听到她在拉小提琴。感官动词后节动词原型的情况,像see、hear、watch这种感觉字眼,只能配合确实发生的事情使用,而不能和带有"不确定、未发生"涵义的不定式连用。本句中,感官动词与现在分词连用,表示她正在拉小提琴被我听到,这里用现在分词表示动词的持续性。
I heard her cry out in pain. (svoc) 翻译为:我听到他痛得大叫一声,这里感官动词后接动词原型,表示叫声并不连续,听见她痛的叫了一声。如果用现在分词,则成为She was crying in pain(她很痛苦,一直哭。),表示动作的持续性,即一直在哭,这样意思就变了,这时即不能用现在分词、也不能用不定式、也不能用过去分词(非被动),因此只能用动词原型了。 
 
 
■Not wishing to attend the dance, Marie D that she had a fever.
[A] made believed     [B] make believe     [C] makes believe     [D] made believe
注释:从she had a fever可以看出是过去式,并且使役动词make后接动词原型,故选D。注意,make believe两字连用时表示"假装",已成为常用短语。
■He is said by his friends A.
[A] to be gentle and gracious     [B] to have graciousness and gentle     [C] gentle and a gracious man     [D] that is a gentle and gracious man
注释:动词is said翻译为"据说",暗示其具有不确定性,因此用不定式。而A和B选项中均有and连接词,故需要and两端对称,而B中的graciousness(名词)和gentle(形容词)并不对称,故选A。{gentle:温和的,文雅的,出身名门的; gracious:亲切的,高尚的,优雅的}
■B any aspect of animal behavior, the biologist must first determine the laws influencing animal behavior.
[A] Explain     [B] To explain     [C] One explains     [D] The explanation of
注释:主语biologist和动词must first determine构成一个独立的从句,其前面添加一个动词(A)、一个无连接词的从句(C)、一个名词短语(D)都会造成句型错误,而只有不定式(B)修饰语性质,可以依附在独立从句上而不影响其句型。{aspect:(问题的)方面,(实物的)一部分,观点,角度;influence:影响、感染,[美俚]在(饮料)中加烈酒;spectacle:奇观,展示,景象;make a spectacle of onself:出洋相}
"I'll help you whenever you need me".
"good. I'd like C me tomorrow".
[A] you helping     [B] that will help     [C] you to help     [D] that you help
注释:根据句意是"希望明天来帮忙",这就牵涉到"能否来"、"是否有意愿来"等不确定的语气,因此应该用助动词或者不定式。而that will help是形容词从句不能放在like后做宾语(名词或不定式可做宾语),因而只能选择C,you作宾语,to help做宾语补语。
■"Where did he go?"
"He went to another store A. "
[A] to buy slacks     [B] for buy slacks     [C] buy slacks     [D] buying slacks
注释:回答的内容翻译为"他到另一家店买裤子",其作为问题"他去哪儿了?"的答案,具有说明动机或目的的作用(说明动机或目的最好用in order to、或直接用to来表示),故A优于表示"持续动作"的Ving形态的D。而B位于介词后的动词应用动名词,C直接在独立从句后加上动词是错误语法。{slacks:便裤,宽松的长裤;slack:松弛的,懈怠的,逃避工作}
■C the silkworm makes a liquid in its body and then squeezes it out through special holes.
[A] It makes silk     [B] Making silk     [C] To make silk,     [D] Silk is made by
注释:空格后是个独立从句,前面加上无连接词的从句(A)、介词(D)都不符合语法要求。现在分词B和不定式C在此类上符合要求,但是这些修饰语置于句首时需要用逗号","隔开,故选C。
I am a peaceful person. Don't make me A violence.
[A] use     [B] using     [C] to use     [D] used by
注释:使役动词后接动词原形做补语。
■Americans C bacon and eggs for breakfast every day.
[A] used to having     [B] are used to have     [C] are used to having     [D] used to
注释:be used to表示"习惯了",其后的to是介词,意为"对"某事习惯了,因此后跟名词,故选C。如果用used to,则可视其为助动词看待,表示"从前常常",因此其后跟动词原型。
■The bus driver told the man B his naughty son to hang out the window.
[A] to don't allow     [B] not to allow     [C] not allowing     [D] don't allowing
注释:told the man表示"叫别人去做……",含有"建议、要求"的意味,也就是The driver said to the man that he should……之意,因此后接助动词的变化——不定式,故选A或B,不定式不是限定动词,不能用don't表示否定,只能用not,故选B。
■To get an education, A.
[A] one must work hard     [B] working hard is necessary     [C] there is need to work hard     [D] hard work is needed
注释:to get an education是so that(或in order to) one can get an education的意思,所以后面的主要从句应用one做主语。
The purpose of the investigation is C the suspect's degree of involvement in the crime.
[A] to ascertaining     [B] ascertaining     [C] to ascertain     [D] ascertained
注释:主语purpose是"目的",而be动词后的空格是补语,因此只能是不定式和动名词,但这里表示目的,因此用不定式(代表in order to)更合适。
The witness went on the witness stand C by the prosecution.
[A] being questioned     [B] to question     [C] to be questioned     [D] questioning
注释:by the prosecution意为"被检方",所以要用更被动语态,故A和C中选。Being questioined表示"正在被质询",与went on the witness stand(走向证人席)冲突,因此应用不定式C,表示"走上台后才要被质询"。{prosecution:起诉、原告}
■You can playback the answering machine. She C.
[A] will call     [B] could call     [C] could have called     [D] is calling
注释:playback是"播放",因此带子上应该已经有了声音,表示"她可能来过电话了",表示对过去的猜测,因此助动词只能用完成式表示相对过去的时间,故选C。
You should avoid  B vague words in your composition.
[A] to use     [B] using     [C] the use     [D] to using
注释:avoid表示"避免",具有强烈的否定以为,而不定式表示"去做"或"将要做",就会产生冲突。而且空格部分做宾语,因此只能用动名词B或C。C中的the use做avoid宾语需要用介词连接上下文,例如avoid the use of vague words,故选B。{vague:模糊的、含糊的;avoid:避免;void:空白、无效的;valid:有效的,正确的。}
■He is waiting at the restaurant for a free table because he forgot B a reservation in advance.
[A] making     [B] to make     [C] made     [D] have to make
注释:从上下文可以看出,意思是"他事先应该订位,但是却忘了",故译为:He forgot that he should make……,故用其不定式的变化B。{in advance:提前,预先}
We can go out now. It stopped B quite a while ago.
[A] rain     [B] raining     [C] to rain     [D] rained
注释:raining有持续的暗示,stopped raining表示之前一直下雨,后来停了,故选B。{quite a while:刚刚}
■C able to write an academic paper, you  must do a lot of library research.
[A] Be     [B] Being     [C] To be     [D] Before
注释:从句由逗号隔开,因此通常用不定式或者动名词,但主句有you must……,即:表示目的(in order to),所以用不定式更合适。
■He always has his shoes D at the railway station.
[A] shone     [B] to shine     [C] shining     [D] shined
注释:has的后边可还原为his shoes are shined……,表示"他的鞋正在被……别人嚓"。把主语shoes改成宾语,补语shined改成宾语补语,即是答案。
Don't sit up too late, for night is a time B.
[A] resting     [B] to rest     [C] that rests     [D] when rest
注释:to rest还原成when you should rest,即不定式是助动词的变化,故选B。C用形容词从句表示"夜晚本身在休息",D则缺失了主语。
■He was made B the Bible every night before going to bed.
[A] read     [B] to read     [C] reading     [D] reads
注释:make虽然是使役动词,要用动词原型做补语,但是注意其变成被动语态时,就要把to放回去成为不定式,故选B。
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1.5 动名词(Ving)
1.5.1 传统语法中有4种动状词(Verbals),即:动名词(Ving)、现在分词(Ving)、过去分词(Ven)、不定式(to V),其中动名词属于名词类、现在分词和过去分词属于形容词类、不定式则可当名词类、形容词类、副词类使用。尤其要注意动名词和不定式均可以当名词使用,当名词用时,不定式是助动词的变化,表示"将要做、会做"等不确定的语气,而动名词的结构接近普通名词,其往往保留有若干程度的"动作、持续"的意思。
 
1.5.2 动名词相对于普通名词而言,仍然保留有若干程度的"动作"意味,并且保留有"持续性"的暗示;而普通名词则仅表示一种短暂的叙述行为。例如:have a drink用普通名词表示喝一杯,drinking则表示习惯性、经常性的喝。此外,许多运动也都用动名词表示"持续性与动作性",比如:swimming、skiing(滑雪)、skating(溜冰)、mountain-climbing、dancing、jogging(慢跑)等,这些运动都用动名词表示相对的持续性。
 
1.5.3 动名词和普通名词很类似,其前面可以有冠词(the burning)、所有格(his running)、复数(大部分动名词不可数,只有少部分可数,如two weddings)、复合名词(strawberry-picking),而不定式则是to加动词原型的短语形式(如:to run,to leave),不能加限定词或者复数。
 
1.5.4 动名词短语可以视为名词从句的变化,只要把主语和be动词/动词放回去,就能还原成完整的名词从句(例如:Picking strawberries can be fun [svc] -> That anybody picks strawberries can be fun [svc])。动名词短语的主语与主要从句不同时,可以采用所有格的形式保留从句主语(例如:I don't like John's calling my firlfriend day after day [svo])。动名词的被动语态的处理需要借助be动词的动名词词尾"-ing"来表达其名词特性(例如:That I was invited here is a great honor [svc] -> Being invited here is a great honor [svc])。
 
1.5.5 动名词和现在分词都可以放在名词短语中的形容词位置上(只是位置相同,动名词是名词类,现在分词是形容词类),区别是:动名词可以拿到典型的动名词位置——介词后使用(如:That flying jacket looks smart on you. -> That's a jacket for flying);现在分词都是形容词,具有强烈暗示"正在进行"的意味,其可以拿到典型的形容词位置——补语位置验证(例如:That flying bird is a black-faced spoonbill. -> That bird is flying [svc])。
 
1.5 本小节示例及练习:
Let me buy you a drink. (普通名词,表示"喝一杯")
Drinking is his only vice. (动名词,其保留若干程度的"动作"意味,并且有"持续性"的暗示。表示"习惯性、经常性"的喝。{vice:n.缺点、恶习;adj.副的,代理的})
I am not afraid of death, but I am scared of dying. (普通名词death代表"死亡"的抽象概念,动名词dying代表"动作过程",暗示动名词具有"动作、持续"的特点)
There are two weddings at the restaurant tonight. (只有少数的动名词是可数的[two weddings],大多数动名词不可数,其用法也和普通名词相同,动名词还可有冠词[the burning]、所有格[his running];而不定式则只能加动词原型并以短语形态出现[to run,to leave])
I really enjoyed teaching English to school children at night. (svo) {动名词teaching可视为名词从句的变化,只要把主语和be动词放回去就可以还原成一个名词从句:I really enjoyed that I taught English to school children at night. (svo)。我们从简化(reduction)的角度考虑,如果要简化句子,那么我们需要拆除原先的svo结构中的宾语部分,即:省略相同的主语I,如果动词taught也省掉则达到了拆除的目的,但是动词taught具有实际意义不能直接省略,因此需要做动状词(verbals)的词类变换,而做宾语的名词只有动名词和不定式。其中,不定式是助动词的变化,带有"不确定"的语气,而动名词带有"持续性"的意味,本句更适合采用"持续性"教学活动的动名词。于是本句变为that I was teaching English to school children at night,然后省略掉重复主语、无意义的be动词,整句就变成:I really enjoyed teaching English to school children at night.}
Picking strawberries can be fun. (svc) {动名词复合化后组成动名词短语,可用作主语。真正隐含的主语因省略而看不出来,只能笼统的当作anybody,其可还原为名词从句:That anybody picks strawberries can be fun. (svo)。在复合动名词短语中,strawberries是pick的宾语。}
The picking of strawberries requires patience. (svo) {定冠词the和picking组成一个名词短语,因此后边不能再有宾语,因而要改成介词短语形式of strawberries来作为the picking的修饰语。}
Strawberry-picking is a strenuous job. (svc) {strawberry-picking是复合字,strawberries拿到picking前面放在形容词的位置使用,因此strawberries要改成单数,并且中间添加hyphen"-"串联成符合名词,类似于mountain-climbing。} {strenuous[strenjuəs]:adj:奋发的,费力的,繁重的,积极的;}
I don't like that John calls my girlfriend day after day. (svo) {主从句的主语不一致的名词性从句的简化时,需要用所有格保留从句主语。原句中,宾语从句的动词call没有助动词,而且是日复一日持续的,所以只能改成动名词calling。直接改成:I don't like calling my girlfriend day after day的话,语意就变了。原因就是从句主语John和主句主语I不一致,所以要在calling前加所有格,把宾语主语John附加在calling前面,变成:I don't like John's calling my girlfriend day after day. (svo)。}
That I was invited here is a great honor. (svc) {动名词的被动语态,需要借用无意义的be动词的动名词词尾"-ing"来表达其名词特性。原句中的主语从句省略主语I和无意义的be动词就变成了过去分词短语invited here,它只能当形容词使用,不能做主语,因此要用到词类变化:改成名词形式the invitation或者借用be动词的动名词词尾,一方面保留动词invited的被动态、一方面动名词being也符合名词的词类要求,即:Being invited here is a great honor. (svc)。}
That flying bird is a black-faced spoonbill. (现在分词是形容词,具有强烈暗示"正在进行"的意味,其可以拿到典型形容词位置——补语位置来验证,That bird is flying. (svc)。)
That flying jacket looks smart on you. (动名词是名词,可以拿到典型名词位置——介词位置来验证,That's a jacket for flying.。)
 
 
The barber's apprentice practiced shaving (shave) on a watermelon. (shave"刮脸"是持续行动作,而practice也暗示要持续一段时间,故用shaving)
■I love watching/to watch (watch) horror movies alone. (watching表示"看电影"是件持续进行的事情,而to watch则表示"想要去看"的意思)
■Listening (Listen) to music can be very relaxing. ("听音乐"和dancing、mountain-climbing等持续的活动多用动名词)
You must not forget to pay (pay) the phone bill. (must not forget暗示电话费"尚未付,应该去付",故用表示"不确定"的不定式。)
■The workers finished painting (paint) and left. (动词暗示已经完成,故不适合"不确定"意味的不定式,因用painting表示即成事实。)
Seeing is believing (believe). (前后对称)
To see is to believe (believe). (前后对称)
Thank you for calling (call). (介词后只能跟动名词,不能用不定式)
John's leaving (leave) the party so early was rather impolite. (所有格后只能跟动名词,不能用不定式)
I really enjoyed being (be) at your party. (enjoy表示"乐在其中",用"不确定"的不定式意味着"不一定乐的起来",所以只能用表示"正在进行"的being。)
 
I just took C and don't feel like swimming now.
[A] swimming     [B] to swim     [C] a swim     [D] swim
注释:take a swim表示刚刚"游一趟",后面的swimming则表示有"游泳运动"。
■I resent D a hypocrite, especially when I'm telling the truth.
[A] calling     [B] called     [C] being calling     [D] being called
注释:翻译为"我讨厌被叫做伪君子,特别是我明明说了实话"。后半句的语意表明前半句应用被动语态,因而选D。{hypocrite:伪君子,伪善者;resent:恨、生气;}
■D outside my window every night is getting on my nerves.
[A] The cats screaming     [B] The cats to scream     [C] Screaming cats     [D] The cat's screaming
注释:动词为单数is,A、B、C主语都是cats,动词应用复数,只有所有格D为单数。
■Learning a language is B all about the culture.
[A] to learn     [B] learning     [C] learn     [D] learned
注释:空格在be动词后,应该为主语补语的位置,所以要求和主语对称,则选动名词B。
A is a very exacting sport.
[A] Mountain-climbing     [B] Climb mountains     [C] To climb mountains     [D] Mountains-climbing
注释:持续性动作用动名词,故A或D。mountain放在形容词位置,所以不能用复数,因此选A。
■In doing magic, the trick lies in D your audience.
[A] divert     [B] diversion     [C] to divert     [D] diverting
注释:介词in后面应该用名词而不能用不定式,故选名词diversion或动名词diverting,而空格后面又有名词your audience,所以需要用动名词diverting,your audience做它的宾语,故D。{divert:转移,娱乐}
■The workers objected to D like slaves.
[A] be treated     [B] treating     [C] treat     [D] being treated
注释:object to解释为"对某事表示反对",所以是介词,后接名词,故B或D。语意有被动意味"被当做奴隶看待",故选D。
■Everyone marveled at A the French Open.
[A] Michael Chang's winning     [B] Michael Chang's win     [C] Michael Chang to win     [D] Michael Chang win
注释:让人惊奇的是"张德培赢得法国公开赛"这件事,而C和D强调的是人,所以不和句意。而从句中的win是动词,后接宾语the French Open,所以所有格后要用动名词winning,the French Open做它的宾语。{marvel:n.奇异的事,令人吃惊的人;v.惊异于,惊异;marveled:奇迹的,令人吃惊的}
If you don't mind D so, I think you are in the wrong.
[A] saying     [B] to say     [C] I say     [D] my saying
注释:句意为"不介意我这样说的话",故只从C和D选。空格部分,应该为宾语,应用名词类的my saying so做mind的宾语,故选D。
He is used to lectures D he's a teacher.
[A] give     [B] gift     [C] given     [D] giving
注释:be used to是"对某事习惯了、习惯于",这里的to是介词,used to是"过去常常",这里应该用动名词D。
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1.6 分词(Ving、Ven)
1.6.1 传统语法的动状词(Verbals)除了前面的不定式和动名词,还有两种分词(现在分词与过去分词),我们建议将分词视为形容词看待,即使其出现于被动态、进行式的时候依然可看作形容词。形容词是用来形容名词的,在句子中有两个位置:名词短语位置和补语位置,而分词和形容词一样均可放在这两个位置,以达到修饰名词的目的。
 
1.6.2 名词短语位置的出现的分词跟普通形容词一样用来形容名词,区别是:现在分词(Ving)做形容词修饰名词时,其要加上"进行"的暗示,有解释为:"正在……、一直……"的弦外之音;过去分词(Ven)做形容词修饰名词时,其具有"被动(Ved)或完成(Ven)"的暗示,有解释为:"被、已经"的弦外之音;而普通名词则没有这种暗示性。同样,补语位置出现的分词也看作形容词,只是现在分词的ing词尾具有"进行"的暗示,解释为"正在、一直";过去分词的ed词尾具有"被动(Ved)或完成(Ven)"的暗示,解释为"被、已经"。需要特别指出的是具有"完成"暗示而非"被动态"的过去分词(如:不及物动词go和fall不能解释为被动态:It's gone. The leaves are all fallen.;及物动词do也不一定适合解释为被动态:I'm done. It's your turn)。
     形容词词尾的弦外音:
     -ing表示:正在……、一直……,如:barking。 {bark:(狗)吠,咆哮;剥皮,擦伤;树皮}
     -ed/en表示:被动、完成,如:boiled、gone
     -ful表示:"很"源自full of,如:useful
     -ish表示:一点,如:grayish。 {grayish:浅灰色的,略带灰色的}
     -less表示:没、补,如:valueless
 
1.6.3 表示"感觉"的分词,可以把句子简化为简单的svo或svc结构,根据主语来判断该用现在分词(Ving)还是过去分词(Ven),通常主语为有机生物时用被动,无机物时用主动。如:(He is disappointed at his scores.[他对分数很失望];His scores are disappointing.[他的分数令人失望])。注意:即使使用了被动态,这些表示"感觉"的字眼大都是形容词意味大过动作的意味,所以被动的意味不明显,后面一般不用被动态介词by,而用其他介词。
另外,及物动词才可能有被动语态,不及物动词无被动语态,我们可以根据动词的词根词首分析来判断是否为及物动词(如:consist中词首con-(表示together)和词根-sist(表示stand或be)都是不及物动词,因此无被动态;而compose中词首com-(表示together)和词根-pos(表示place,放)里面,前者是不及物动词,后者是及物动词,所以有被动态)。
     常见的表示"感觉"的动词:
     disappoint
     satisfy
     surprise
     amaze:吃惊、惊讶
     astonish:吃惊、惊讶
     scare:受惊吓
     terrify:使恐吓;威胁
     please:使高兴;取悦;请
     tire:使疲倦、劳累
     exhaust:n:废气;v:耗尽,使疲倦
     ……
     根据词根判断动词是否及物:
     -sist:表示stand或be的意思,都是不及物动词。
     con-:表示together。
     -pos:表示place(放),是及物动词。
     com:表示together,共同的
 
1.6.4 现在分词与过去分词的混合出现的形态中,现在分词与过去分词只是两个并行的形容词而已,如:being investigated被看做两个形容词,现在分词being是无意义的be动词只保留其"正在"的解释,过去分词investigated具有被动的暗示,因此这两个形容词合在一起表示"正在被调查"以作为主语"本案"的补语。
 
1.6.5 形容词从句和副词从句具有丰富的表现力,但也造成了句子冗长的缺点,因此对这种长句子进行简化是非常必要的,后面在简化句中还会介绍这部分内容。对形容词从句、副词从句进行简化的原则还是以"省略相同主语、无意义的be动词、拆除从句结构"等手段为主,省略后的结果被传统语法成为"分词构句",其实只是一种省略句型而已,如:定语从句(形容词从句的一种)Toys which are made in Taiwan are much better now.省略了重复主语which、无意义的be动词后剩下的结果Toys made in Taiwan are much better now(Ven形式的简化);Children who are living in orphanages make a lot of friends.省略了who、be动词后简化为Children living in orphanages make a lot of friends(Ving形式的简化);The vase which is being auctioned now is a Ming china.省略which、be动词后简化为The vase being auctioned now is Ming china.(being Ven形式的简化)。
原因状语从句(副词从句的一种)After/Because he was wounded in war, the soldier was sent home.省了从句的主语he、be动词,之后就拆除了从句结构不再需要连接词After/Because了,最后简化为Wounded in war, the soldier was sent home.(Ven形式的简化);The pigeion, after it flew 200 miles, was caught up in a net.省略了共同主语it后,动词flew具有实际意义无法被省略,为了达到简化和拆除从句结构的目的,将动词做时态变换使之成为补语,即从句改为after it was flying 200 miles,此时就能省略动词了,也能够去掉连接词after而拆除句子结构了(但此处的连接词after表达了前后时间的实际意义,给予保留),最后简化为The pigeion, after flying 200 miles, was caught up in a net.(Ving形式的简化);When she had finished the day's work, the secretary went home.省略了共同主语she,而had具有表示时态的具体意义不能省略,因此变化为补语形式she was having finished后省略了be动词和连接词,最后成为Having finished day's work, the secretaty went home.(being ven形式的简化)
 
1.6 本小节示例及练习:
That black dog doesn't bite. (形容词在名词短语中修饰名词)
A barking dog doesn't bite. (现在分词看作形容词在名词短语中修饰名词)
The dog is black. (形容词做补语)
The dog is barking. (现在分词当作形容词做补语)
Clean water is safe to drink. (形容词在名词短语中修饰名词)
Boiled water is safe to drink. (过去分词当作形容词在名词短语修饰名词)
The water is clean. (形容词做补语)
The water is boiled. (过去分词当作形容词做补语)
I can't find my wallet. It's gone. (带有"完成"暗示的过去分词,因为go是不及物动词,所以非被动语态,应解释为It's gone.(svc),gone是形容词补语,具有"完成"的暗示,解释为:"跑掉了、不见了"来形容主语it。)
The leaves are all fallen, now that winter is here. (带有"完成"暗示的过去分词,fall也是不及物动词,此处应解释为完成,即:The leaves are fallen.(svc),"叶子落下来了")
I'm done.It's all yours. (带有"完成"暗示的过去分词,虽然do是及物动词,可是不能解释为:"我被做了",只能说:"我做完了",因此done还是看作形容词,解释为完成意义"我做完了")
He is disappointed at his scores. (过去分词带有"被动"、"完成"的暗示。一些表示"感觉"的字眼,在难以分辨用"主动"还是"被动"语态时,可以先还原成简单句,如:His scores disappoint him.(svo) [他的分数令他失望],这样就容易看出主语是he时,应该用被动态He is disappointed at his scores. 虽然是被动态,可这些表示"感觉"的字眼大都是形容词意味大过动作的意味,所以被动的意味不明显,后面一般不用被动态介词by,而用其他介词,本例用介词at。)
His scores are disappointing. (现在分词带有"正在进行"、"一直"的暗示。主语是His scores,是无机物并且要做补语时候应该用主动态,许多表示"感觉"的字眼都可以依照这两例的方法来判断)
Water consists of hydrogen and oxygen. (根据词根词尾来判断"主动"或"被动"。consisit的词首con-表示together的含义,-sist表示stand或be的含义,这两者合起来解释为stand/be together,两个部分都是不及物,所以没用被动态) {consist:由……组成;构成;在于……}
Water is composed of hydrogen and oxygen. (根据词根词尾来判断"主动"或"被动"。compose的词首com表示共同的,-pose表示palce[]的含义,后者是及物动词,所以用被动语态composed。) {compose:作曲;创作;编排;形成}
I have no comment to make while the case is being investigated by police. (现在分词与过去分词混合存在时,只要把现在分词和过去分词看作两个并排的形容词用来修饰名词即可,如:being investigated中,现在分词being无意义,只需要翻译"正在"的部分,而过去分词investigated解释为"被调查",合起来解释为"正在被调查",作为补语来形容主语"本案")
Toys made in Taiwan are much better now. (形容词从句简化后剩下分词,如:原句为定语从句(形容词从句的一种)Toys which are made in Taiwan are much better now.,省略了重复主语which和无意义be动词,剩下的分词结构made in Taiwan仍然为充当形容词部分,不影响句子结构,所以可以直接省略)
Children living in orphanages make a lot of friends. (形容词从句(定语从句)Children who are living in orphanages make a lot of friends.,省略共同主语who、无意义的be动词,剩下的分词结构living in orphanages依然是形容词部分,可以省略) {orphanage:孤儿,孤儿身份}
The vase being auctioned now is a Ming china. (形容词从句(定语从句)The vase which is being auctioned now is a Ming china.,省略了主语which,现在分词being表示"正在"的含义,过去分词auctioned表示"被拍卖",如果没有being则意味着可能已经被拍卖掉了,所以being具有正在的暗示不能省略,结果剩下的分成部分being auctioned充当形容词部分。) {auction:n:拍卖;v:拍卖}
Wounded in war, the soldier was sent home. (副词从句的简化后剩下分词部分(传统语法称为"分词构句"),如:原因状语从句(副词从句的一种),还原为After/Because he was wounded in war, the soldier was sent home.,我们从简化的目的出发,省略主语he、无意义的be动词后就拆除了从句结构,不再需要连接词After/Because了,所以剩下的分词部分wounded in war仍然做副词作用,表示原因。)
The pigeon, after flying 200 miles, was caught in net. (副词从句的简化,如:时间状语从句(副词从句的一种)还原为The pigeon, after it flew 200 miles, was caught in net. ,省略主语it,动词flew具有实际意义无法省略,为达到简化目的我们对动词做时态变换为after it was flying……,这样就可省略掉be动词,flying转换为了形容词补语,且含有"进行"的含义,结果就剩下分词部分after flying 200 miles,做为其补充说明作用的副词部分。)
Having finished the day's work, the secretary went home. (副词从句的简化,时间状语从句还原为When she had finished the day's work, the secretary went home.,省略主语she,动词had表示"完成"意义,不能直接省略,为了达到省略的目的,我们依然做时态变化为when she was having finished,这样省略掉主语和be动词并拆除了从句结构,也就不需要连接词when,剩下的形容词having和finished一个表示"持续动作",一个表示"完成"来形容名词work,整个划线部分依然做副词作用)
 
 
在下篇文章中标示出动状词的用法,动状词的表示方法为:现在分词(Ving)、过去分词(Ven)、动名词(nVing)、不定式(toV)
A decade ago, nearly a million and a half elephants were living in Africa. During the past ten years, the number of elephants has dwindled to about one half. These elephants are still being(Ving,adj) killed(Ven,adj) for their tusks, which are worth a lot of money, in spite of an increasing(Ving,adj) outcry against elephant hunting(nVing,n). Most elephants killed(Ven,adj省略句) today die in the hand of illegal hunters.
A grass-consuming(Ving,adj) animal, the elephant eats as much as 300 pounds a day when fully grown(Ven,adv省略句). Wandering(Ving, adv省略句) far and wide in their search for food, elephants can move dozens of miles a day.
Failing(Ving,adj省略句) to find(toV,n) the grasses they like best, they may turn to the trees and eat them.
Today, the remaining(Ving,adj) grasslands for the elephant are seriously reduced(Ven,adj). Many places along their migration routes have been(Ven,adj) turned(Ven,adj) into farms. Some elephants are killed(Ven,adj) by farmers while feeding(Ving,adj省略句) on the farms.
What can the people do here in Taiwan about a threatened(Ven,adj) animal living(Ving, adj省略句) so far away? First, we should know that there is a law protecting(Ving,adj) elephants, even here. People cannot buy or smuggle items made(Ven,adj省略句) from ivory or any part of the elephant's body. Some handicapped(Ven,adj) persons living on making(nVing,prep) name chops have been(Ven,adj) protesting(Ving,adj) that the law impairs their livelihood, making(Ving,adj省略句) it impossible for them to earn(toV,n) money. There are, of course, many substitute materials for elephant tusks, water buffalo horns being(Ving,adj省略句) an important one.
Most counties are now no longer importing(Ving,adj) ivory. It is hoped(Ven,adj) that the ban on buying(nVing,prep) or selling(nVing,prep) ivory will save the remaining(Ving,adj) African elephants. Wildlife conservation organizations like the WWF are not facing(Ving,adj) the problem lying(Ving,adj省略句) down. Claiming(Ving,adv省略句) that he ivory-producing(Ving,adj) countries are unable to protect(toV,n) the elephants there, they are proposing(Ving,ajd) some market-oriented(Ven,adj) approaches to solving(nVing,prep后边) the problem.
{decade:十年;dwindle:减少,缩小;tusk:n:长牙,獠牙;v:以牙刺戳;in spite of:不顾,不管,尽管;outcry:大声喊叫,强烈抗议;consume:消耗,吃喝;wander:漫步;蜿蜒;徘徊;wonder:惊奇,想知道;reduce:减小,缩小,简化;threat:威胁,恐吓;threatened:受威胁的;smuggle:走私;ivory:象牙,乳白色;handicapped:残废的,生理缺陷的;name chop:带名字的印章;impair:损害,削弱;livelihood:生计,营生;substitute:代n:替品,代替者,v:代替;buffalo:n:水牛,水陆坦克;v:威吓,欺骗;horn:角;ban:n:禁令,禁止,v:禁止;conservation:保存,保护,守恒;claim:要求,主张,声称,断言;propose:打算,计划,向……提议,求婚,提名;approach:n:途径,方法,路径,要求,v:靠近,达到,接洽;}
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1.7 形容词(adjective)
1.7.1 形容词是用来修饰名词的,而副词是用来修饰名词以外的词,包括:动词、形容词、其他副词,其中也些特别的副词可以修饰名词。广义的形容词包括:形容词从句、简化形容词从句(如:分词短语、同位语、不定式)、介词短语、复合词、单词等。单词状的形容词通常位于:名词短语中和补语位置。
 
1.7.2 名词短语中的形容词称为attributive adjectives,是用来表示名词的属性(attributive)的形容词,一般出现在限定词(如:a、the、this、some、five、John‘s等)与名词中间。如:
     限定词    形容词    名词
     three      yellow     roses
     a            new        camera
     my         best        friend
                  dirty        water
                  pretty      women
但是,有几个特别的形容词出现在名词短语中时,却放在名词后面(如:形容词else,因为someone、anybody等复合名词中限定词some、any已经和名词one、body写在一起,从而挤掉了形容词的位置,因此只能放在后边);还有些a-开头的古英语形容词放在名词短语中时,也只能放在名词后边(当然其也可以放在补语位置),(如:John and his brother alike{John和他弟弟一样}、money alone{光靠钱},这种a-开头的词首代表一种暂时性的状态,类似于拉丁文的-ing词尾,因为这种暂时性的状态不适合放在名词短语中间的属性(attributive)位置,所以只能放在后边)。
 
1.7.3 名词转用作形容词时,可视为复合名词看待,而名词一旦放入形容词位置就是转借为形容词来使用,要遵循形容词的用法,即:没有复数。如:
     限定词    形容词              名词
     a            government       store     (公营商店)
     my         pencil                sharpener
     a           cigarette             box
                  movie                theaters     (电影院)
 放入名词短语中间位置的形容词只能是单词状的形容词,如果是短语形状的形容词则需要加上hyphen造成复合词才能放入名词短语的中间位置,并且需要把复数名词改为单数形式,如:
     a turn-of-the-century publication (一册在世纪转换之际出版的作品)
     an eye-opening experience
     a five-year-old child
     a 100-watt light bulb
 
1.7.4 名词短语中多个形容词修饰名词时的顺序规则:在attributive ajectives之间,越是表达名词属性的形容词越要靠近名词。换句话说就是:越是不变的、客观的特质越要靠近名词,反之,越是可变的、临时的、主观的因素越要远离名词。如:
     限定词          形容词          名词
     three            big red          apples (big是个相对的概念,而red是苹果相对固定的属性,故:big远red近)
 
1.7.5 补语位置的形容词叫做predicative adjectives,是用来补述(predicate)关于名词的事项,一般距离名词最远,惯用来对名词做一些临时性、补充性的叙述,这与表示属性的attributive adjectives在语气上颇不相同。补语位置的形容词比较自由,单词、短语皆可以使用,另外以a-开头的古英语形容词所暗示的"暂时性"语气,使其最适合出现在补语位置。
 
1.7.6 形容词和副词都有比较级和最高级,形容词的比较级可以视为"大于、小于、等于"这三种逻辑关系的表达方式。单音节形容词一般比较短,适合在词尾变化(如:tall、taller、tallest);三音节形容词一般比较长,不适合词尾变化,所以常分成两个词来处理(如:expensive、more expensive、most expensive);双音节词形容词则不长不短,比较尴尬,通常的处理规则是:如果词尾是典型的形容词词尾,则有标示词类的功能,这时应该保留词尾不变,分成两个词处理,除此之外则随意。如果是-y词尾,因为发音的要求,需要先把-y长母音变短母音的i,然后再加词尾变化。如:
     crowded         more crowded          most crowded
     loving             more loving             most loving
     helpful            more helpful            most helpful
     useless           more useless            most useless
     famous           more famous            most famous
     active             more active              most active
 
     often              oftener(more often)          oftenest(most often)
     shallow           shallower(more shallow)     shallowest(most shallow)
 
     happy            happier                    happiest
     lucky             luckier                      luckiest
冠词是跟着名词走的,而不是因为传统语法所谓的"最高级要加定冠词"。名词短语中的形容词才可能会有冠词出现,如果是补语位置的形容词,则不存在冠词的问题。之所以要加定冠词的原因是:在一个特定的范围中指出"最……"的一个,具有明确的指示功能,因为这种"指示性"才是需要定冠词the的原因。
比较级的句子要求"对称工整",这其中也包含比较的对象在内(如:My car is bigger than yours(your car).)。然而在有"标示差别"(即:比较对象无法被标示出)的字眼后面就不能省略比较对象(如:Cars made in Taiwan are better than those (car) mode in Korea),而从修辞的角度来看,又要尽量避免重复。在不能省略而又要避免重复的情况下,就得用代名词(that/those)来取代。注意,这里的代名词不能用it/they,因为人称代名词it/they代表的是先行词,上句中如果用they,则其代表cars made in Taiwan而不能代表cars made in Korea,因此这里只能用限定词those,表示其后省略了重复的词cars,这样才能算把两种车子分清楚。
 
1.7.7 比较级的倒装,因为要省略比较级的重复部分,因此才有了倒装句法。如:A chimp has as much I.Q. as a child of five or six does. 本句中使用助动词does来取代前面的has I.Q.以避免重复,然后does放在句尾,它就和其所代表的部分隔的有点远,而且does和它的主语a child之间还有一个介词短语of five or six,这些距离都会妨碍句子的流畅性,我们可以采用倒装来避免这些问题,如:A chimp has as much I.Q. as does a child of five or six. 这样,助动词does和它所代表的has as much I.Q.之间、does和它的主语a child之间的距离都消失了,这样一来句子就更加清楚了。
 
1.7 本小节示例及练习:
Someone else will have to do it. (限定词some和名词one写在一起,所以挤掉了中间形容词的位置,因此只能放在名词后边)
I don't know anybody else. (限定词any和名词body写在一起,所以挤掉了中间形容词的位置,因此只能放在名词后边)
John and his brother alike are unreliable. (a-开头的古英语形容词表示一种暂时的状态,因此不适合放在名词的属性位置,因此放在后边。)
Money alone cannot solve our problem. (a-开头的古英语形容词表示一种暂时的状态,因此不适合放在名词的属性位置,因此放在后边。)
The murderer left behind a bloody old black Italian leather glove.[凶手丢下一只沾血的、老旧、黑色、意大利只的皮手套] (名词短语的attributive adjectives之间,越是表达属性的形容词越要靠近名词。或者说,越是不可变的、客观的特质越要靠近名词;反之,越是临时的、主观的因素则越要远离名词。leather是内容,glvoe是形式,就算手套碎了也还是皮革的,因此最近。而产地也是不变的,接下来的颜色跟染色有关,不同染料颜色就不同,再袭来old是个慢慢变就的过程,最后bloody是行凶时沾上的,随时可以洗掉,因此是上面的顺序。) 
He's wearing a handsome old brown U.S. Air Force leather flying jacket. (越是不可变的、客观的特质越要靠近名词;反之,越是临时的、主观的因素越要远离名词。handsome是主观的,因人而异,老旧是慢慢的过程,颜色是看染料的颜色,U.S. Air Force表示是美国空军,只有flying jacket放在一起才表示"飞行夹克",flying是这件夹克的属性最强的字眼,所以最近)
John is sick today and couldn't come to work.(predicative[叙述],sick是补语位置的形容词,是对John做的叙述,其内容是暂时性的。表示过了今天可能就好了) 
John is a sick man.(attributive[属性],sick是名词属性位置的形容词,语气是比较永久的。表示可能病的不清,短时间还好不了)
This lake is deep.(sc,补语位置的形容词,使用比较自由,单词、短语皆可)
She makes everyone happy.(oc,宾语补足语位置的形容词,比较自由,单词、短语皆可。)
Chinese culture is 5,000 years old.(sc,补语位置的形容词,多个形容词单词、或者短语皆可。)
I heard her playing the violin.(oc,宾语补足语位置的形容词,playing the violin是who is playing the violin的简化,形容词从句做补语)
The fish is still alive.(sc,a-开头的古英语形容词的"暂时性"语气,使它不适合放在名词属性位置,而适合放在补语位置)
The balloon stays afloat.(sc,a-开头的古英语形容词的"暂时性"语气,使它不适合放在名词属性位置,而适合放在补语位置)
They found the professor alone.(oc,a-开头的古英语形容词的"暂时性"语气,使它不适合放在名词属性位置,而适合放在补语位置)
Coffee keeps him awake.(oc,a-开头的古英语形容词的"暂时性"语气,使它不适合放在名词属性位置,而适合放在补语位置)
Unit 3 is shorter than Unit 4.
Unit 3 is less difficult than Unit 4.
Unit 3 is as boring as Unit 4.
Yangmingshan is crowded.(sc,因为是补语位置的形容词,所以自然不能有冠词。)
Yangmingshan is most crowded in March.(sc,因为是补语位置的形容词,所以不能有冠词)
Yangmingshan is a crowded scenic spot.(形容词crowded位于名词短语中,而冠词a是随着名词而存在的){scenic:风景好的,戏剧性的;spot:n:地点,场所,斑点,插播节目;adj:现场的,插播的;v:玷污,用灯光照射}
Yangmingshan is the most crowded of Taibei's scenic spots.(形容词most crowded虽然没有名词,但有介词短语of Taibei's scenic spots,看以看出most crowded是most crowded one的省略,之所以要加冠词the,是因此句意是在一个特定的范围中支出"最……"的一个,这种明确的"指示性"才是要加the的真正原因。)
John is the shorter of the twins. (指出双胞胎中的的哪一位,所以仍然要用定冠词)
My car is bigger than yours. (用yours取代your car,以避免重复。)
Cars made in Taiwan are better than those made in Korea. (如果有标示差别的字眼在后边[即:比较对象无法被标示出],则不能够省略car。但又从修辞的角度,需要省略重复,因此用代名词that/those来取代。这里不用it/they是因为人称代名词是代表先行词的,it/they只能代表cars made in Taiwan而不能代表cars made in Korea,所以只能用those来区分两种车子)
A chimp has much I.Q. as does a child of five or six.(vs,原句是:A chimp has much I.Q. as a child of five or six does.(sv,用助动词does来取代上文中的has I.Q.以避免重复,但它造成了does和它所代表的部分相隔太远,does和它的主语也隔了一个介词短语,为了保持句子的流畅性,可以采用倒装来消除does和所代表部分的距离,即:编程A chimp has much I.Q. as does a child of five or six.(vs),does也和a child放在一起了,句子比较清晰。)
 
 
Stamp-collecting can be enjoyed by the rich and the poor D.
[A] like     [B] similar     [C] same     [D] alike
解释:四个形容词,只有alike可以放在所修饰名词的后便。a-开头的古英语形容词表示一种"暂时性"的状态,不适合放在名词的属性位置,因此放在名词后边。
■We were quite excited to catch the bird C.
[A] live     [B] living     [C] alive     [D] lively
解释:a-开头的古英语形容词表示一种"暂时性"的状态,不适合放在名词的属性位置,因此放在名词后边。
■They have improved their financial status. Now they are C off than before.
[A] well     [B] good     [C] better     [D] richer
解释:下文有than before,所以用比较级。空格后有off,短语well off(富有),变成比较级better off,故选C。
■To be heard over the noise of the construction work outside, he tried to talk A.
[A] in the loudest voice possible     [B] in the loudest voice possibly     [C] in the possible voice loudest     [D] in the possibly voice loudest
解释:这里用到了最高级,所以需要表示范围的修饰语。原句应为to talk in the loudest voice that was possible,以形容词从句that was possible(有可能的范围中)来修饰loudest voice,然后简化形容词从句中的that was,即得到A。
Miss Smith makes B her own clothes by hand.
[A] the most of     [B] most of     [C] the most     [D] most
解释:空格后有her own clothes,所以前面英爱有个介词。在句意中,表示的是"大部分"而不是最高级,所以选择B。
■John is not quite B as his sister.
[A] good as a student     [B] as good as a student     [C] as a good student     [D] an as good student
解释:空格后的as……as表示只是一组同级比较级,强调语气时可以是quite as……as,翻译为"完全一样",其否定形式为not quite as……as。not quite as good放在一起成为形容词短语后,不能再放在a student中间的位置,只能移到前面成为not quite as good as a student。如果非否定形式,则本身作为形容词而成为quite an as good student as his sister。
They most C time of life is C.
[A] joyful/young     [B] joy/young     [C] enjoyable/youth     [D] joyfully/youth
解释:time之前应该为形容词,后面的空格应该是名词"青春"作为主语time of life的补语,故选C。
■His intelligence is C.
[A] superior than mine     [B] more superior than hers     [C] superior to yours     [D] more superior to me
解释:superior to(优于),inferior to(劣于)这两个短语不能用than,所以C和D。又因为比较对象的要求对称工整,所以只能智力和智力比较,而不能和人比较,所以选C。{superior:n:上级,高手,上标;adj:高傲的,上好的,出众的;inferior:n:下级,下属,下级属性标号;adj:下级的,较低的,次等的}
■We all found it A to understand Lesson Three.
[A] difficult     [B] difficulty     [C] difficulty
解释:虚字it代替found之后的不定式短语to understand Lesson Three而用作宾语位置,it后的位置是宾语补语的位置,所以只能是形容词,只有A。
■All four ways were open and Mark was A to travel in any direction.
[A] free     [B] freely     [C] freedom     [D] freeing
解释:空格was后边是补语的位置,应该用形容词,故A。
■It was the first B rainfall within half a year in this city.
[A] noteworth     [B] noteworthy     [C] noteworthly     [D] noteworthing
解释:the first和rainfall之间形容词位置,只有B是形容词,其他三个词不存在。{noteworthy:adj:值得注意的}
New Yorkers accept the city's noises as natural and B.
[A] inevitably     [B] inevitable     [C] inevitability     [D] neutrality
解释:and两边要求对称,所以后边只能是形容词B。{inevitable:adj:不可避免的,必然的}
Americans are becoming A of the dangers of cigarettes.
[A] aware     [B] awareness     [C] awake     [D] awoke
解释:become后面是补语位置,应该用形容词,故A,C,其中D为动词。而awake之后应该用to,aware后用of,所以选A。{awake:adj:醒着的;v:唤醒;awake to:意识、察觉、领会;aware:adj:知道的,意识到的;aware of:知道的,察觉的,意识到的}
■A farmer needs to know B words than a lawyer does.
[A] less     [B] fewer     [C] more     [D] better
解释:words可数,故不能用不可数的less,从句意上是少,所以应该用B。
■We found it of D importance to rebuild the wooden bridge.
[A] very     [B] too     [C] extremely     [D] utmost
解释:空格位置是形容词位置,而只有utmost是形容词。{utmost:极度的,最大限度的,最高的}
■He took down B of the two maps and began to look for the obscure city.
[A] larger     [B] the larger     [C] largest     [D] the largest
解释:只有两张地图,所以要用比较级,不能用最高级。所以选A,B。而两张中较大的"那一张"已经有明确的指代意味,所以用加定冠词the,故B。
■You never feel bored while on a camping trip because no two days are D.
[A] like     [B] likely     [C] likewise     [D] alike
解释:空格位置是补语位置,而like是动词,likewise是副词,只有likely和alike是形容词,可是likely意思是"可能性不小",意思上不通,所以用alike,表示一样的,很像的。{likewise:adv:同样地,此外,我也是;likely:adj:可能的,可信的;adv:很可能;alike:adj:同样的,相似的;adv:一样,以同样的方式}
■This action of yours was D than wise.
[A] kinder     [B] most kind     [C] kindest     [D] more kind
解释:句子是this action was very kind 和this action was not very wise这两句的比较,比较点在kind与wise的程度副词上,表示which is more?所以并不是kind和wise的比较的问题,kind和wise并不能作为比较对象,所以应用much的比较级more。
■The lake is A at this point.
[A] deepest     [B] the deepest     [C] deeper     [D] the deeper
解释:空格位置是补语位置,所以用形容词,而且是单纯的形容词,不是a deep lake的省略。而且a deep lake at this point(各个点有个深湖)也说不通。作为单独的形容词就不存在定冠词的问题,即使是最高级,因为定冠词是跟着名词走的而不是最高级。
Chopsticks are C to use as a knife and fork.
[A] easier     [B] by far as easy     [C] quite as easy     [D] much easier
解释:下文有as,所以上文只能用as来玩完成比较级。而B和C中,by far表示"差的很远"而不适合表达"一样",所以选C。
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1.8 副词(advance)
1.8.1 形容词是用来修饰名词的,而副词是用来修饰名词以外的词,包括:动词、形容词、其他副词,其中有些特别的副词可以修饰名词。此外,不同种类的副词在句子当中会有不同的位置,因此了解副词的分类及位置变化十分必要。副词分类:方法、状态副词(Adverbs of Manner);强调语气的副词(Intensifiers:n:增强器,[语]强调语气);修饰句子的副词(Sentence Modifiers)。
 
1.8.2 方法、状态的副词(Adverbs of Manner)是专门用来修饰动词的,其常用拼法为形容词加上-ly结尾,原则上其应该尽量接近动词,通常放在动词后面的位置。
但是副词又是修饰语,属于比较不重要的元素,如果句子有宾语、补语等主要元素存在时,副词的位置就要往后挪,让宾语、补语等元素先出来。假如副词后移后,造成其与待修饰的动词距离太远,那么也可以把副词调到动词的前面去修饰动词,以维持"修饰语必须和所修饰对象接近"的原则。以下从五种基本句型举例:
     S+V句型:方法、状态副词放在动词的前面或后边均可,符合"修饰语与修饰对象接近"的原则,但一般情况下动词是主要元素,先出现会比较清楚,所以通常以放在动词后面为佳。
     S+V+C句型:补语是主要元素,应该先出现,所以方法、状态副词就被挤到后边去了。另一个可接受的位置就是动词的前面,因为副词放在句尾,副词与所修饰的动词之间会受到补语的阻隔,而移到动词前面就能满足"接近修饰对象"的原则。注意,放在动词与补语之间是不可以的,因为副词可以修饰动词,也可以修饰形容词,放在中间就犯了修辞上"模棱两可(ambiguous)"的毛病。
     S+V+O句型:宾语是主要元素,应该先出现,所以方法、状态副词就被挤到后边去了。另一个可接受的位置就是动词的前面,因为副词放在句尾,副词与所修饰的动词之间会受到宾语的阻隔(尤其当宾语有简化的形容词从句形容的情况,如:He passionately kissed the girl living next door.(s+adv+v+o)),而移到动词前面就能满足"接近修饰对象"的原则。例句中,副词若放在句尾则副词与形容词从句的living较近,会造成副词是修饰形容词从句的误解,若副词放在宾语这girl的后边,同样会产生副词修饰living的误解,所以放在动词前面是合适位置。
     S+V+O+O:两个宾语是主要元素,副词被挤到句子末尾。另一个位置,是把副词移到动词前面以避免两个宾语引起的阻隔。
     S+V+O+C:宾语和补语是主要元素,副词被挤到句子末尾。当然这会引起副词和被修饰的动词之间产生距离,所以另一个位置就是放在动词前面。
 
1.8.3 强调语气的副词(Intensifiers)的特点是在使用上很有弹性,其可修饰4种主要词类,包括:名词、动词、形容词、副词。这一类副词又细分为3类:强调范围的副词(Focusing Adverbs)、加强语气的副词(Intensifiers)、程度副词(Adverbs of Degree)。
     强调范围的副词(Focusing Adverbs):这类副词不多,典型的有:only、merely、also、especially、particularly、even等,其功能在于清楚的界定所描述事物的范围(好比照相机的focusing操作一样)。由于其可以修饰任何词类,所以位置要求很严格,通常要求不能和所修饰的对象有任何距离,其中有些需位于修饰对象前面而有些则需要位于修饰对象后面。
     加强语气的副词(Intensifiers):其可以修饰4中主要词类,包括:名词、动词、形容词、副词,其位置通常要放在修饰对象前面。
     程度副词(Adverbs of Degree):程度副词是用来表示"有几成"的意思而非加强语气。其和加强语气的副词很像,区别是:加强语气的副词去掉后只是语气变弱,意思不会变,而程度副词去掉后,意思则可能发生改变。
 
1.8.4 修饰句子的副词(Sentence Modifiers)通常位于句首,也可以挪到主语和动词之间,甚至可以放到句尾,但是不论放在何种位置都需要有"逗号(,)"把它和句子隔开来。常见的修饰句子的副词有:连接副词(Conjuncts:n:结合物;adj:结合的,共同的)、分离副词(Disjuncts:adj:分离的,身体各部凹入而能收缩的)两种。
     连接副词(Conjuncts)很像连接词(Conjunctions:n:结合,关联,连词,同时发生;),可以用来连接两句话间的逻辑,可是其缺乏连接词的语法功能,所以要用标点符号帮忙,例如:类似对等连接词and的(beside、furthermore:adv:而且,此外),以及类似but的(however:adv:然而,无论如何;conj:无论怎样;、nevertheless:adv:尽管如此,不过,仍然;conj:然而,不过;)等。
     分离副词(Disjuncts)归类为修饰句子的副词是为了方便分类,严格意义上它是修饰另一个句子的方法、状态副词。其可以位于句首、主语和动词之间,甚至是句尾的位置,不过无论是哪个位置均需要用逗号隔开。
 
1.8.5 副词除了方法状态副词、强调语气的副词、修饰句子的副词之外,还包括:时间副词、地方副词、频率副词等等,这与传统语法并无差别。副词也存在比较级、最高级的变化并且其原则与形容词一样,差别只有一点:典型的副词结尾是-ly,在两个音节的副词的比较级中,要保留-ly并在其前面加more或most来变化,例如:more sweetly、most sweetly。
 
1.8 本小节示例及练习:
Vegetables, especially spinach, are good for you. (强调范围的副词[focusing Adverbs]especially来修饰名词spinach) {spinach[音:spinich]:菠菜;}
The child giggled happily under the caress of its mother.(s+v+adv,sv句型中的方法、状态副词:介词短语放在以后讨论,动词giggled之后已经无主要元素,所以修饰动词的副词可直接放在后边。当副词放在主语和动词之间,如:The child happily giggled...,因为用做修饰词的副词也是紧邻被修饰的动词,所以也是正确的,不过因为动词是主要元素,所以放在后面会比较清楚。)
He kept quiet resolutely. (s+v+c+adv,svc句型中的方法、状态副词,因为补语quiet是要作为主要元素先出来的,所以修饰动词的副词被挤到最后。但是副词不能放在补语quiet前面,如:He kept resolutely quiet.,因为这样用做修饰语的副词无法分辨是修饰动词还是修饰形容词补语,会造成模棱两可"ambiguous"的毛病。可以接受的位置是动词前面,如:He resolutely kept quiet.,方法、状态副词放在句尾的话,其和动词之间就会存在阻隔,如果把副词挪到动词前面,一来可以消除阻隔使修饰语和被修饰对象接近,而且不会产生模棱两可的毛病,所以是可以的。) 
He kissed the girl tenderly. (s+v+o+adv,svo句型中的方法、状态副词,同样由于宾语是主要元素,作为修饰语的副词被挤到末尾的位置,这时是合理的。但是下局有了形容词从句修饰宾语的时候就不一样了。) {tenderly:adv:温柔的,柔和的;}
He passionately kissed the girl living next door. (s+adv+v+o,svo中的方法、状态副词,副词位于主语与动词之间,既能靠近被修饰的动词也不会引起误解,因此是可以的。如果把副词移到句尾,变成:He kissed the girl living next door passionately.,则副词与被修饰的动词太远,而且可能会使读者以为副词是修饰末尾的形容词从句的,就会出现模棱两可的情况。同样的,将副词移到宾语后边变成:He kissed the girl passionately live next door.,也容易引起副词是用来修饰形容词living的误解。所以,最合适的修饰语的位置就是动词前面紧贴动词的位置。) {passionately:激昂地,热烈地}
He showed us the document reluctantly. (s+v+o+o+adv,svoo句型中的方法、状态副词,因为两个宾语是主要元素所以可以放在末尾,当然,将副词挪到动词前靠近动词也是合理的位置。) {reluctantly:不情愿地,勉强地;}
I willingly offer you my help. (s+adv+v+o+o,svoo句型中的方法、状态副词,根据句意,如果把修饰词willingly挪到末尾时会受到两个宾语阻隔,挪到动词前面更合理。)
They elected him chairman unanimously. (s+v+o+c+adv,svoc句型中的方法、状态副词,宾语和补语做为主要元素将副词挤到末尾,当然也可以将副词移到动词前面) {unanimously:[音:ju'nænɪməsli],全体一致的,无异议的;}
I happily pronounce you man and wife. (s+adv+v+o+c,svoc结构中的方法、状态副词,修饰语副词放在贴近动词的位置,既能贴近被修饰对象也不会引起误解。这句神父常说的话,如果改为:I pronounce you man and wife happily.就不太合适,虽然从语法上没有问题,但是修辞效果不佳。因为happily与pronounce相连,才足以表达欣喜的口吻,距离太远语气就不强烈了。第二,全场嘉宾都在等的man and wife这几个字,这样就能亲吻了,这几个字作为压轴的字眼放在末尾最合适,所以happily就放到了动词前面。)
I heard about the accident yesterday. (强调语气副词中的强调范围的副词类(Focusing Adverbs),这类词能清楚界定所描述实物的范围,其位置要求很严格,不能和所修饰词有任何距离,否则意思就不一致了)
Only I heard about the accident yesterday. (No one else did.,only当副词修饰主语I。)
I only heard about the accident yesterday. (I didn't see it.,only当副词修饰动词heard。)
I heard about only the accident yesterday. (I didn't hear anything else.,only当副词修饰名词。)
I heard about the accident only yesterday. (I didn't hear about it earlier.,only当副词修饰时间副词。)
He is very much his father's son. (adv+n,加强语气的副词Intensifiers,副词紧贴待修饰的名词,翻译为:他和他爸真是一个调调。)
You're utterly insane! (adv+adj,加强语气的副词,副词紧贴待修饰的形容词) {utterly:[音:'ʌtəlɪ]:完全,全然,绝对;insane: 疯狂的,精神错乱的;}
I badly need a drink. (adv+v,加强语气的副词,副词紧贴待修饰的动词,翻译为:我亟需要喝一杯。)
The project is almost finished. (程度副词用来表示"有几成"的意思,拿掉程度副词句意改变,而拿掉强调语气的副词句子只是语气变弱而已。如:原句表示计划差不多完成了,拿掉程度副词则表示已经完成
The project is finished.)
You can buy practically anything at a mall. (adv+n,程度副词通常也要放在修饰对象前面,翻译为:在购物中心几乎什么都能买得到) {practically:实际上,几乎,简直}
I can hardly hear you. (aux+adv+v,程度副词放在待修饰的对象前面。) {auxiliary:缩写为aux,助动词}
The promotion was moderately successful. (adv+adj,程序副词通常放在待修饰的对象前面,翻译为:促销活动还算成功) {moderately:[音:'mɑːdərətli]:适度地,一般地;}
I know your father rather well. (adv+adv,程度副词通常放在待修饰的对象前面。)
Vivien Leigh is brilliant. {brilliant:n:宝石;adj:卓越的,才华横溢的,光芒四射的}
 Clark Gable, however, is lousy. (ad),{however:adv:然而,无论如何;conj:无论怎样;}
Therefore, the film is less than perfect. (adv) {therefore:adv:因此,所以;}
It is still a good movie; besides, good romances are rare these days. (adv,翻译为:这部片子还是不错,况且近来好的文艺片不多了) {besides:adv:除此之外,并且;beside:conj:在……旁边,与……无关}
Scientifically, the experiment was a success. (adv,虽然scientifically是修饰全句,可该句可看做Scientifically speaking, the experiment was a success.一句的省略,这个副词其实是修饰speak的方法、状态副词,该句还可以进一步还原为:If we are speaking scientifically, the experiment was a success.一句的省略,即:原来有两句话,第一句被简化为只有一个方法、状态副词scientifically用来修饰"怎么说",再附在第二句上。所以,之所以用逗号隔开,是因为这个都是是两个从句之间的逗号。) {scientifically:adv:科学的,系统的;}
You're not answering my questions honestly. (honestly是单纯的方法、状态副词,修饰动词answer。)
Honestly, what are you going to do about it? (分离副词也可以掉到主语动词中间的位置或者是句尾,但是依然要有逗号隔开。句中的honestly是分离副词,原本是honestly speaking,它是简化从句的结果,为方便起见可以归于修饰全句的副词类。)
 
 
A, he would leave his wife at home and go fishing himself.
[A] More often than not     [B] Oftener than can't     [C] More often than doesn't     [D] Oftener than doesn't
解释:动词部分已有助动词would,所以不能再有助动词doesn't,并且more ofter than not是个常用短语,表示"经常"。
■Separated for years, father and son found A.
[A] each other greatly changed     [B] one another greatly changed     [C] one another great changed     [D] one greatly changed another
解释:因为是父子2人,所以用each other,3人以上用one another。在A中each other是宾语,greatly changed是宾语的补语。
■He speaks English A as he does Chinese.
[A] as fluently     [B] as fluent     [C] more fluently     [D] so fluent
解释:空格后有比较级连接词,所以只能用as。空格位置应用副词fluently修饰动词speak,故选A。D中的so只能用在否定句中,例如:not so fluently as……
■I don't like detective stories, but science fiction makes A impression on me.
[A] quite a different     [B] a quitely different     [C] a quite differently     [D] quitely a differently
解释:quite是强调语气的副词,可以直接修饰名词、动词、形容词、副词,此处用来修饰名词短语a different impression,故选A。C,D中使用了副词diferently来直接修饰名词,词类错误。而B中的quitely是错误的拼法。{fiction:小说,杜撰,虚构;impression:印象,感觉,模仿,印记,印刷;}
■I am sorry. I A forgot it.
[A] clean     [B] cleanly     [C] cleanness     [D] cleanfully
解释:clean用做形容词是表示"干净的",作副词时是表示"完完全全地",在此是使用其副词用法。
■After walking so long a distance, I am A tired.
[A] dead     [B] deadly     [C] death     [D] die
解释:dead tired短语相当于"累得要死",dead center表示"正中红心",这两个短语中dead表示加强语气,当作强调语气的副词来使用,而不是形容词。
We are told to keep A of the puddle of water.
[A] clear     [B] clean     [C] clearly     [D] cleanly
解释:keep clear of是"避开,保持距离"的意思,其中clear当作away来解释。keep是可以当做be动词看待,后跟形容词。
Dick went B.
[A] late yesterday there     [B] there late yesterday     [C] yesterday late there     [D] yesterday there late
解释:地方副词there在先,时间副词yesterday在后,这是一般的顺序。修饰yesterday的副词late置于其前。
■D I like to be alone.
[A] Some time     [B] Some times     [C] Sometime     [D] Sometimes
解释:这个位置要求频率副词。D是频率副词,表示"有时候",A是名词短语,表示"一段时间",B是名词短语,表示"某些时代或若干次",C是形容词,表示"不特定的时间",如:I'll be back sometime.
D spring, early one Saturday morning, I drove to Taiwan.
[A] Latest     [B] Later     [C] Latter     [D] Last
解释:最高级A和比较级B在上下文中没有呼应,C的latter表示"后者",上下文有"两者"时才能使用。{latter:后者的,后面的;later:后来,稍后;}
Both writing and rewriting C are essential, if you want to make a hit.
[A] careful     [B] carefulness     [C] carefully     [D] carelessly
解释:空格位置在writing and rewriting之后,应该用副词类的C或者D,如果放在前面,才能用形容词的careful。然后根据句意是肯定语气,应该选C。
The computer plays an D important role in modern life.
[A] increasing     [B] increasely     [C] increased     [D] increasingly
解释:空格是修饰形容词的,应该用副词D,而B是错误拼法。
He exclaimed, "D kind man before!"
[A] Never I met with such     [B] I never meet with such     [C] Never I've met with a such     [D] Never have I met with such a
解释:句尾的before暗示应用现在完成时(到某个时间点结束,是时间箭头形式),而当never移到句首时,应该用倒装句,故选择D。
■"The workers in that factory are treated very badly."
"Yes, they are B than slaves."
[A] the little better     [B] little better     [C] less better     [D] a small better
解释:little是肯定语气,所以they are little better than slaves表示"比奴隶好不了多少",此处副词little修饰比较级better。当然,冠词是随着名字走的,只有形容词没有名词就用不着冠词,所以选B。C的less本身就是比较级,与better重复了。
■"Is John very intelligent?"
"Yes, D than his brother."
[A] so much     [B] so more     [C] much so     [D] much more so
解释:回答是He is much more intelligent than his brother.,其中用much来加强比较级more intelligent。并且简答句中可以把重复的He is intelligent省略而且so取代,故结果为D。
The more we looked at the abstract painting, A.
[A] the more we liked it     [B] we liked it more     [C] better we liked it     [D] it looked better
解释:本句是双重比较结构(double comparison),以the more……the more之类的结果置于句首来取代连接词,表达"成正比"的关系,要求保持对称,故选A。
The man was C disappointed at how small the bag of flour was.
[A] noticeable     [B] noticed     [C] noticeably     [D] noticing
解释:空格位置是副词位置,修饰disappointed,只有C是副词。
■With the computer down, we D our work.
[A] not longer would continue     [B] not longer could continue     [C] could continue no longer     [D] could no longer continue
解释:no longer表示"不再",作为时间副词使用,而且同时又具有否定的功能,应该与助动词could放在一块。
■He threw the javelin A than all the others.
[A] farther     [B] as far     [C] further     [D] furthest
解释:因为than可以看出是比较级,而在A和C之间,further表示"程度更深,更进一步",farther表示能用尺子度量的"距离远",所以选A。
■The enemy is advancing.
Stand A.
[A] firm     [B] firmly     [C] firmness     [D] to firm
解释:stand firm可看做you must stand firm来看待,这个firm是主语的补语(stand当作be动词看待),应该是形容词,修饰主语you,翻译为"你们得保持坚定",也就是"不要怕"。如果用firmly,则是用来修饰动词stand,翻译为"两条腿出点力气站稳",与上下文更匹配的显然是作为主语补语的形容词firm。所以选A。
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1.9 语气词(Moods)
1.9.1 语气是利用动词变化来表示"真、假"口吻的方式,根据表示程度的不同可以细分为:叙述事实的语气(Indicative,表示所说的是真的。{indicative:adj:指示的,暗示的;[语]:陈述的;n:陈述句})、条件语气(Conditional,表示真假并不确定。{conditional:adj:条件的;n:[语]:条件句})、假设语气(Subjunctive,表示反话,所说内容与事实相反。{subjunctive:adj:虚拟的;})、祈使语气(Imperative,表示希望成真但尚未实现。{imperative:adj:紧要的,祈使的,必要的;n:紧要的事,命令,义务;}),四中语气各有重点,并不难区分。

1.9.2 叙述事实的语气:我们所学过的现在式、过去式、未来式等等大多数的句子都是这种叙述事实的语气,其中现在、过去的事情都已发生,其真假已经可以确定,所以能用叙述事实的语气,而未来式描述的未来的事情,严格说起来还不能确定真假,所以未来式要加上表示不确定语气的助动词will。退一步讲,如果说未来式表示的是事实语气,那也只能是"有计划、有打算做某事"的语气,这与现在式、过去式所表示已经发生的事情是有区别的。
值得注意的是:像明天日出时间、演出开始时间等可以利用公式计算得出、或者已有时间排表的事情,也可以视为事实而不用添加未来式的助动词。在同时叙述到两件未来的事情时,并且两者之间有时间或条件的关联性,往往其中一件事情要改成现在式(因为叙述事实的语气不适合用助动词),因为两件未来的事情都不确定,需要先假定一件是已经发生的事实,才能在这个基础之上推论另外一件事情。
 
1.9.3 条件语气:当句子中添加了语气助动词(如:must、should、will/would、can/could、may/might等)后就产生了不确定的语气,就称为条件语气。语气助动词的变化表示的是语气的变化,而不是时间的变化(如:can/could、will/would、may/might等)。
语气助动词无法明确表达过去的时间,因此当其表达猜测过去的事情时,需要用完成式来表达过去的时间。因为语气助动词表示的语气的变化而不表示时间,而且助动词后面跟的是同样缺乏时间变化的动词原形,所以只能采用完成式来表达过去的时间。
 
1.9.4 假设语气:是一种"说反话"的语气,表示所说的话和事实相反,其是以动词的"过去形态"作为表达"非事实"的手段(注意区分:过去形态、过去简单式形态、过去完成式形态的区别)。具体来说就是:在假设语气的主要从句中都会有"过去拼法"的助动词存在(如:could、would、might、should),而在假设语气的条件从句(次要从句)中,表示"现在和过去"时间的都没有助动词的存在(因为要把假设条件当真,所以不能用表示不确定意味的助动词);表示"未来"时间的无法完全排除不确定因素(因为尚未发生),所以用should来表示可能性极小的状况,用were to表示绝无可能的状况。
由于假设语气是以动词的"过去形态"来表达非事实,所以动词看起来都是过去形态。具体来说就是对于只有"单一时间变化"的假设语气:若是主句是现在时间,则从句就后退为"过去简单式"形态;若是主句是过去时间,则从句就后退为"过去完成式"形态;若是主句是未来时间,则主从句都用"过去拼法的助动词"来表示。
假设语气的句型变化很多,主要从"真、假"与"时间"两个角度判断即可。对于"混合时间变化"的假设语气而言:两个从句之间"时间不同",则主要从句和次要从句要分别判断并后退为"过去形态",如:条件从句是过去时间,则其后退为"过去完成式"形态来表示非事实,主要从句是现在时间,则其后退为"过去简单式"形态来表示非事实。对于"混合真假变化"的假设语气而言:两个从句的"真假不同",则主要从句和次要从句要根据真假情况判断并后退为"过去形态",如:主要从句是过去时间并且是非事实,所以后退为"过去完成式"形态来表示非事实,而次要从句虽然也是过去时间,但表示的是"事实",所以不必改动语气,直接保持原有的过去简单式即可。
另外,假设语气的句型可能不是典型的"条件从句+主要从句"的形态,其可能是省略或简化后的整句,我们还是按照"真、假"与"时间"两个角度判读处理即可。
 
1.9.5 祈使语气:是一种"命令语气",故又称为命令句,其也可以看做是条件语气中省略助动词后,用来表示"希望成真,但尚未实现"的语气。需要注意的是"间接命令句",即:被第三者转述的命令句,主语已经发生变化不能省略,但句子仍然是命令句的语气,可是还未成为事实,所以仍然省略掉助动词,用动词原型来表示"要求、希望或期望成真,但尚未实现"的命令句语气。
 
1.9 本小节示例及练习:
I will go to the U.S. next year to study for an MBA degree. (现在、过去的事情,其真假已定,所以能用叙述事实的语气。但未来的事情还没有发生,严格说来还不能确定真假,所以要加上具有"不确定"语气的助动词will。而未来式的事实语气只表明"打算、计划"要做的事情,至于未来到底怎么样是无法预料的。)
The weatherman says sunrise tomorrow is at 5:32. (虽然是说的是未来的日出,但日出时间是可以用公式算出来的,其时间是固定的,所以可以当做事实来叙述,不必加上不确定的助动词will。)
The movie starts in 5 minutes. (演出时间已经排上时间表,马上就要开始了,因此可以视为事实,不用加不确定的意味的助动词will。)
I'll be ready when he comes. (同时叙述两件未来的事情,且两者间有时间或条件的关联性时,往往要把其中一件改为现在式。因为两件事都不确定时,需要假设其中的一件是已经发生的事实,然后才能推论另一件事。本句假定"他来"是确定的,并用表示确定语气的现在简单式comes来叙述,然后才能推论那个时候,我已经准备就绪。)
If you are late again, you'll be fired. (两件发生在未来的事情,假设迟到又一次发生了,才能推论出"被开除"。而叙述事实的语气不适合助动词,所以改成现在简单式来表示。)
You may be right. (加上助动词may,产生了具有不确定性的条件语气。而去掉助动词,则表示叙述事实的语气:You are right.)
The doctor thinks it can be ADIS. (语气助动词的变化是语气的变化而并不表示时间变化。本句中can be表示有这个可能,但不一定。)
It could be anything - AIDS or a common cold. (语气助动词的变化是语气的变化而并不表示时间变化。本句中could be并不表示过去时间,而是表示现在时间,只是could be的语气更不确定。)
It may rain any minute now. (语气助动词表示语气而无法明确表达过去式,其后的动词原型也同样缺乏时间变化,所以要借助完成式表示对过去时间的猜测。本句是对现在、未来的猜测。)
It may have rained a little last night. (语气助动词表示语气而无法明确表达过去式,其后的动词原型也同样缺乏时间变化,所以要借助完成式表示对过去时间的猜测。本句是对过去last night做的猜测。)
If I were you, I wouldn't do it. (以动词的过去形态表达"非事实"的假设语气。因此现在时间的次要从句用I am you的过去形态I were you来表示,连带的主要从句也用will not do的过去形态wouldn't do(但不表示过去时间)来表示非事实。使用假设语气可以使语气缓和一些,以委婉的口吻劝对方。)
If I had known earlier, I might have done something. (以动词的过去形态表达"非事实"的假设语气。因此过去时间的次要从句用I knew的过去形态(过去完成式)I had known来表示过去事情的非事实语气,连带的主要从句也用I might do的过去形态(过去完成式)I might have done来表示非事实。使用假设语气来表示惋惜、懊恼。)
If an asteroid should hit the earth, man could die out. (以动词的过去形态表达"非事实"的假设语气。未来的事情,严格说起来并不确定,但是发生的可能性也非常小,因此未来时间的次要从句可以用shall hit的过去形态should it(但不表示过去时间)来代表非事实的叙述语气,连带的主要从句也用can die的过去形式could die(但不表示过去时间)来表示非事实。) {asteroid:小行星}
If I were to take the bribe, I could never look at other people in the eye again. (以动词的过去形态表达"非事实"的假设语气。未来的事情,严格说起来并不确定,但此处表示绝无可能发生的事情,所以可用be going to的过去形态were to来表示绝对不可能会去做,如果用should语气就弱一些,表示应该无可能发生,但不排除万一。如:If I should take the money, could you guarantee secrecy? ) {bribe:贿赂;secrecy:秘密;guarantee:v:保证,担保;n:保证,保证书,担保品;}
If I had studied harder in school, I could qualify for the job now. (混合时间变化的假设语气,条件从句是过去时间的假设语气,要后退成过去完成式had studied来表示非事实。主要从句是现在时间,只要用过去简单式的拼法could就可以表达非事实了。) {qualify:v:使具备资格,取得资格,描述,[]修饰}
I could have contributed to the fund drive then, only that I didn't have any money with me. (混合真假变化的假设语气,次要从句是过去时间,但"没带钱"是事实,所以不必改动语气,用过去简单式即可,而主要从句也是过去时间,表示非事实,所以用过去完成式could have contributed来表示非事实。) {contribute:v:捐助,投稿,贡献;fund:基金,自助;drive:驱使,推进力;}
It's time you kids were in bed. (简化的假设语气,it is time是事实,所以用现在简单式,从属从句(非条件从句)是非事实,所以用过去简单式的拼法were in bed来表示非事实语气。)
If only I had more time! (简化的假设语气,句子是现在时间的假设语气,但是句子省略了主要从句,只留下了过去简单式的条件从句来表示非事实。)
I wish I had more time! (简化的假设语气,主要从句是事实(我真的希望),所以用现在简单式,宾语从句(非条件从句)则是非事实,所以要用过去简单式had来表示非事实语气。)
The court demands that the witness leave the courtroom. (祈使句可视为省略助动词的条件语气,表示"希望能成真,但尚未实现"。如果当事人直接说,则会是:(You must) Leave the courtroom! 。当命令语气经过第三者转述时,主语已经发生变化不能省略,但其依然是命令句的语气,也还不是事实,所以仍然可以省略掉助动词,用动词原型来表示命令语气。类似的间接命令句,还有诸如:It is necessary that…、I insist that…等) {court:v:献殷勤,追求;n:法院,宫廷,奉承;courtroom:n:法庭,审判庭;}
There is a strong expectation among the public that someone take responsibility for the disaster. (本句表示一个期望,还不是事实(目前还没人表示负责),所以是祈使句的语气,要用动词原型take来表示非事实。) {expectation[ˌekspek'teɪʃn]:n:预料,期望;}
 
 
The landlord demanded that he B the rent by tomorrow.
[A] pays     [B] pay     [C] paid     [D] has paid
解释:间接命令句,应用命令语气,即:动词原型。{rent:租金}
If you D with her last night, there wouldn't be any misunderstanding between you now.
[A] talked     [B] were talking     [C] could talk     [D] had talked
解释:过去时间(last night)的非事实,应用假设语气,即:过去完成式的心态,故选D。
■D to participate, I might have won First Place.
[A] Had had the chance     [B] I had had the chance     [C] The chance had I had     [D] Had I had the chance
解释:从居中的might have won可看出这是过去时间的假设语气,所以应该用过去完成式形态。而If had had the chance to participate……省略连接词if后需要倒装,故选D。{participate:v:参与,参加,分享;}
■That was a close call; you A hit by the car.
[A] could have been     [B] can have been     [C] could be     [D] can be
解释:从was可知是过去时间,后面的假设语气应用过去拼法的助动词+完成式表示非事实,故选A。{a close call:译为"千钧一发"}
■If you had asked him, he C the truth.
[A] might tell     [B] would tell     [C] might have told     [D] had told
解释:从had asked可以看出是过去时间,又是假设语气,所以要空格也要选择过去时间的假设语气,故选C。
They suggested that he B it alone.
[A] does     [B] do     [C] will do     [D] has done
解释:间接命令句,所以应该用动词原型。
■A him, I would have spoken to him.
[A] Had I known     [B] If I should have known     [C] If I know     [D] If I had been known
解释:从would have spoken可以看出是过去时间的假设语气,故应用过去完成式的拼法,即:If I had known him,省略If后需要倒装,故选A。
■I wish I C there yesterday.
[A] was     [B] were     [C] had been     [D] could be
解释:wish表示是非事实的愿望,要用假设语气,并且yesterday为过去时间,所以用过去完成式表示非事实。
■He would have made the speech, only that he B a sore throat.
[A] has     [B] had     [C] had had     [D] has had
解释:从would have made看是过去时间的假设语气(本来当时是可以演说的),而后边的only that(不过)把语气反了过来,成为事实语气(he had a sore throat,喉咙疼是事实,不用假设语气),所以要采用过去简单式的B。{sore:adj:疼痛的,恼火的;n:疼痛,痛处;only that:不过}
■Even if he B here, he couldn't have helped you.
[A] has been     [B] had been     [C] was     [D] were
解释:从even if(即使,虽然)和couldn't have helped可看出这是过去时间的假设语气,所以从句应用过去完成式表示非事实,所以选B。
■A you were coming, I would have got the contract prepared.
[A] Had I known     [B] If I knew     [C] If I know     [D] Should I know
解释:有would have got可以看出是过去时间的假设语气,所以用过去完成式表示非事实,即:If I had known,在省略If后倒装,即:A。
If he should leave, everything would go to pieces. B (Choose one sentence that has the same meaning as the above)
[A] He is going to leave, but there is nothing to worry about.
[B] Fortunately he's not leaving, for everything depends on him.
[C] Things will take a turn for the worse, and then he will leave.
[D] I hope he won't leave, but I'm afraid he has too much to do and can't stay.
解释:原句译为"万一他走了,一切都会完蛋"。因为句中用到假设语气,所以表示他要走的可能性很小,这与B"还好他没走,因为全靠他了"的意思接近。A表示"他会走,但是不用怕" ;C表示"事情会恶化,然后他才会一走了之";D表示"我希望他不走,但恐怕他事情太多,不能留下来"。{go to pieces:破碎,崩溃;}
The boss demanded that all the letters B without delay by seven tonight.
[A] were typewritten     [B] be typewritten     [C] would be typewritten     [D] typewriting
解释:demanded that可以看出是间接命令语气,所以应该用动词原型B。
■Choose the wrong sentences: D
[A] They didn't stop to rest at each station because it would have slowed then down.
[B] It would have slowed them down to stop to rest at each station.
[C] Much as they would like to stop to rest at each station, they thought better of it.
[D] It was essential that they stopped to rest at each station, they thought better of it.
解释:A中的they didn't stop是事实语气,it would have slowed down是假设语气。B和A类似,不过使用不定式来表示停下。C中的much as they would like表示although they would like very much"尽管他们很想",但是they thought better of if"他们打消了那个念头"。D是间接命令语气,应用动词原形stop而不是stopped,所以错误。故,选D。{essential:adj:本质的,必要的,重要的;n:要素,必需品;think better of:改变主意,重新考虑;}
■If you don't finish this assignment on time, they C you.
[A] wouldn't have paid     [B] had not paid     [C] won't pay     [D] didn't pay
解释:由if you don’t finish可看出不是非事实的假设语气,还有可能赶得完,是同时叙述两件未来的事情,所以次要从句改成一般式,主句用未来式表示不确定性。{assignment:n:分配,任务;}
■I'll let you know the results when they A.
[A] come out     [B] will come out     [C] came out     [D] would have come out
解释:从I'll let you know可以看出不是非事实的假设语气,所以是同时叙述两件未来的事情,是叙述事实的语气,所以把其中一件事改为现在式,假定其为已发生的事,故选A。
■I'm not worried about security because I think he D.
[A] dares not tell     [B] dares not to tell     [C] doesn't dare tell     [D] doesn't dare to tell
解释:dare与need类似,可以当作助动词(当助动词时不能加-s)来使用,此时后边跟动词原型,如:he dare not tell。而当普通名词时就不是助动词了,其不能直接加not做否定句,也不能跟动词原型,所以只能是He doesn't dare to tell。
■This door ought to D a week ago.
[A] have fixed     [B] be fixed     [C] get fixed     [D] have been fixed
解释:时间a week ago是过去时间,而语气助动词ought to要表示相对过去时间已经修好,所以是指向过去时间的箭头,用过去完成式,所以A或D,又应为主语是door所以用被动语态的D。
■I am surprised that you C so indiscreetly.
[A] act     [B] should be acted     [C] should have acted     [D] could have been acted
解释:句意为"你竟然做出如此草率的举动,真让我真想不到",说明事情已经做了,所以是指向过去时间的箭头,用过去完成式,所以选C。D是被动语态,并不适合句意。{indiscreet:adj:不谨慎的,无礼的;indiscreetly:adv:轻率地;}
■He said he A disgrace.
[A] would rather die than suffer     [B] chose death to     [C] would prefer death before     [D] would die rather than
解释:rather than是比较级,than是连接词,其要求前后要对称。如果rather than放在D中的would后边则要求连接两个动词原型,所以D不满足对称要求。C应该是用介词to而不是than,would prefer death to disgrace。B应该用介词over而不是than,would choose death over disgrace。 {disgrace:n:耻辱;v:耻辱,丢脸;suffer:v:忍受,遭受;choose over:选中;prefer to:比起……更喜欢……}
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1.10 介词(Preposition[ˌprepə'zɪʃn])
1.10.1 介词由于缺乏观念性,不能以一套观念来涵盖其用法,所以介词的用法比较接近单词、 短语的问题,而不大属于语法问题。因此介词的用法只能通过泛读来解决:通过快速、大量地阅读英语作品,看过各种介词用法,阅读过无数的句子,自然就会对介词形成一些"感觉"。当然,不仅介词如此,单词与语法句型的问题也应该配合泛读来吸收大量、反复的input才能解决。本节不企图也不可能完整的介绍完所有介词的用法,仅介绍一些已有的部分观念和容易用错的介词。
1.10.2 介词短语就是由一个介词加上一个名词短语所构成的意义单元,在句中常作为修饰语(形容词短语或副词短语)来修饰名词、动词、形容词、副词等词类,其位置通常位于所修饰的对象后边。
1.10.3 空间介词是语言学家将表示空间的介词做了一个梳理,其可分为:点(at)、线(on, along)、面(on)、体(in)四类。其中,表示某个点时用at;表示一条线用on、along;表示面时用on;表示体时用in。
1.10.4 时间介词可以分为:点(at)、长时间(in)、特定日期(on)。其中,表示某个时间点用at;表示较长时间用in;表示某个特定日期的时间用on。
1.10.5 一些容易混淆的介词,如下:
     on one's way / in one's way:on one's way表示在线状路途上,如:去北京;in one's way表示空间状路途,如:挡着回家的去路。
     arrive in / arrive at:arrive in表示以"体"表示的地点;arrive at表示以"点"表示的地点。
     made of / made from:of表示很直接的关系,接近中文的"……的",如:椅子就能看到木头,所以可以用made of;from表示比较有距离的关系,接近中文的"出自于……",如:酒是葡萄娘的,所以可以用made from。
     between / among:between有表示位置的功能,而among则没有。
     throw to / throw at:to代表方向,at代表点。
     from……to / from……through:from……to表示未明确的时间,from May to September大概是4个月;from……through表示包含头尾的起讫时间,from May through September表示包含首位的5个月时间。
     above / over:over有标示定点的功能,above则表示相对高度超过。
     below / under:under有标示定点的功能,below则表示相对高度较低。
 
1.10 本小节示例及练习:
Cherries are in season now. (n+prep,介词+名词构成的形容词短语作补语,用来修饰主语。)
Eggs are sold by the dozen. (v+prep,介词+名词构成的副词短语作副词,用来修饰动词sold。)
The box is full of chocolates. (adj+prep,介词+名词构成的副词短语作副词,用来修饰形容词full。)
He'll return tomorrow at the latest. (adv+prep,介词+名词构成的副词短语作副词,用来修饰时间副词tomorrow。)
Let's meet at the railway station. (空间介词,表示点用at。此句中,虽然火车站是立体建筑,但是句中表示约定碰面的地点,就想台北是地图上的一个点一样,所以用表示点的介词at。)
Then we can go over the project on your way to Gaoxiong. (空间介词,表示线用on。此句中,由台北到高雄是一条线,所以用线的介词on。翻译为:"这样,我们可以在去高雄的路上商量计划"。) {go over:检查,重做,复习,转向;}
We may go walking through the windy park, or drive along the beach. (空间介词,表示线用along。此句中,海滩是海洋和陆地交界的一条线,所以沿着海滩这条"线"前进用along。另外,walking在这里是动名词解释。因为现在分词是形容词,用来形容名词或者做补语的,可以通过把其放在补语位置来验证,而动名词可以放在介词短语位置来验证(we go for walking),再者,动名词短语是名词从句的简化,原句可还原为We may go that we are walking through the windy park, or drive along the beach. 在省略了主语和be动词后,that也就不需要存在了,最终得到We may go walking through the windy park, or drive along the beach。) {windy:有风的,多风的;beach:海滩,海滨,沙滩;}
Several boats can be seen on the lake. (空间介词,表示面用on。虽然湖泊是有深度的立体,该句中是指湖"面"上,所以用表示面的on。)
It's cool in the railway station because they have air-conditioning there. (空间介词,表示体用in。此处的火车站中强调的是有冷气,将其视为立体看待,所以用表示体的in。)
The earthquake struck at 5:27 A.M. (时间介词,表示时间点用at。) {struck(strike):v:殴打,打击,撞,罢工,划然(火柴)等}
Typhoons seldom come in winter. (时间介词,表示"长时间"用in。) {typhoon:台风;seldom:adv:很少,难得;}
There'll be a concert on New Year's Day. (时间介词,表示特定日期用on。)
He's on his way to Taizhong. (空间介词,表示线用on one's way。此句表示由出发地前往台中,表示一条路线,所以用on his way。)
Step aside! You're in my way! (空间介词,表示体用in one's way。此句表示挡住了去路,这种情况下表示一种"体"的观念,需要一个表示长、宽、高的空间才能通过,所以用in my way。)
We'll arrive at Honolulu in 5 minutes, where we'll refuel before flying on to San Francisco. (空间介词,表示点用arrive at。此句表示由台北到旧金山航线上的一个中途停靠点,所以用表示点的at。) {Honolulu:火奴鲁鲁(檀香山),美国夏威夷州的首府和港市。}
The home-coming hero arrive in town and was greeted by the crowd gathered along Main Street. (空间介词,表示体用arrive in。此句翻译为:"英雄凯旋回到故乡小镇,受到群众在大街旁夹道欢迎"。此句表示英雄凯旋的地方,因而被视为立体的空间,所以用表示体的in。) {greet:v:迎接,问候,致敬,作出反应;gather:v:聚集,集合,合集,推测;n:聚集,褶子;}
These shoes were made from rubber tires. (made from有"出自于……"的意思,其表示关系不那么直接,比较有距离。像wine made from grapes,在酒中已经看不到葡萄了,所以用from,同样,鞋子中也看不出轮胎了所以用from。)
This is a chair made of wood. (made of有"……的"意思,其表示关系很直接,没有距离。像a chair made of wood,在椅子中就能看到木头的材料,所以可用of。)
Taizhong lies between Taibei and Tainan. (between有标示位置的功能,而among没有。此句中,使用between来标示出了台中位于台北和台南之间的范围。)
Among the major cities in Taiwan, Taizhong is the cleanest. (between有表示位置的功能,而among没有。此句中,among只表示台中是其中之一,没有表示台中的位置,只表明其在台湾岛上。)
Taibei lies between Taoyuan, Yilan and Jilong. (between有表示位置的功能,而among没有。此句中,虽然是三者,但是仍然用between来标示台北的位置。)
I forgot my keys. Please get them at my desk and throw them to me. (throw to代表方向,此句中表示朝自己的方向扔过来。)
The kids are throwing rocks at the poor dog. (throw at代表点,此句中dog呗当作一个点,希望能打中,所以用at。)
The circus will be here four months, from May to September. (from to不表明明确日期范围,可能是5月中旬到9月中旬,所以大概是4个月。) {circus:n:马戏团,马戏表演,竞技场,广场;}
The circus will be here five months, from May through September. (from through用来表示起讫时间,意思是"头尾均包括在内",所以从包含首尾的5月到9月共5个月。)
Mt. Everest soars above all other peaks in the Alps. (above表示相对高度超过,over则有标示定点的功能。此句中,above表示"比较高"。) {Mt.:山,峰;everest:珠穆朗玛峰;Alps:阿尔卑斯山脉;}
The little child couldn't keep the umbrella over his head and soon got wet. (above表示相对高度超过,over则有标示定点的功能。此句中,over表示"在……上方"。)
The submarine is below the surface now. (below表示相对高度较低,under则有标示定点的功能。此句中,below表示"比较低"。) {submarine:n:潜水艇;adj:海面下的;surface:n:表面,平面;adj:表面的,肤浅的;vt:使……成平面;vi:浮到水面,显露,在表面工作。}
Watch out! There's a dog under your car. (below表示相对高度较低,under则有标示定点的功能。此句中,under表示"在……下方"。)
 
 
For fear that we should run short of food D the trip, we are carrying extra rations in the jeep.
[A] at     [B] among     [C] in     [D] on
解释:the trip表示一段时间,也是一段路程,所以可用on或along(严格意义上,in也不算错)。 {fear:n:担心,害怕,恐惧,[中药]相畏;v:害怕,担心,恐惧;run short of:缺乏……,快用完……;run out of:用光……;ration:n:定额,定量,配给;v:限量供应,配给;}
■B imprecise calculations, the experiment was a failure.
[A] Due     [B] Owing to     [C] Viewing     [D] According
解释:owing to类似于because of,表示因果关系。A和D由于缺乏to而不能成为短语。C中的viewing不能当作介词用,只有considering才能当介词用。{imprecise[,impri'sais]:adj:不精确的;}
■The children came rushing C  the sound of the circus parade.
[A] on     [B] to     [C] at     [D] beyond
解释:用at the sound表示"听到声音的那一刻,马上就冲出来"。 {parade:n:游行,检阅,旅游地;vi:参加游行,阅兵,散步,炫耀;vt:夸耀,使参加游行;}
■Although too much leisure may lead people to a wasteful life, everyone has a right B a minimum amount of leisure time.
[A] wish     [B] to     [C] on     [D] for
解释:a right to表示"对于某事的权利",是常用短语。{leisure:[i:],n:闲暇,休闲;}
In the sentence, "he size of the room is 12' x 14', " the sign " x " is read "C".
[A] and     [B] with     [C] by     [D] cross
解释:表示长宽(面积)的"x"读为by。
The office is open Monday B Saturday, and closed on Sundays.
[A] since     [B] through     [C] also     [D] with
解释:用through表示包含头尾在内,故一周只有sundays不开。
■John's parents died when he was only a child, and ever since he did not seem to have a home B his own.
[A] in     [B] of     [C] with     [D] at
解释:此句是双重所有格,以a home of his own的方式来同时表示a home和his own home。
■The dictionary is sold D one hundred dollars a copy.
[A] with     [B] by     [C] in     [D] at
解释:"以……之单价出售",应用at。
The workers are paid A.
[A] by the week     [B] with a week     [C] to a week     [D] since a week
解释:每周计算应用by the week。
■The experts know many things that won't work in curing AIDS, so they are that much closer to C on that will.
[A] find     [B] found     [C] finding     [D] have found
解释:close to中,to是介词,因而后边要接动名词做宾语。
■A prices so high, I'll have to do without a new suit.
[A] With     [B] Because     [C] Because of     [D] As
解释:with prices so high是以介词短语方式来简化副词从句because prices are so high。而答案C应该为because of high prices即可。B和D都是从属连词,但是后面缺乏了动词。
■Mrs. Johnson's old cat likes to sit B the sun.
[A] near     [B] in     [C] underneath     [D] below
解释:本句中的the sun指阳光,是立体的范围,所以用in。
■You can't do a hard day's work B a cup of coffee and a slice of bread.
[A] of     [B] on     [C] in     [D] at
解释:on a cup of coffee……表示"只靠一杯咖啡……(来维持体力)"。
■The necklace you are wearing is very becoming B you.
[A] at     [B] to     [C] for     [D] with
解释:becoming to one表示"很合适某人(穿戴)"。
In the photograph the man's face is A focus and blurred.
[A] out of     [B] with     [C] on     [D] to
解释:因下文说的blurred(模糊),所以选择out of focus(没对好焦距)。
■B the seriousness of the occasion, the audience burst out laughing, at the extraordinary nature of the proposal.
[A] Although     [B] Notwithstanding     [C] In respect of     [D] On behalf of
解释:下文说观众哄堂大笑,前面则是"场合严肃",故要用表示"相反"的关系,故A或B。A中的although是从属连词,不能直接跟名词短语the seriousness,所以选B。{seriousness:n:严肃,认真,严重性;occasion:n:场合,时机,机会,盛大场面;v:引起,致使;extraordinary:adj:非凡的,特别的,特派的;proposal:n:求婚,建议,提议;notwithstanding:adv:虽然,尽管;prep:纵使;conj:虽然;}
■D being portable, a walkman provides a high quality of sound.
[A] Aside     [B] Far from     [C] Beside     [D] Besides
解释:本句意思是"除了"可手提,还可提供高品质的声音。这里表示"除了……,还有……",所以用besides。C中的beside表示"在……旁边",A中的aside是副词,B中far from表示"决非……"。
George likes all vegetables A for spinach.
[A] except     [B] accept     [C] excuse     [D] expect
解释:except for表示"除了……以外",表示这个不算。
■D the weather, forecast or anticipated,  a true English gentleman always carries an umbrella, wherever he goes.
[A] Regardless     [B] Regard     [C] Regard of     [D] Regardless of
解释:regardless of表示"不顾,不管"。{regard:v:尊敬,视为,注视,留意,和……有关;n:尊敬,致意,考虑;regardless:adj:不顾的,不注意的;adv:不顾;forecast:n:预测,预报;v:预测;anticipate:v:预期,抢……之前,预言;anticipated:adj:预期的,预先的;}
■I welcome you most cordially, both personally and C behalf of the faculty and the student body.
[A] in     [B] at     [C] on     [D] to
解释:on behalf of表示"代表"。{cordial[ˈkɔːrdʒ ə l]:n:兴奋剂,补品;adj:热忱的,诚恳的,兴奋的;faculty:n:(大学的)系或院,全体教员,才能,能力;body:主体,团体;}
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1.11主语动词一致性(Subject-verb Consistency)
1.11.1 因为我们所讲的中文不是拼音文字,没有这种借助词尾变化来表示人称的方式;而且有时一致性的判断并非容易,这两点造成我们在主语动词一致性问题上经常犯错。
主语动词一致性的判断可以从:
     主语是一个人(物)还是两个人(物)(判断对等连接词and);
     主语是哪一个(判断主语中夹带有对等连接词or、but、以及比较连接词as、than);
     主语中有表示"一"的字眼(every、each、either、neither)时,后边有名词的话就得用单数名词,其做主语时也要配合单数动词;
     主语是关系代名词(代表先行词)时,其本身没有复数变化,需要根据其代表的先行词来判断一致性;
     主语是以单位表示的名词时,虽然度量衡、时间、金钱等单位常以复数形态出现,但其做主语时却不一定要当复数看待;
     主语后跟介词短语时,通常介词短语并不影响主语的单复数,所以通常判断一致性时可忽略介词短语,但是当主语为空字眼时,其只表达"全部/部分"的概念,看不出是什么东西时,才要根据后面的介词度短语来判断单复数;
     a number / the number:the number就是that number,指一个数字所以用单数,而a number则表示"某个数目的……",是指若干个可数的东西,所以要用复数;
     a pair of……:主语是a pair就是one pair,则应该是单数,而a pair表示的东西也可以说成是these shoes等,此时则要用复数。
1.11.2 集合名词(Collective Nouns)在英语中不多,这种名词用来表示"一个单位、集团"时要用单数动词,但是其不加-s而用来表示单位内的"成员"时,要用复数动词。常见的集合名词有:staff(员工、幕僚)、faculty(教员)、family、police、committee、crew(机员、船员)。
1.11.3 一些以s结尾的名词并不一定是复数,像代表学科、疾病的字眼经常就只能用单数形式。
 
1.11 本小节示例及练习:
Your brother John (have) come to see you. (has,主语是一个人。)
Your brother and John (have) come to see you. (have,主语是两个人,brother好John。)
The senator and delegate (want) to make an announcement. (wants,,名词短语由:限定词+形容词+名词组成,其中任意一个元素都可以省略。此句中,名词短语the senator and delegate中,限定词the,名词部分由and连接senator和delegate,此时应视为具有参议院和代表双重身份的一个人,所以单数。) {delegate:n:代表;v:派……为代表;委派;授权;委托;}
The senator and the delegate (want) to make an announcement. (want,主语the senator和the delegate各有限定词,需要视为2个名词短语,因而是指2个人,故用复数。)
Every man and every woman (have) to do something for the country. (has,虽然every man和every woman各有限定词,所以似乎是复数。但从意思上判断,man和woman是相对称的内容,是指人的两种性别。重复every是为了加强语气,即:表示不论男女的每一个"人",而不是表示两个人。类似every man or woman、every person,所以应该选择单数。)
All work and no play (make) Jack a dull boy. (makes,主语all work和no play分别有各自的限定词all和no,似乎是两个名词短语。但从内容上来看,一天24小时都在工作,就意味着没有游戏时间,所以all work and no play说的是同一件事情的两个方面,重复是为了加强语气,所以应该用单数。) {dull:adj:呆滞的,迟钝的,无趣的;v:变钝,迟钝;}
A cup and saucer (be) placed on the table. (is,杯子和碟子可视为一组,所以只使用了一个限定词a,当"一组咖啡杯"看待时是单数。) {saucer:茶托,碟子;}
A cup and a dish (be) placed on the table. (are,杯子和菜碟子是两件东西,不能当做一组来看待,所以用a cup和a dish连个名词短语来表示,所以要用复数。)
A brown and white dog (be) at your doorsteps. (is,一直综白相间的够在门前的台阶,说的一只狗,所以用单数。) {doorstep:门阶;}
A brown and a white dog (be) fighting over a bone. (are,一直棕色和一直白色两只狗,所以用复数。)
Bread and butter (be) not very tasty but very filling. (is,bread和butter都不可数,使用零冠词(zero article),所以看不到限定词。从意思上,bread和butter是一种食品:吐司面包涂奶油,所以从意思上讲应该是单数。)
Bread and butter (have) both risen in price. (have,bread和butter同样都使用零冠词,但"双双涨价"是说的两种物资,所以应该用复数。)
Oil and water (do) not mix. (do,油水"两种"物质无法混合,这是一句英文谚语,用do。)
You want to borrow money? But I, as well as you, (be) broke. (am,本句为简化从句,可还原为:I am broke as well as you are。句中的第二个as是比较级的连词,前面的I am broke是主要从句,后面的you are是从属从句。从属从句简化时,省略be动词,成为as well as you,将其前移就成为I,as well as you。句中的括弧be属于主要从句,是I的动词,所以用am,与as well as you无关。)
I, no less than you, (be) responsible. (am,同样是简化从句,no less than you are这个比较级句子省略are后并前移,成为I,no less than you……,而括弧的be动词属于主句,所以还是主语I的动词am。)
Everyone but a few complete idiots (be) able to see that. (was,主语中使用but连接,等于排除掉后面的a few complete idiots的部分,因此仍然是要根据everyone决定,所以用单数。)
The eggs, not the hen, (be) stolen. (were,主语eggs, not the hen,虽然没有bug,可其意思与the eggs but not the hen相同,所以排除了后边的部分,动词跟eggs走,用复数。)
Not only you but also I (be) at fault. (was,not only you but also I的意思上虽然包含you和I,但语气偏重在I的部分,对等连接词前面的not等于从形式上排除了you,所以要跟后面的主语I走,用单数was。) {falt:n:缺点,故障,过错,[地质]断层;v:找……错误;}
Either my father alone or both my parents (be) coming. (are,对等连接词or表达的关系是"二选一",不同于and(两边都算)和but(否定掉一边)的情况,二选一时候的主语完全没有暗示的成分,所以"哪个靠近动词哪个就是主语",故用复数。)
Neither he nor his friends (be) there at that time. (were,对等连接词or表示"二选一"的关系,无明显的暗示,所以采用就近原则判断,故用复数。)
(Do) he or his friends want to go? (Does,对等连接词or表示"二选一"的关系,所以就近原则用单数does。)
Everybody (be) to report here tomorrow. (is,主语有every、eath、either、neither等表示"一"的字眼时,后面的名词使用单数,做主语时也得用动词单数。)
Every student (have) several chapters to report on. (has,主语有every、eath、either、neither等表示"一"的字眼时,后面的名词使用单数,做主语时也得用动词单数。)
Each (have) to make a five-minute speech. (has,主语有every、eath、either、neither等表示"一"的字眼时,后面的名词使用单数,做主语时也得用动词单数。)
You (have) to make a five-minute speech each. (have,主语是表示你们的you,所以用复数。)
Each of you (be) responsible for half of the job. (is,主语是each,原来的you变成介词of的宾语,主语有every、eath、either、neither等表示"一"的字眼时,后面的名词使用单数,做主语时也得用动词单数。)
I don't trust people who (talk) too much. (talk,主语是关系代名词时,其本身没有单复数变化,所以要看其代表的先行词的单复数。本句中who (talk) too much还原成单句就是they (talk) too much,所以they就是前面的people,所以这里用复数。)
He has three options, which (look) equally attractive. (look,主语是关系代名词时,其本身没有单复数变化,所以要看其代表的先行词的单复数。所以根据先行词options来看用复数。)
He has three options, which (be) a good thing. (is,主语是关系代名词时,其本身没有单复数变化,所以要看其代表的先行词的单复数。这里的先行词代表前面的整句话he as three options,which代表一个句子,表示"那件事",所以因该是单数。)
It (be) the Johnson boys who (be) here last night. (was, were,主语是虚词it,而补语是复数the Johnson boys,但动词要根据主语而定,所以前面是单数,后面who代表的先行词是the Johnson boys,所以用复数。)
He makes eighty thousand dollars a year, which (be) a lot of money. (is,以单位做主语时,度量衡、时间、金钱等单位常以复数形态出现,但做主语时却不一定要当单数看待。关系代词代which代表的先行词是eighty thousand dollars,看起来是复数。本句中的意思并不表示"8万个1块钱,而是有8万之多的一笔钱",所以当单数看待。)
Ten seconds (be) quite a record for the 100-meter dash. (is,主语ten seconds只是量出一段时间,表示10秒是百米短跑的一项优良记录,并不是"10个1秒钟",所以用单数。) {dash:v:猛冲,匆忙完成;n:破折号,短跑,猛冲,冲;}
Mrs. Lindsey, together with her sons, (be) on a European tour. (is,主语后有介词短语时,由于介词短语并不能影响主语是单数还是复数,所以一般情况下,判断时可以去掉介词短语来判断,不过要留意某些情况。her sons是with的宾语,主语是Mrs. Lindsey,虽然意思是都去了,但主要还交代"这位太太"做什么,故用单数。)
The use of computers in business (be) now almost inevitable. (is,主语是use,忽略介词短语后,使用单数即可。)
There (be) a list of things to buy in the handbag. (is,主语是list,省略介词短语,所以用单数。而且手提包里只有单子,所以用单数是合理的。)
All of these (be) Lishan pears. (are,主要语为空的字眼时,只表达"全部/部分"的概念,看不出是什么东西,所以才要看介词短语。本句中,all是空字眼,of these表示梨山的梨子,所以用复数。)
All of money (have) been spent. (has,主语是为空的字眼,看不是什么东西,所以根据介词短语of money"一笔钱",所以用单数。)
All but one of the pears (be) ripe. (are,句中有对等连接词but,否定掉后边的one,留下前面的all做主语,而all根据介词短语of the pears可看出是复数。)
A lot of the pears (be) damaged. (are,主语是空字眼,根据介词短语判断是用复数。)
A lot of time (have) been wasted. (has,主语是空字眼,根据介词短语判断是不可数的名词时间,所以用单数。)
Half of the pears still (look) good. (look,主语是空字眼,表示部分,根据介词短语of the pears判断是复数。)
Half of this pear (be) rotten. (is,主语是空字眼,根据介词短语of this pear判断是单数。) {rotten:adj:腐烂的,腐朽的,[]极坏的,讨厌的;adv:非常;}
Some of the cost (be) in transportation. (is,主语是一些,但是根据介词短语判断是不可数的东西,所以用单数。)
None of the pears (be) really good to eat. (is / are,none表示not one,形状和意思都是单数,可采用单数。但是none也可算是空字眼,后面的介词短语of the pears是复数,所以该句是单复数均可。)
The number of people in the demonstration (be) five thousand. (is,the numer是five thousand的意思,表示数字,做主语时用单数。)
A number of people (have) brought eggs to throw. (have,a number of people相当于some people,所以用复数。)
A pair of pants (be) hanging on the wall. (is,英语中用a pair of表示的东西,其做主语时就是one pair,故用单数。)
These pants (be) very fancy. (are,当a pair of表示的东西,其本身用these shoes……等表示时,需要用复数。) {fancy:adj:华丽装饰的,时髦的,引人注目的;n:喜爱,幻想;vt:想象,希望,迷恋;}
The committee (be) studying the proposal. (is / are,集合名词表示"一个单位、集团"时要用单数,但是不加-s来表示单位内的"成员"时,要用复数。本句中的committee可以解释为"委员会"集体,也可以解释为"委员们",所以单复数均可。)
The committee (be) five years old. (is,句中的committee表示"委员会"这个集体,所以用单数。)
The committee (be) mostly Republican politicians. (are,句中的committee表示"委员们",所以用复数。) {republican:n:拥护共和政体的人;adj:共和政体的;共和党人;共和党的;politician:政治家,政客;}
Mathematics (be) my forte. (is,像一些表示科学、疾病的字眼,虽然以s结尾,但不一定是复数。) {forte:n:长处,特长,有点,[音乐]强音记号;}
Mumps primarily (attack) children. (attacks) {mumps:腮腺炎;}
Statistics (be) born in the gambling house. (was) {gambling:n:赌博,投机;}
The statistics (be) not all accurate. (are,句中的statistics代表一批统计数字,所以用复数。) {accurate:adj:准确的,精确地;}
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posted on 2014-11-10 10:10  RJ  阅读(...)  评论(... 编辑 收藏

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