Android的线程和线程池

线程在Android中是一个很重要的概念,从用途上来说,线程分为主线程和子线程,主线程主要处理和界面相关的事情,而子线程则往往用于执行耗时操作。在Android中扮演线程角色的还有很多,比如AsyncTask和IntentService,同时HandlerThread也是一种特殊的线程,但他们本质都是传统的线程。AsyncTask底层用到了线程池,对于IntentService和HandlerThread来说,它们的底层则直接使用了线程。

不同形式的线程虽然都是线程,但是它们具有不同的特性和使用场景。AsyncTask封装了线程池和Handler,它主要是为了方便开发者在子线程中更新UI,HandlerThread是一中消息循环的线程,在它的内部可以使用Handler。IntentService是一个服务,系统对其进行了封装使其可以更方便地执行后台任务,IntentService内部采用HandlerThread来执行任务,当任务执行完毕后IntentService会自动退出。

在操作系统中,线程是操作系统的调度的最小单元,同时线程又是一种受限的系统资源,即线程不可能无限制地产生,并且线程的创建和销毁都会相应的开销。如果一个进程中频繁地创建和销毁线程,这显然不是高效的做法,正确的做法是采用线程池,在这个线程池中会缓存一定数量的线程,通过线程池就可以避免因为频繁创建和销毁线程所带来的系统开销。

Android中的线程形态

AsyncTask

AsyncTask是一种轻量级的异步任务类,它可以在线程池中执行后台任务,然后把执行的进度和最终结果传递给主线程并在主线程中更新UI。从实现上来说,AsyncTask封装了Thread和Handler,通过AsyncTask可以更加方便地执行后台任务以及在主线程中访问UI,但是AsyncTask并不适合进行特别耗时的后台任务,对于特别耗时的任务来说,用线程池比较好点。

AsyncTask提供了4个核心方法:

  • onPreExecute(),在主线程中执行,在异步任务执行之前,次方法会被调用,做一些准备工作。
  • doInBackground(Params…params),在线程池中执行,次方法用于执行异步任务,params参数表示异步任务的输入参数。
  • onProgressUpdate(Progress…values),在主线程中执行,当后台任务的执行进度发生改变时此方法会被调用。
  • onPostExecute(Result result),在主线程中执行,在异步任务执行之后,此方法会被调用。

看下源码:

public abstract class AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> {
    private static final String LOG_TAG = "AsyncTask";

    private static final int CPU_COUNT = Runtime.getRuntime().availableProcessors();
    // We want at least 2 threads and at most 4 threads in the core pool,
    // preferring to have 1 less than the CPU count to avoid saturating
    // the CPU with background work
    private static final int CORE_POOL_SIZE = Math.max(2, Math.min(CPU_COUNT - 1, 4));
    private static final int MAXIMUM_POOL_SIZE = CPU_COUNT * 2 + 1;
    private static final int KEEP_ALIVE_SECONDS = 30;

    private static final ThreadFactory sThreadFactory = new ThreadFactory() {
        private final AtomicInteger mCount = new AtomicInteger(1);

        public Thread newThread(Runnable r) {
            return new Thread(r, "AsyncTask #" + mCount.getAndIncrement());
        }
    };

    private static final BlockingQueue<Runnable> sPoolWorkQueue =
            new LinkedBlockingQueue<Runnable>(128);

    /**
     * An {@link Executor} that can be used to execute tasks in parallel.
     */
    public static final Executor THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR;

    static {
        ThreadPoolExecutor threadPoolExecutor = new ThreadPoolExecutor(
                CORE_POOL_SIZE, MAXIMUM_POOL_SIZE, KEEP_ALIVE_SECONDS, TimeUnit.SECONDS,
                sPoolWorkQueue, sThreadFactory);
        threadPoolExecutor.allowCoreThreadTimeOut(true);
        THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR = threadPoolExecutor;
    }

    /**
     * An {@link Executor} that executes tasks one at a time in serial
     * order.  This serialization is global to a particular process.
     */
    public static final Executor SERIAL_EXECUTOR = new SerialExecutor();

    private static final int MESSAGE_POST_RESULT = 0x1;
    private static final int MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS = 0x2;

    private static volatile Executor sDefaultExecutor = SERIAL_EXECUTOR;
    private static InternalHandler sHandler;

    private final WorkerRunnable<Params, Result> mWorker;
    private final FutureTask<Result> mFuture;

    private volatile Status mStatus = Status.PENDING;
    
    private final AtomicBoolean mCancelled = new AtomicBoolean();
    private final AtomicBoolean mTaskInvoked = new AtomicBoolean();

    private static class SerialExecutor implements Executor {
        final ArrayDeque<Runnable> mTasks = new ArrayDeque<Runnable>();
        Runnable mActive;

        public synchronized void execute(final Runnable r) {
            mTasks.offer(new Runnable() {
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        r.run();
                    } finally {
                        scheduleNext();
                    }
                }
            });
            if (mActive == null) {
                scheduleNext();
            }
        }

        protected synchronized void scheduleNext() {
            if ((mActive = mTasks.poll()) != null) {
                THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR.execute(mActive);
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Indicates the current status of the task. Each status will be set only once
     * during the lifetime of a task.
     */
    public enum Status {
        /**
         * Indicates that the task has not been executed yet.
         */
        PENDING,
        /**
         * Indicates that the task is running.
         */
        RUNNING,
        /**
         * Indicates that {@link AsyncTask#onPostExecute} has finished.
         */
        FINISHED,
    }

    private static Handler getHandler() {
        synchronized (AsyncTask.class) {
            if (sHandler == null) {
                sHandler = new InternalHandler();
            }
            return sHandler;
        }
    }

    /** @hide */
    public static void setDefaultExecutor(Executor exec) {
        sDefaultExecutor = exec;
    }

    /**
     * Creates a new asynchronous task. This constructor must be invoked on the UI thread.
     */
    public AsyncTask() {
        mWorker = new WorkerRunnable<Params, Result>() {
            public Result call() throws Exception {
                mTaskInvoked.set(true);
                Result result = null;
                try {
                    Process.setThreadPriority(Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_BACKGROUND);
                    //noinspection unchecked
                    result = doInBackground(mParams);
                    Binder.flushPendingCommands();
                } catch (Throwable tr) {
                    mCancelled.set(true);
                    throw tr;
                } finally {
                    postResult(result);
                }
                return result;
            }
        };

        mFuture = new FutureTask<Result>(mWorker) {
            @Override
            protected void done() {
                try {
                    postResultIfNotInvoked(get());
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    android.util.Log.w(LOG_TAG, e);
                } catch (ExecutionException e) {
                    throw new RuntimeException("An error occurred while executing doInBackground()",
                            e.getCause());
                } catch (CancellationException e) {
                    postResultIfNotInvoked(null);
                }
            }
        };
    }

    private void postResultIfNotInvoked(Result result) {
        final boolean wasTaskInvoked = mTaskInvoked.get();
        if (!wasTaskInvoked) {
            postResult(result);
        }
    }

    private Result postResult(Result result) {
        @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
        Message message = getHandler().obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_RESULT,
                new AsyncTaskResult<Result>(this, result));
        message.sendToTarget();
        return result;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the current status of this task.
     *
     * @return The current status.
     */
    public final Status getStatus() {
        return mStatus;
    }

    /**
     * Override this method to perform a computation on a background thread. The
     * specified parameters are the parameters passed to {@link #execute}
     * by the caller of this task.
     *
     * This method can call {@link #publishProgress} to publish updates
     * on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return A result, defined by the subclass of this task.
     *
     * @see #onPreExecute()
     * @see #onPostExecute
     * @see #publishProgress
     */
    @WorkerThread
    protected abstract Result doInBackground(Params... params);

    /**
     * Runs on the UI thread before {@link #doInBackground}.
     *
     * @see #onPostExecute
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    @MainThread
    protected void onPreExecute() {
    }

    /**
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #doInBackground}. The
     * specified result is the value returned by {@link #doInBackground}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>This method won't be invoked if the task was cancelled.</p>
     *
     * @param result The result of the operation computed by {@link #doInBackground}.
     *
     * @see #onPreExecute
     * @see #doInBackground
     * @see #onCancelled(Object) 
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedDeclaration"})
    @MainThread
    protected void onPostExecute(Result result) {
    }

    /**
     * Runs on the UI thread after {@link #publishProgress} is invoked.
     * The specified values are the values passed to {@link #publishProgress}.
     *
     * @param values The values indicating progress.
     *
     * @see #publishProgress
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedDeclaration"})
    @MainThread
    protected void onProgressUpdate(Progress... values) {
    }

    /**
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #cancel(boolean)} is invoked and
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} has finished.</p>
     * 
     * <p>The default implementation simply invokes {@link #onCancelled()} and
     * ignores the result. If you write your own implementation, do not call
     * <code>super.onCancelled(result)</code>.</p>
     *
     * @param result The result, if any, computed in
     *               {@link #doInBackground(Object[])}, can be null
     * 
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     * @see #isCancelled()
     */
    @SuppressWarnings({"UnusedParameters"})
    @MainThread
    protected void onCancelled(Result result) {
        onCancelled();
    }    
    
    /**
     * <p>Applications should preferably override {@link #onCancelled(Object)}.
     * This method is invoked by the default implementation of
     * {@link #onCancelled(Object)}.</p>
     * 
     * <p>Runs on the UI thread after {@link #cancel(boolean)} is invoked and
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} has finished.</p>
     *
     * @see #onCancelled(Object) 
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     * @see #isCancelled()
     */
    @MainThread
    protected void onCancelled() {
    }

    /**
     * Returns <tt>true</tt> if this task was cancelled before it completed
     * normally. If you are calling {@link #cancel(boolean)} on the task,
     * the value returned by this method should be checked periodically from
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} to end the task as soon as possible.
     *
     * @return <tt>true</tt> if task was cancelled before it completed
     *
     * @see #cancel(boolean)
     */
    public final boolean isCancelled() {
        return mCancelled.get();
    }

    /**
     * <p>Attempts to cancel execution of this task.  This attempt will
     * fail if the task has already completed, already been cancelled,
     * or could not be cancelled for some other reason. If successful,
     * and this task has not started when <tt>cancel</tt> is called,
     * this task should never run. If the task has already started,
     * then the <tt>mayInterruptIfRunning</tt> parameter determines
     * whether the thread executing this task should be interrupted in
     * an attempt to stop the task.</p>
     * 
     * <p>Calling this method will result in {@link #onCancelled(Object)} being
     * invoked on the UI thread after {@link #doInBackground(Object[])}
     * returns. Calling this method guarantees that {@link #onPostExecute(Object)}
     * is never invoked. After invoking this method, you should check the
     * value returned by {@link #isCancelled()} periodically from
     * {@link #doInBackground(Object[])} to finish the task as early as
     * possible.</p>
     *
     * @param mayInterruptIfRunning <tt>true</tt> if the thread executing this
     *        task should be interrupted; otherwise, in-progress tasks are allowed
     *        to complete.
     *
     * @return <tt>false</tt> if the task could not be cancelled,
     *         typically because it has already completed normally;
     *         <tt>true</tt> otherwise
     *
     * @see #isCancelled()
     * @see #onCancelled(Object)
     */
    public final boolean cancel(boolean mayInterruptIfRunning) {
        mCancelled.set(true);
        return mFuture.cancel(mayInterruptIfRunning);
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for the computation to complete, and then
     * retrieves its result.
     *
     * @return The computed result.
     *
     * @throws CancellationException If the computation was cancelled.
     * @throws ExecutionException If the computation threw an exception.
     * @throws InterruptedException If the current thread was interrupted
     *         while waiting.
     */
    public final Result get() throws InterruptedException, ExecutionException {
        return mFuture.get();
    }

    /**
     * Waits if necessary for at most the given time for the computation
     * to complete, and then retrieves its result.
     *
     * @param timeout Time to wait before cancelling the operation.
     * @param unit The time unit for the timeout.
     *
     * @return The computed result.
     *
     * @throws CancellationException If the computation was cancelled.
     * @throws ExecutionException If the computation threw an exception.
     * @throws InterruptedException If the current thread was interrupted
     *         while waiting.
     * @throws TimeoutException If the wait timed out.
     */
    public final Result get(long timeout, TimeUnit unit) throws InterruptedException,
            ExecutionException, TimeoutException {
        return mFuture.get(timeout, unit);
    }

    /**
     * Executes the task with the specified parameters. The task returns
     * itself (this) so that the caller can keep a reference to it.
     * 
     * <p>Note: this function schedules the task on a queue for a single background
     * thread or pool of threads depending on the platform version.  When first
     * introduced, AsyncTasks were executed serially on a single background thread.
     * Starting with {@link android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES#DONUT}, this was changed
     * to a pool of threads allowing multiple tasks to operate in parallel. Starting
     * {@link android.os.Build.VERSION_CODES#HONEYCOMB}, tasks are back to being
     * executed on a single thread to avoid common application errors caused
     * by parallel execution.  If you truly want parallel execution, you can use
     * the {@link #executeOnExecutor} version of this method
     * with {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR}; however, see commentary there for warnings
     * on its use.
     *
     * <p>This method must be invoked on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return This instance of AsyncTask.
     *
     * @throws IllegalStateException If {@link #getStatus()} returns either
     *         {@link AsyncTask.Status#RUNNING} or {@link AsyncTask.Status#FINISHED}.
     *
     * @see #executeOnExecutor(java.util.concurrent.Executor, Object[])
     * @see #execute(Runnable)
     */
    @MainThread
    public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> execute(Params... params) {
        return executeOnExecutor(sDefaultExecutor, params);
    }

    /**
     * Executes the task with the specified parameters. The task returns
     * itself (this) so that the caller can keep a reference to it.
     * 
     * <p>This method is typically used with {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR} to
     * allow multiple tasks to run in parallel on a pool of threads managed by
     * AsyncTask, however you can also use your own {@link Executor} for custom
     * behavior.
     * 
     * <p><em>Warning:</em> Allowing multiple tasks to run in parallel from
     * a thread pool is generally <em>not</em> what one wants, because the order
     * of their operation is not defined.  For example, if these tasks are used
     * to modify any state in common (such as writing a file due to a button click),
     * there are no guarantees on the order of the modifications.
     * Without careful work it is possible in rare cases for the newer version
     * of the data to be over-written by an older one, leading to obscure data
     * loss and stability issues.  Such changes are best
     * executed in serial; to guarantee such work is serialized regardless of
     * platform version you can use this function with {@link #SERIAL_EXECUTOR}.
     *
     * <p>This method must be invoked on the UI thread.
     *
     * @param exec The executor to use.  {@link #THREAD_POOL_EXECUTOR} is available as a
     *              convenient process-wide thread pool for tasks that are loosely coupled.
     * @param params The parameters of the task.
     *
     * @return This instance of AsyncTask.
     *
     * @throws IllegalStateException If {@link #getStatus()} returns either
     *         {@link AsyncTask.Status#RUNNING} or {@link AsyncTask.Status#FINISHED}.
     *
     * @see #execute(Object[])
     */
    @MainThread
    public final AsyncTask<Params, Progress, Result> executeOnExecutor(Executor exec,
            Params... params) {
        if (mStatus != Status.PENDING) {
            switch (mStatus) {
                case RUNNING:
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
                            + " the task is already running.");
                case FINISHED:
                    throw new IllegalStateException("Cannot execute task:"
                            + " the task has already been executed "
                            + "(a task can be executed only once)");
            }
        }

        mStatus = Status.RUNNING;

        onPreExecute();

        mWorker.mParams = params;
        exec.execute(mFuture);

        return this;
    }

    /**
     * Convenience version of {@link #execute(Object...)} for use with
     * a simple Runnable object. See {@link #execute(Object[])} for more
     * information on the order of execution.
     *
     * @see #execute(Object[])
     * @see #executeOnExecutor(java.util.concurrent.Executor, Object[])
     */
    @MainThread
    public static void execute(Runnable runnable) {
        sDefaultExecutor.execute(runnable);
    }

    /**
     * This method can be invoked from {@link #doInBackground} to
     * publish updates on the UI thread while the background computation is
     * still running. Each call to this method will trigger the execution of
     * {@link #onProgressUpdate} on the UI thread.
     *
     * {@link #onProgressUpdate} will not be called if the task has been
     * canceled.
     *
     * @param values The progress values to update the UI with.
     *
     * @see #onProgressUpdate
     * @see #doInBackground
     */
    @WorkerThread
    protected final void publishProgress(Progress... values) {
        if (!isCancelled()) {
            getHandler().obtainMessage(MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS,
                    new AsyncTaskResult<Progress>(this, values)).sendToTarget();
        }
    }

    private void finish(Result result) {
        if (isCancelled()) {
            onCancelled(result);
        } else {
            onPostExecute(result);
        }
        mStatus = Status.FINISHED;
    }

    private static class InternalHandler extends Handler {
        public InternalHandler() {
            super(Looper.getMainLooper());
        }

        @SuppressWarnings({"unchecked", "RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            AsyncTaskResult<?> result = (AsyncTaskResult<?>) msg.obj;
            switch (msg.what) {
                case MESSAGE_POST_RESULT:
                    // There is only one result
                    result.mTask.finish(result.mData[0]);
                    break;
                case MESSAGE_POST_PROGRESS:
                    result.mTask.onProgressUpdate(result.mData);
                    break;
            }
        }
    }

    private static abstract class WorkerRunnable<Params, Result> implements Callable<Result> {
        Params[] mParams;
    }

    @SuppressWarnings({"RawUseOfParameterizedType"})
    private static class AsyncTaskResult<Data> {
        final AsyncTask mTask;
        final Data[] mData;

        AsyncTaskResult(AsyncTask task, Data... data) {
            mTask = task;
            mData = data;
        }
    }
}

从中我们知道了,线程池中线程的数量跟CPU内核多少有关,在一个处理队列中最多只有128个,这个并发数超过就会报异常,同时源码里也看到,是通过sHandler发送一个MESSAGE_POST_RESULT的消息进行最终处理的。

sHandler是一个静态的Handler对象,为了能够将执行环境切换到主线程,这就要求sHandler这个对象必须在主线程中创建。由于静态成员会在加载类的时候进行初始化,因此这就变相要求AsyncTask的类必须在主线程中加载,否则同一个进程中的AsyncTask都无法正常工作。

还有一点要注意下,从Android 3.0开始,默认情况下AsyncTask是串行执行的。但在Android 3.0之前是并行执行的。

HandlerThread

HandlerThread继承了Thread,它是一种可以使用Handler的Thread,它的实现很简单,就在run方法中通过Looper.prepare()来创建消息队列,并通过Looper.loop()来开启消息循环,这样在实际的使用中就允许在HandlerThread中创建Handler。看下源代码:

public class HandlerThread extends Thread {
    int mPriority;
    int mTid = -1;
    Looper mLooper;

    public HandlerThread(String name) {
        super(name);
        mPriority = Process.THREAD_PRIORITY_DEFAULT;
    }
    
    /**
     * Constructs a HandlerThread.
     * @param name
     * @param priority The priority to run the thread at. The value supplied must be from 
     * {@link android.os.Process} and not from java.lang.Thread.
     */
    public HandlerThread(String name, int priority) {
        super(name);
        mPriority = priority;
    }
    
    /**
     * Call back method that can be explicitly overridden if needed to execute some
     * setup before Looper loops.
     */
    protected void onLooperPrepared() {
    }

    @Override
    public void run() {
        mTid = Process.myTid();
        Looper.prepare();
        synchronized (this) {
            mLooper = Looper.myLooper();
            notifyAll();
        }
        Process.setThreadPriority(mPriority);
        onLooperPrepared();
        Looper.loop();
        mTid = -1;
    }
    
    /**
     * This method returns the Looper associated with this thread. If this thread not been started
     * or for any reason is isAlive() returns false, this method will return null. If this thread 
     * has been started, this method will block until the looper has been initialized.  
     * @return The looper.
     */
    public Looper getLooper() {
        if (!isAlive()) {
            return null;
        }
        
        // If the thread has been started, wait until the looper has been created.
        synchronized (this) {
            while (isAlive() && mLooper == null) {
                try {
                    wait();
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                }
            }
        }
        return mLooper;
    }

    /**
     * Quits the handler thread's looper.
     * <p>
     * Causes the handler thread's looper to terminate without processing any
     * more messages in the message queue.
     * </p><p>
     * Any attempt to post messages to the queue after the looper is asked to quit will fail.
     * For example, the {@link Handler#sendMessage(Message)} method will return false.
     * </p><p class="note">
     * Using this method may be unsafe because some messages may not be delivered
     * before the looper terminates.  Consider using {@link #quitSafely} instead to ensure
     * that all pending work is completed in an orderly manner.
     * </p>
     *
     * @return True if the looper looper has been asked to quit or false if the
     * thread had not yet started running.
     *
     * @see #quitSafely
     */
    public boolean quit() {
        Looper looper = getLooper();
        if (looper != null) {
            looper.quit();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Quits the handler thread's looper safely.
     * <p>
     * Causes the handler thread's looper to terminate as soon as all remaining messages
     * in the message queue that are already due to be delivered have been handled.
     * Pending delayed messages with due times in the future will not be delivered.
     * </p><p>
     * Any attempt to post messages to the queue after the looper is asked to quit will fail.
     * For example, the {@link Handler#sendMessage(Message)} method will return false.
     * </p><p>
     * If the thread has not been started or has finished (that is if
     * {@link #getLooper} returns null), then false is returned.
     * Otherwise the looper is asked to quit and true is returned.
     * </p>
     *
     * @return True if the looper looper has been asked to quit or false if the
     * thread had not yet started running.
     */
    public boolean quitSafely() {
        Looper looper = getLooper();
        if (looper != null) {
            looper.quitSafely();
            return true;
        }
        return false;
    }

    /**
     * Returns the identifier of this thread. See Process.myTid().
     */
    public int getThreadId() {
        return mTid;
    }
}

IntentService

IntentService是一种特殊的Service,它继承了Service并且它是一种抽象类,因此必须创建它的子类才能使用IntentService。IntentService可用于执行后台耗时的任务,当任务执行后它会自动停止,同时由于IntentService是服务的原因,这导致他的优先级比单纯的线程要高很多,所以IntentService比较适合执行一些高优先级的后台任务,因为它的优先级高不容易被系统杀死。看下源码:

public abstract class IntentService extends Service {
    private volatile Looper mServiceLooper;
    private volatile ServiceHandler mServiceHandler;
    private String mName;
    private boolean mRedelivery;

    private final class ServiceHandler extends Handler {
        public ServiceHandler(Looper looper) {
            super(looper);
        }

        @Override
        public void handleMessage(Message msg) {
            onHandleIntent((Intent)msg.obj);
            stopSelf(msg.arg1);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Creates an IntentService.  Invoked by your subclass's constructor.
     *
     * @param name Used to name the worker thread, important only for debugging.
     */
    public IntentService(String name) {
        super();
        mName = name;
    }

    /**
     * Sets intent redelivery preferences.  Usually called from the constructor
     * with your preferred semantics.
     *
     * <p>If enabled is true,
     * {@link #onStartCommand(Intent, int, int)} will return
     * {@link Service#START_REDELIVER_INTENT}, so if this process dies before
     * {@link #onHandleIntent(Intent)} returns, the process will be restarted
     * and the intent redelivered.  If multiple Intents have been sent, only
     * the most recent one is guaranteed to be redelivered.
     *
     * <p>If enabled is false (the default),
     * {@link #onStartCommand(Intent, int, int)} will return
     * {@link Service#START_NOT_STICKY}, and if the process dies, the Intent
     * dies along with it.
     */
    public void setIntentRedelivery(boolean enabled) {
        mRedelivery = enabled;
    }

    @Override
    public void onCreate() {
        // TODO: It would be nice to have an option to hold a partial wakelock
        // during processing, and to have a static startService(Context, Intent)
        // method that would launch the service & hand off a wakelock.

        super.onCreate();
        HandlerThread thread = new HandlerThread("IntentService[" + mName + "]");
        thread.start();

        mServiceLooper = thread.getLooper();
        mServiceHandler = new ServiceHandler(mServiceLooper);
    }

    @Override
    public void onStart(@Nullable Intent intent, int startId) {
        Message msg = mServiceHandler.obtainMessage();
        msg.arg1 = startId;
        msg.obj = intent;
        mServiceHandler.sendMessage(msg);
    }

    /**
     * You should not override this method for your IntentService. Instead,
     * override {@link #onHandleIntent}, which the system calls when the IntentService
     * receives a start request.
     * @see android.app.Service#onStartCommand
     */
    @Override
    public int onStartCommand(@Nullable Intent intent, int flags, int startId) {
        onStart(intent, startId);
        return mRedelivery ? START_REDELIVER_INTENT : START_NOT_STICKY;
    }

    @Override
    public void onDestroy() {
        mServiceLooper.quit();
    }

    /**
     * Unless you provide binding for your service, you don't need to implement this
     * method, because the default implementation returns null.
     * @see android.app.Service#onBind
     */
    @Override
    @Nullable
    public IBinder onBind(Intent intent) {
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * This method is invoked on the worker thread with a request to process.
     * Only one Intent is processed at a time, but the processing happens on a
     * worker thread that runs independently from other application logic.
     * So, if this code takes a long time, it will hold up other requests to
     * the same IntentService, but it will not hold up anything else.
     * When all requests have been handled, the IntentService stops itself,
     * so you should not call {@link #stopSelf}.
     *
     * @param intent The value passed to {@link
     *               android.content.Context#startService(Intent)}.
     *               This may be null if the service is being restarted after
     *               its process has gone away; see
     *               {@link android.app.Service#onStartCommand}
     *               for details.
     */
    @WorkerThread
    protected abstract void onHandleIntent(@Nullable Intent intent);
}

Android中的线程池

线程池的优点:

  • 重用线程池中的线程,避免因为线程的创建和销毁所带来的性能开销。
  • 能有效控制线程池中的最大并发数,避免大量的线程之间因为互相抢占系统资源而导致的阻塞现象。
  • 能够对线程进行简单的管理,并提供定时执行以及指定间隔循环执行等功能。

Android中的线程池的概念来源于Java中的Executor,Executor是一个接口,真正的线程池的实现为ThreadPoolExecutor。ThreadPoolExecutor提供一系列参数来配置线程池,通过不同的参数可以创建不同的线程池,从线程池的功能特性来说,线程池主要分为4类。

ThreadPoolExecutor执行任务时大致遵循以下规则:

  1. 如果线程池中的线程数量未达到核心线程的数量,那么会直接启动一个核心线程来执行任务。
  2. 如果线程中的线程数量已经达到或者超过核心线程的数量,那么任务会被插入到任务队列中排队等待执行。
  3. 如果在步骤2中无法将任务插入到任务队列中,这往往是由于任务队列已经满了, 这个时候如果线程数量未达到线程池规定的最大值,那么会立刻启动一个非核心线程来执行任务。
  4. 如果步骤3的中线程数量已经达到线程池规定的最大值,那么就拒绝执行此任务,ThreadPoolExecutor会调用RejectedExecutionHandler的rejectedExecution方法来通知调用者。

线程池主要有4类:

  • FixThreadPool:这是一种线程数量固定的线程池,当线程处于空闲的时候,并不会被回收,除非线程池被关闭了。
  • CachedThreadPool:这是一种线程数量不定的线程池,它只有非核心线程,并且最大线程数为Integer.MAX_VALUE。
  • ScheduledThreadPool:它的核心线程数量是固定的,而非核心线程数是没有限制的,并且当非核心线程闲置时会被立即回收。
  • SingleThreadExecutor:这类线程池内部只有一个核心线程,它确保所有的任务都在同一个线程中按顺序执行。

阅读扩展

源于对掌握的Android开发基础点进行整理,罗列下已经总结的文章,从中可以看到技术积累的过程。
1,Android系统简介
2,ProGuard代码混淆
3,讲讲Handler+Looper+MessageQueue关系
4,Android图片加载库理解
5,谈谈Android运行时权限理解
6,EventBus初理解
7,Android 常见工具类
8,对于Fragment的一些理解
9,Android 四大组件之 " Activity "
10,Android 四大组件之" Service "
11,Android 四大组件之“ BroadcastReceiver "
12,Android 四大组件之" ContentProvider "
13,讲讲 Android 事件拦截机制
14,Android 动画的理解
15,Android 生命周期和启动模式
16,Android IPC 机制
17,View 的事件体系
18,View 的工作原理
19,理解 Window 和 WindowManager
20,Activity 启动过程分析
21,Service 启动过程分析
22,Android 性能优化
23,Android 消息机制
24,Android Bitmap相关
25,Android 线程和线程池
26,Android 中的 Drawable 和动画
27,RecylerView 中的装饰者模式
28,Android 触摸事件机制
29,Android 事件机制应用
30,Cordova 框架的一些理解
31,有关 Android 插件化思考
32,开发人员必备技能——单元测试

posted @ 2017-03-02 11:34 cryAllen 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏