深入浅出Tomcat/2 - Tomcat启动和停止

Tomcat启动和停止

很明显,我们启动或停止Tomcat,一般调用的是bin下的startup.sh或shutdown.sh(以Linux为例,以下涉及到平台,若无特殊说明,一般都指Linux)。我们看看startup.sh的脚本是什么?

# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------
# Start Script for the CATALINA Server
# -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

# Better OS/400 detection: see Bugzilla 31132
os400=false
case "`uname`" in
OS400*) os400=true;;
esac

# resolve links - $0 may be a softlink
PRG="$0"

while [ -h "$PRG" ] ; do
  ls=`ls -ld "$PRG"`
  link=`expr "$ls" : '.*-> \(.*\)$'`
  if expr "$link" : '/.*' > /dev/null; then
    PRG="$link"
  else
    PRG=`dirname "$PRG"`/"$link"
  fi
done

PRGDIR=`dirname "$PRG"`
EXECUTABLE=catalina.sh

# Check that target executable exists
if $os400; then
  # -x will Only work on the os400 if the files are:
  # 1. owned by the user
  # 2. owned by the PRIMARY group of the user
  # this will not work if the user belongs in secondary groups
  eval
else
  if [ ! -x "$PRGDIR"/"$EXECUTABLE" ]; then
    echo "Cannot find $PRGDIR/$EXECUTABLE"
    echo "The file is absent or does not have execute permission"
    echo "This file is needed to run this program"
    exit 1
  fi
fi

exec "$PRGDIR"/"$EXECUTABLE" start "$@"
最后一行,它执行的是"/"$EXECUTABLE,那它是什么呢?参看前面的一行
EXECUTABLE=catalina.sh
是的,启动脚本还是调用的catalina.sh.
接下来我们看看catalina.sh脚本有什么内容。
代码比较长,为了看的更明白,删除一些不必要的,完整的脚本大家可以参看catalina.sh
#!/bin/sh


# Control Script for the CATALINA Server
#
# Environment Variable Prerequisites
#
#   Do not set the variables in this script. Instead put them into a script
#   setenv.sh in CATALINA_BASE/bin to keep your customizations separate.
#
#   CATALINA_HOME   May point at your Catalina "build" directory.
#
#   CATALINA_BASE   (Optional) Base directory for resolving dynamic portions
#                   of a Catalina installation.  If not present, resolves to
#                   the same directory that CATALINA_HOME points to.
#
#   CATALINA_OUT    (Optional) Full path to a file where stdout and stderr
#                   will be redirected.
#                   Default is $CATALINA_BASE/logs/catalina.out
#
#   #   JAVA_HOME       Must point at your Java Development Kit installation.
#                   Required to run the with the "debug" argument.
#
#   JRE_HOME        Must point at your Java Runtime installation.
#                   Defaults to JAVA_HOME if empty. If JRE_HOME and JAVA_HOME
#                   are both set, JRE_HOME is used.
#
#   JAVA_OPTS       (Optional) Java runtime options used when any command
#                   is executed.
#                   Include here and not in CATALINA_OPTS all options, that
#                   should be used by Tomcat and also by the stop process,
#                   the version command etc.
#                   Most options should go into CATALINA_OPTS.
#   Djava.util.logging.config.file=$CATALINA_BASE/conf/logging.properties"
## -----------------------------------------------------------------------------

# ----- Execute The Requested Command -----------------------------------------


elif [ "$1" = "start" ] ; then

  
  if [ -z "$CATALINA_OUT_CMD" ] ; then
    touch "$CATALINA_OUT"
    catalina_out_command=">> \"$CATALINA_OUT\" 2>&1"
  else
    catalina_out_command="| $CATALINA_OUT_CMD"
  fi
  if [ ! -z "$CATALINA_PID" ]; then
    catalina_pid_file="$CATALINA_PID"
  else
    catalina_pid_file=/dev/null
  fi
  if [ "$1" = "-security" ] ; then
    if [ $have_tty -eq 1 ]; then
      echo "Using Security Manager"
    fi
    shift
    eval \{ $_NOHUP "\"$_RUNJAVA\"" "\"$LOGGING_CONFIG\"" $LOGGING_MANAGER $JAVA_OPTS $CATALINA_OPTS \
      -D$ENDORSED_PROP="\"$JAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS\"" \
      -classpath "\"$CLASSPATH\"" \
      -Djava.security.manager \
      -Djava.security.policy=="\"$CATALINA_BASE/conf/catalina.policy\"" \
      -Dcatalina.base="\"$CATALINA_BASE\"" \
      -Dcatalina.home="\"$CATALINA_HOME\"" \
      -Djava.io.tmpdir="\"$CATALINA_TMPDIR\"" \
      org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap "$@" start \
      2\>\&1 \& echo \$! \>\"$catalina_pid_file\" \; \} $catalina_out_command "&"

  else
    eval \{ $_NOHUP "\"$_RUNJAVA\"" "\"$LOGGING_CONFIG\"" $LOGGING_MANAGER $JAVA_OPTS $CATALINA_OPTS \
      -D$ENDORSED_PROP="\"$JAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS\"" \
      -classpath "\"$CLASSPATH\"" \
      -Dcatalina.base="\"$CATALINA_BASE\"" \
      -Dcatalina.home="\"$CATALINA_HOME\"" \
      -Djava.io.tmpdir="\"$CATALINA_TMPDIR\"" \
      org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap "$@" start \
      2\>\&1 \& echo \$! \>\"$catalina_pid_file\" \; \} $catalina_out_command "&"

  fi

  echo "Tomcat started."

elif [ "$1" = "stop" ] ; then


  eval "\"$_RUNJAVA\"" $JAVA_OPTS \
    -D$ENDORSED_PROP="\"$JAVA_ENDORSED_DIRS\"" \
    -classpath "\"$CLASSPATH\"" \
    -Dcatalina.base="\"$CATALINA_BASE\"" \
    -Dcatalina.home="\"$CATALINA_HOME\"" \
    -Djava.io.tmpdir="\"$CATALINA_TMPDIR\"" \
    org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap "$@" stop

  


elif [ "$1" = "version" ] ; then

    "$_RUNJAVA"   \
      -classpath "$CATALINA_HOME/lib/catalina.jar" \
      org.apache.catalina.util.ServerInfo

else

  echo "Usage: catalina.sh ( commands ... )"
  echo "commands:"
  if $os400; then
    echo "  debug             Start Catalina in a debugger (not available on OS400)"
    echo "  debug -security   Debug Catalina with a security manager (not available on OS400)"
  else
    echo "  debug             Start Catalina in a debugger"
    echo "  debug -security   Debug Catalina with a security manager"
  fi
  echo "  jpda start        Start Catalina under JPDA debugger"
  echo "  run               Start Catalina in the current window"
  echo "  run -security     Start in the current window with security manager"
  echo "  start             Start Catalina in a separate window"
  echo "  start -security   Start in a separate window with security manager"
  echo "  stop              Stop Catalina, waiting up to 5 seconds for the process to end"
  echo "  stop n            Stop Catalina, waiting up to n seconds for the process to end"
  echo "  stop -force       Stop Catalina, wait up to 5 seconds and then use kill -KILL if still running"
  echo "  stop n -force     Stop Catalina, wait up to n seconds and then use kill -KILL if still running"
  echo "  configtest        Run a basic syntax check on server.xml - check exit code for result"
  echo "  version           What version of tomcat are you running?"
  echo "Note: Waiting for the process to end and use of the -force option require that \$CATALINA_PID is defined"
  exit 1
从以上脚本可以看出,无论是start还是stop,其实调用的都是org.apache.catalina.startup.Bootstrap 这个类。
 
整理一下,Tomcat整个程序的入口在Boostrap这个类这里。
OK,我们看看Bootstrap的启动过程。

Bootstrap的启动过程

Bootstrap这个类在以下package里

org.apache.catalina.startup

Bootstrap类有个main方法,这是Tomcat的入口。

public static void main(String args[]) {

    synchronized (daemonLock) {
        if (daemon == null) {
            // Don't set daemon until init() has completed
            Bootstrap bootstrap = new Bootstrap();
            try {
                bootstrap.init();
            } catch (Throwable t) {
                handleThrowable(t);
                t.printStackTrace();
                return;
            }
            daemon = bootstrap;
        } else {
            // When running as a service the call to stop will be on a new
            // thread so make sure the correct class loader is used to
            // prevent a range of class not found exceptions.
            Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(daemon.catalinaLoader);
        }
    }

    try {
        String command = "start";
        if (args.length > 0) {
            command = args[args.length - 1];
        }

        if (command.equals("startd")) {
            args[args.length - 1] = "start";
            daemon.load(args);
            daemon.start();
        } else if (command.equals("stopd")) {
            args[args.length - 1] = "stop";
            daemon.stop();
        } else if (command.equals("start")) {
            daemon.setAwait(true);
            daemon.load(args);
            daemon.start();
            if (null == daemon.getServer()) {
                System.exit(1);
            }
        } else if (command.equals("stop")) {
            daemon.stopServer(args);
        } else if (command.equals("configtest")) {
            daemon.load(args);
            if (null == daemon.getServer()) {
                System.exit(1);
            }
            System.exit(0);
        } else {
            log.warn("Bootstrap: command \"" + command + "\" does not exist.");
        }
    } catch (Throwable t) {
        // Unwrap the Exception for clearer error reporting
        if (t instanceof InvocationTargetException &&
                t.getCause() != null) {
            t = t.getCause();
        }
        handleThrowable(t);
        t.printStackTrace();
        System.exit(1);
    }

}

代码比较简单,也比较直观。
首先创建一个Bootstrap的实例,然后调用init方法。接着处理main方法的传入参数,是start还是stop等,当然默认是start了。
再看看init的方法

public void init() throws Exception {

    initClassLoaders();

    Thread.currentThread().setContextClassLoader(catalinaLoader);

    SecurityClassLoad.securityClassLoad(catalinaLoader);

    // Load our startup class and call its process() method
    if (log.isDebugEnabled())
        log.debug("Loading startup class");
    Class<?> startupClass = catalinaLoader.loadClass("org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina");
    Object startupInstance = startupClass.getConstructor().newInstance();

    // Set the shared extensions class loader
    if (log.isDebugEnabled())
        log.debug("Setting startup class properties");
    String methodName = "setParentClassLoader";
    Class<?> paramTypes[] = new Class[1];
    paramTypes[0] = Class.forName("java.lang.ClassLoader");
    Object paramValues[] = new Object[1];
    paramValues[0] = sharedLoader;
    Method method =
        startupInstance.getClass().getMethod(methodName, paramTypes);
    method.invoke(startupInstance, paramValues);

    catalinaDaemon = startupInstance;

}

我们可以看到初始化ClassLoader,接着会创建一个startupClass的类,就是这段代码:

Class<?> startupClass = catalinaLoader.loadClass("org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina");
Object startupInstance = startupClass.getConstructor().newInstance();
我们看到startup的类其实就是org.apache.catalina.startup.Catalina,最后创建了另外一个实例catalinaDaemon。Tomcat的启动,停止都是调用它。
 
我们看看start方法启动Tomcat
public void start()
    throws Exception {
    if( catalinaDaemon==null ) init();

    Method method = catalinaDaemon.getClass().getMethod("start", (Class [] )null);
    method.invoke(catalinaDaemon, (Object [])null);

}
这里首先判断有没有初始化,如果没有,调用init并对其初始化,然后使用Method进行反射调用Catalina的start方法。
 
:Method是java.lang.reflect包里的类,代表了一个具体的方法,在这里,只是start方法。Method.invoke方法是指执行该方法,它有2个参数,第一个参数是方法名,第二个是该方法的参数。
 

Catalina的启动

追本溯源,最后Tomcat的管理落到了Catalina这个类了,所以Catalina才是最重要的类。
先看看Catalina的方法。

我们可以清晰看到几个重要的方法:
  • await
  • load
  •  start
  • stop
  • usage
对于这几个方法,也算是直观。那么我们从简单的开始说起。
方法usage
见以下代码,其实就是显示catalina的用法。
/**
 * Print usage information for this application.
 */
protected void usage() {
 
    System.out.println(sm.getString("catalina.usage"));
 
}

 

方法await
 
代码如下
/**
 * Await and shutdown.
 */
public void await() {
 
    getServer().await();
 
}

 

这个方法搭配setAwait来用,setAwait方法用于设置Server启动完成后是否进入等待状态,如果为true,则进入,否则不进入。
 
方法load
/**
 * Start a new server instance.
 */
public void load() {
 
    if (loaded) {
        return;
    }
    loaded = true;
 
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();
 
    initDirs();
 
    // Before digester - it may be needed
    initNaming();
 
    // Set configuration source
    ConfigFileLoader.setSource(new CatalinaBaseConfigurationSource(Bootstrap.getCatalinaBaseFile(), getConfigFile()));
    File file = configFile();
 
    // Create and execute our Digester
    Digester digester = createStartDigester();
 
    try (ConfigurationSource.Resource resource = ConfigFileLoader.getSource().getServerXml()) {
        InputStream inputStream = resource.getInputStream();
        InputSource inputSource = new InputSource(resource.getURI().toURL().toString());
        inputSource.setByteStream(inputStream);
        digester.push(this);
        digester.parse(inputSource);
    } catch (Exception e) {
        if  (file == null) {
            log.warn(sm.getString("catalina.configFail", getConfigFile() + "] or [server-embed.xml"), e);
        } else {
            log.warn(sm.getString("catalina.configFail", file.getAbsolutePath()), e);
            if (file.exists() && !file.canRead()) {
                log.warn(sm.getString("catalina.incorrectPermissions"));
            }
        }
        return;
    }
 
    getServer().setCatalina(this);
    getServer().setCatalinaHome(Bootstrap.getCatalinaHomeFile());
    getServer().setCatalinaBase(Bootstrap.getCatalinaBaseFile());
 
    // Stream redirection
    initStreams();
 
    // Start the new server
    try {
        getServer().init();
    } catch (LifecycleException e) {
        if (Boolean.getBoolean("org.apache.catalina.startup.EXIT_ON_INIT_FAILURE")) {
            throw new java.lang.Error(e);
        } else {
            log.error(sm.getString("catalina.initError"), e);
        }
    }
 
    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    if(log.isInfoEnabled()) {
        log.info(sm.getString("catalina.init", Long.valueOf((t2 - t1) / 1000000)));
    }
}
这个方法会加载conf/server.xml这个配置文件,并且将我们前面描述到的Server,Listener,Service,Engine等逐一加载。而且Server实例已经由Digester创建,以下是createStartDigester的实现,部分代码删除。
protected Digester createStartDigester() {
    long t1=System.currentTimeMillis();
    // Initialize the digester
    Digester digester = new Digester();
    digester.setValidating(false);
    digester.setRulesValidation(true);
    Map<Class<?>, List<String>> fakeAttributes = new HashMap<>();
    // Ignore className on all elements
    List<String> objectAttrs = new ArrayList<>();
    objectAttrs.add("className");
    fakeAttributes.put(Object.class, objectAttrs);
    // Ignore attribute added by Eclipse for its internal tracking
    List<String> contextAttrs = new ArrayList<>();
    contextAttrs.add("source");
    fakeAttributes.put(StandardContext.class, contextAttrs);
    // Ignore Connector attribute used internally but set on Server
    List<String> connectorAttrs = new ArrayList<>();
    connectorAttrs.add("portOffset");
    fakeAttributes.put(Connector.class, connectorAttrs);
    digester.setFakeAttributes(fakeAttributes);
    digester.setUseContextClassLoader(true);
 
    // Configure the actions we will be using
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server",
                             "org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer",
                             "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server");
    digester.addSetNext("Server",
                        "setServer",
                        "org.apache.catalina.Server");
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/GlobalNamingResources",
                             "org.apache.catalina.deploy.NamingResourcesImpl");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/GlobalNamingResources");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/GlobalNamingResources",
                        "setGlobalNamingResources",
                        "org.apache.catalina.deploy.NamingResourcesImpl");
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Listener",
                             null, // MUST be specified in the element
                             "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Listener");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Listener",
                        "addLifecycleListener",
                        "org.apache.catalina.LifecycleListener");
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service",
                             "org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService",
                             "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service",
                        "addService",
                        "org.apache.catalina.Service");
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service/Listener",
                             null, // MUST be specified in the element
                             "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service/Listener");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Listener",
                        "addLifecycleListener",
                        "org.apache.catalina.LifecycleListener");
 
    //Executor
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service/Executor",
                     "org.apache.catalina.core.StandardThreadExecutor",
                     "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service/Executor");
 
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Executor",
                        "addExecutor",
                        "org.apache.catalina.Executor");
 
 
    digester.addRule("Server/Service/Connector",
                     new ConnectorCreateRule());
    digester.addRule("Server/Service/Connector", new SetAllPropertiesRule(
            new String[]{"executor", "sslImplementationName", "protocol"}));
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Connector",
                        "addConnector",
                        "org.apache.catalina.connector.Connector");
 
    digester.addRule("Server/Service/Connector", new AddPortOffsetRule());
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service/Connector/SSLHostConfig",
                             "org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SSLHostConfig");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service/Connector/SSLHostConfig");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Connector/SSLHostConfig",
            "addSslHostConfig",
            "org.apache.tomcat.util.net.SSLHostConfig");
 
 
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service/Connector/Listener",
                             null, // MUST be specified in the element
                             "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service/Connector/Listener");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Connector/Listener",
                        "addLifecycleListener",
                        "org.apache.catalina.LifecycleListener");
 
    digester.addObjectCreate("Server/Service/Connector/UpgradeProtocol",
                              null, // MUST be specified in the element
                              "className");
    digester.addSetProperties("Server/Service/Connector/UpgradeProtocol");
    digester.addSetNext("Server/Service/Connector/UpgradeProtocol",
                        "addUpgradeProtocol",
                        "org.apache.coyote.UpgradeProtocol");
 
    // Add RuleSets for nested elements
    digester.addRuleSet(new NamingRuleSet("Server/GlobalNamingResources/"));
    digester.addRuleSet(new EngineRuleSet("Server/Service/"));
    digester.addRuleSet(new HostRuleSet("Server/Service/Engine/"));
    digester.addRuleSet(new ContextRuleSet("Server/Service/Engine/Host/"));
    addClusterRuleSet(digester, "Server/Service/Engine/Host/Cluster/");
    digester.addRuleSet(new NamingRuleSet("Server/Service/Engine/Host/Context/"));
 
    // When the 'engine' is found, set the parentClassLoader.
    digester.addRule("Server/Service/Engine",
                     new SetParentClassLoaderRule(parentClassLoader));
    addClusterRuleSet(digester, "Server/Service/Engine/Cluster/");
 
    long t2=System.currentTimeMillis();
    if (log.isDebugEnabled()) {
        log.debug("Digester for server.xml created " + ( t2-t1 ));
    }
    return digester;
 
}

 

方法start
start用来启动一个Server,具体代码如下
/**
 * Start a new server instance.
 */
public void start() {
 
    if (getServer() == null) {
        load();
    }
 
    if (getServer() == null) {
        log.fatal(sm.getString("catalina.noServer"));
        return;
    }
 
    long t1 = System.nanoTime();
 
    // Start the new server
    try {
        getServer().start();
    } catch (LifecycleException e) {
        log.fatal(sm.getString("catalina.serverStartFail"), e);
        try {
            getServer().destroy();
        } catch (LifecycleException e1) {
            log.debug("destroy() failed for failed Server ", e1);
        }
        return;
    }
 
    long t2 = System.nanoTime();
    if(log.isInfoEnabled()) {
        log.info(sm.getString("catalina.startup", Long.valueOf((t2 - t1) / 1000000)));
    }
 
    // Register shutdown hook
    if (useShutdownHook) {
        if (shutdownHook == null) {
            shutdownHook = new CatalinaShutdownHook();
        }
        Runtime.getRuntime().addShutdownHook(shutdownHook);
 
        // If JULI is being used, disable JULI's shutdown hook since
        // shutdown hooks run in parallel and log messages may be lost
        // if JULI's hook completes before the CatalinaShutdownHook()
        LogManager logManager = LogManager.getLogManager();
        if (logManager instanceof ClassLoaderLogManager) {
            ((ClassLoaderLogManager) logManager).setUseShutdownHook(
                    false);
        }
    }
 
    if (await) {
        await();
        stop();
    }
}

首先判断Server是否存在,如果不存在,调用load初始化一下。接着调用Server的start方法启动它。最后如果启用关闭的钩子,还要注册一下该钩子。在末尾,如果如果await设置为true的话,需要调用await和stop。Await会直接调用Server的await方法,Server内部会进入一个while循环,以下代码是Server的await方法的实现。当await里while结束,执行stop方法,停止服务器。

public void await() {
        // Set up a server socket to wait on
    try {
        awaitSocket = new ServerSocket(getPortWithOffset(), 1,
                InetAddress.getByName(address));
    } catch (IOException e) {
        log.error(sm.getString("standardServer.awaitSocket.fail", address,
                String.valueOf(getPortWithOffset()), String.valueOf(getPort()),
                String.valueOf(getPortOffset())), e);
        return;
    }

    try {
        awaitThread = Thread.currentThread();

        // Loop waiting for a connection and a valid command
        while (!stopAwait) {
            ServerSocket serverSocket = awaitSocket;
            if (serverSocket == null) {
                break;
            }

            // Wait for the next connection
            Socket socket = null;
            StringBuilder command = new StringBuilder();
            try {
                InputStream stream;
                long acceptStartTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
                try {
                    socket = serverSocket.accept();
                    socket.setSoTimeout(10 * 1000);  // Ten seconds
                    stream = socket.getInputStream();
                } catch (SocketTimeoutException ste) {
                    // This should never happen but bug 56684 suggests that
                    // it does.
                    log.warn(sm.getString("standardServer.accept.timeout",
                            Long.valueOf(System.currentTimeMillis() - acceptStartTime)), ste);
                    continue;
                } catch (AccessControlException ace) {
                    log.warn(sm.getString("standardServer.accept.security"), ace);
                    continue;
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    if (stopAwait) {
                        // Wait was aborted with socket.close()
                        break;
                    }
                    log.error(sm.getString("standardServer.accept.error"), e);
                    break;
                }

                // Read a set of characters from the socket
                int expected = 1024; // Cut off to avoid DoS attack
                while (expected < shutdown.length()) {
                    if (random == null)
                        random = new Random();
                    expected += (random.nextInt() % 1024);
                }
                while (expected > 0) {
                    int ch = -1;
                    try {
                        ch = stream.read();
                    } catch (IOException e) {
                        log.warn(sm.getString("standardServer.accept.readError"), e);
                        ch = -1;
                    }
                    // Control character or EOF (-1) terminates loop
                    if (ch < 32 || ch == 127) {
                        break;
                    }
                    command.append((char) ch);
                    expected--;
                }
            } finally {
                // Close the socket now that we are done with it
                try {
                    if (socket != null) {
                        socket.close();
                    }
                } catch (IOException e) {
                    // Ignore
                }
            }

            // Match against our command string
            boolean match = command.toString().equals(shutdown);
            if (match) {
                log.info(sm.getString("standardServer.shutdownViaPort"));
                break;
            } else
                log.warn(sm.getString("standardServer.invalidShutdownCommand", command.toString()));
        }
    } finally {
        ServerSocket serverSocket = awaitSocket;
        awaitThread = null;
        awaitSocket = null;

        // Close the server socket and return
        if (serverSocket != null) {
            try {
                serverSocket.close();
            } catch (IOException e) {
                // Ignore
            }
        }
    }
}

Server的启动

前面也提到了Catalina的start其实调用的是Server的start方法,我们看看Server的start的方法怎么实现的。在深入前,我们看看Server的方法列表等信息。
Server是一个接口,继承了LifeCycle这个接口。
Server提供了2个方法addService()以及removeService(),分别用来增加或删除Service。在前面我们讲过,一个Server是可以包含多个Service的。
在Server 启动前,Server包含的几个Service也需要初始化,其实每个Service的初始化也是用Service本身的init方法来初始化。
Server的默认实现是org.apache.catalina.core.StandardServer,StandardServer又继承了LifeCycleMBeanBase,
public final class StandardServer extends LifecycleMBeanBase implements Server 
LifeCycleMBeanBase又继承了LifecycleBase
public abstract class LifecycleMBeanBase extends LifecycleBase 
LifeCycleBase又实现了LifeCycle
public abstract class LifecycleBase implements Lifecycle
因为init和start都是LifeCycleBase里,这也是tomcat的生命周期重要的方法。Init和start也分别调用了initInternal和startInternal。至于怎么实现,还得看子类的具体逻辑,前面说到StandardServer是默认的实现,那我们看看StandardServer的具体实现逻辑。继续上代码:
protected void initInternal() throws LifecycleException {



    super.initInternal();
      

     //… …

    // Initialize our defined Services

    for (int i = 0; i < services.length; i++) {

        services[i].init();

    }

}
上面是initInternal的代码,我们发现其实就是调用Server包含的Service的init方法。
下面是startInternal的代码。 
protected void startInternal() throws LifecycleException {

 

fireLifecycleEvent(CONFIGURE_START_EVENT, null);

setState(LifecycleState.STARTING);


globalNamingResources.start();


// Start our defined Services

synchronized (servicesLock) {

for (int i = 0; i < services.length; i++) {

services[i].start();

}

}

 

if (periodicEventDelay > 0) {

monitorFuture = getUtilityExecutor().scheduleWithFixedDelay(

new Runnable() {

@Override

public void run() {

startPeriodicLifecycleEvent();

}

}, 0, 60, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

}

}

首先需要启动各个Service,这也是通过Service 的start方法来实现。

Service的启动过程

前面已经说到,Server会调用Service的start方法来启动各个Service,我们继续看Service的启动。Service的默认实现是org.apache.catalina.core.StandardService,StandardService也继承了LifeCycleMBeanBase类,所以init和start最终也会调用initInternal和startInternal这两个方法。还是先看StandardService的方法列表。

和StandardServer类似,一个Service可能包含多个Connector,所以我们看到了addConnector和removeConnector这两个方法。
我们可以看到initInternal和startInternal两个方法,我们抽取核心的代码在这里展示一下:

@Override
protected void initInternal() throws LifecycleException {

    super.initInternal();

    if (engine != null) {
        engine.init();
    }

    // Initialize any Executors
    for (Executor executor : findExecutors()) {
        if (executor instanceof JmxEnabled) {
            ((JmxEnabled) executor).setDomain(getDomain());
        }
        executor.init();
    }

    // Initialize mapper listener
    mapperListener.init();

    // Initialize our defined Connectors
    synchronized (connectorsLock) {
        for (Connector connector : connectors) {
            connector.init();
        }
    }
}


protected void startInternal() throws LifecycleException {

    if(log.isInfoEnabled())
        log.info(sm.getString("standardService.start.name", this.name));
    setState(LifecycleState.STARTING);

    // Start our defined Container first
    if (engine != null) {
        synchronized (engine) {
            engine.start();
        }
    }

    synchronized (executors) {
        for (Executor executor: executors) {
            executor.start();
        }
    }

    mapperListener.start();

    // Start our defined Connectors second
    synchronized (connectorsLock) {
        for (Connector connector: connectors) {
            // If it has already failed, don't try and start it
            if (connector.getState() != LifecycleState.FAILED) {
                connector.start();
            }
        }
 

根据以上代码可以看出,无论是initInternal还是startInternal,都涉及到了Engine,Executor,Listener以及Connector。
这里需要说明的是Executor,前面并未提及,因为Tomcat默认把它注释掉了,其实它就是Connector中管理线程的线程池。

<!--The connectors can use a shared executor, you can define one or more named thread pools-->

<Executor name="tomcatThreadPool" namePrefix="catalina-exec-"
maxThreads="150" minSpareThreads="4"/>

如何使用Executor?只需要在Connector加上executor这个属性,并指向定义的Executor。

<Connector executor = “tomcatThreadPool” port="8080" protocol="HTTP/1.1"
connectionTimeout="20000"
redirectPort="8443" />

综合上述,现在我们可以了解Tomcat的启动过程了,先初始化,然后在启动。
Startup.sh -> Bootstrap的main -> Catalina -> StandardServer -> StandardService->Container->Executor->Connector

posted @ 2019-01-31 09:50 张太国 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏