strcat的几种实现及性能比较

 

一  原型说明

     strcat()为C语言标准库函数,用于字符串拼接。函数原型声明在string.h头文件中:

char *strcat(char *dest, const char *src);

     该函数将参数src所指字符串拷贝到参数dest所指字符串的结尾处(覆盖dest结尾处的'\0')并添加'\0'。其返回值为参数dest所指字符串的起始地址。注意,dest必须有足够的空间来容纳要拷贝的src字符串。

     本文将给出strcat函数的几种实现,并比较其执行效率。代码运行环境如下:

 

二  代码实现

2.1 汇编实现

 1 char *AssemStrcat(char *pszDest, const char *pszSrc)
 2 {
 3     int d0, d1, d2, d3;
 4     __asm__ __volatile__(
 5         "repne\n\t"
 6         "scasb\n\t"
 7         "decl %1\n"
 8         "1:\tlodsb\n\t"
 9         "stosb\n\t"
10         "testb %%al,%%al\n\t"
11         "jne 1b"
12         : "=&S" (d0), "=&D" (d1), "=&a" (d2), "=&c" (d3)
13         : "0" (pszSrc), "1" (pszDest), "2" (0), "3" (0xffffffff):"memory");
14     return pszDest;
15 }

2.2 模拟C库

 1 char *SimuStrcat(char *pszDest, const char *pszSrc)
 2 {
 3     char *pszOrigDst = pszDest;
 4 
 5     while(*pszDest)
 6         pszDest++;
 7     while((*pszDest++ = *pszSrc++) != '\0')
 8         ;
 9 
10     return pszOrigDst;
11 }

     因strcat的C标准库函数的实现方式未知,故使用SimuStrcat函数模拟标准库实现。

2.3 快速拼接

     由strcat函数的原型说明可知,每次调用时都必须扫描整个目的字符串(以寻找结束符)。这会降低该函数的执行效率,尤其是在频繁拼接时。

     FastStrcat函数每次返回拼接后的字符串尾部,即指向结束符所在位置。下次调用时便不再需要扫描整串,从而提高执行效率。

1 char *FastStrcat(char *pszDest, const char* pszSrc)
2 {
3     while(*pszDest)
4         pszDest++;
5     while((*pszDest++ = *pszSrc++));
6     return --pszDest;
7 }

     注意,第二个while循环若不加双层括号则会报”suggest parentheses around assignment used as truth value”的警告。因返回时对pszDest作减法运算,故单次执行时FastStrcat慢于SimuStrcat。

     为提高执行速度,本节函数实现均未对指针参数做判空处理。若兼求安全性,可在函数内使用assert断言指针合法性。Gcc编译器还对函数声明提供一种nonnull扩展属性,可在编译时进行有限的判空保护:

 1 char *FastStrcat(char *pszDest, const char* pszSrc)__attribute__((__nonnull__(1, 2)));
 2 char *NullPtr(void){return NULL;}
 3 int main(void)
 4 {
 5     char *pszBuf = NULL;
 6     FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Elizabeth ");
 7     FastStrcat(NullPtr(), "Elizabeth ");
8 FastStrcat(NullPtr()?pszBuf:NULL, "Elizabeth ");
9 FastStrcat(NULL, "Elizabeth "); 10 return 0; 11 }

     其中,__nonnull__(1, 2)指示编译器对FastStrcat函数调用的第一个和第二个参数判空。

     编译结果如下:

1 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ gcc -Wall -o test test.c
2 test.c: In function 'main':
3 test.c:8: warning: null argument where non-null required (argument 1)
4 test.c:9: warning: null argument where non-null required (argument 1)

     可见,除非将指针参数显式地置空,否则nonnull机制也检测不到。此外,使用nonnull机制时,若打开编译优化选项-O2,则函数内关于指针参数的校验将被优化掉。

 

三  性能比较

     本节采用《Linux用户态程序计时方式详解》一文的TIME_ELAPSED()宏进行程序计时。

1 #define TIME_ELAPSED(codeToTime) do{ \
2     struct timeval beginTime, endTime; \
3     gettimeofday(&beginTime, NULL); \
4     {codeToTime;} \
5     gettimeofday(&endTime, NULL); \
6     long secTime  = endTime.tv_sec - beginTime.tv_sec; \
7     long usecTime = endTime.tv_usec - beginTime.tv_usec; \
8     printf("[%s(%d)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = %lds, UsecTime = %ldus!\n", __FILE__, __LINE__, secTime, usecTime); \
9 }while(0)

     基于该宏,编写测试代码如下:

 1 #ifdef strcat //检查标准库strcat是否用宏实现
 2     #warning strcat has been defined!
 3 #endif 
 4 int main(void)
 5 {
 6     char szCatBuf[1000];
 7     szCatBuf[0] = '\0'; //字符串快速初始化
 8 
 9     char *pszBuf = szCatBuf;
10     TIME_ELAPSED(
11         pszBuf = FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Abraham, ");
12         pszBuf = FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Alexander, ");
13         pszBuf = FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Maximilian, ");
14         pszBuf = FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Valentine ")
15     );
16     printf("  [FastStrcat]szCatBuf = %s\n", szCatBuf);
17 
18     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
19     TIME_ELAPSED(
20         SimuStrcat(szCatBuf, "Abraham, ");
21         SimuStrcat(szCatBuf, "Alexander, ");
22         SimuStrcat(szCatBuf, "Maximilian, ");
23         SimuStrcat(szCatBuf, "Valentine ")
24     );
25     printf("  [SimuStrcat]szCatBuf = %s\n", szCatBuf);
26 
27     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
28     TIME_ELAPSED(
29         AssemStrcat(szCatBuf, "Abraham, ");
30         AssemStrcat(szCatBuf, "Alexander, ");
31         AssemStrcat(szCatBuf, "Maximilian, ");
32         AssemStrcat(szCatBuf, "Valentine ")
33     );
34     printf("  [AssemStrcat]szCatBuf = %s\n", szCatBuf);
35 
36     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
37     TIME_ELAPSED(
38         strcat(szCatBuf, "Abraham, ");
39         strcat(szCatBuf, "Alexander, ");
40         strcat(szCatBuf, "Maximilian, ");
41         strcat(szCatBuf, "Valentine ")
42     );
43     printf("  [LibStrcat]szCatBuf = %s\n", szCatBuf);
44 
45     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
46     TIME_ELAPSED(
47         sprintf(szCatBuf, "%s%s%s%s","Abraham, ", "Alexander, ", "Maximilian, ", "Valentine ")
48     );
49     printf("  [LibSprintf]szCatBuf = %s\n", szCatBuf);
50 
51     return 0;
52 }

     除上节三种strcat实现外,代码还对齐库实现及sprintf方式进行测试。测试结果如下:

 1 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ gcc -Wall -o test test.c
 2 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ ./test
 3 [test.c(15)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 2us!
 4   [FastStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 5 [test.c(24)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 2us!
 6   [SimuStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 7 [test.c(33)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 1us!
 8   [AssemStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 9 [test.c(42)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 1us!
10   [LibStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
11 [test.c(48)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 6us!
12   [LibSprintf]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine

     因每次测试仅调用一次待测函数,故计时不太精准。对比另一次测试结果:

 1 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ ./test
 2 [test.c(15)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 4us!
 3   [FastStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 4 [test.c(24)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 4us!
 5   [SimuStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 6 [test.c(33)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 3us!
 7   [AssemStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
 8 [test.c(42)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 2us!
 9   [LibStrcat]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine 
10 [test.c(48)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 15us!
11   [LibSprintf]szCatBuf = Abraham, Alexander, Maximilian, Valentine

     可见,单次执行时,strcat库函数最快,FastStrcat居中,sprintf库函数最慢。

     接着,比较批量执行时strcat库函数和FastStrcat的速度。测试代码如下:

 1 int main(void)
 2 {
 3 #define ROUND    (unsigned short)1000
 4     char szCatBuf[sizeof("Elizabeth ")*ROUND];
 5     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
 6 
 7     char *pszBuf = szCatBuf;
 8     TIME_ELAPSED(
 9         unsigned short wIdx = 0;
10         for(; wIdx < ROUND; wIdx++)
11             pszBuf = FastStrcat(pszBuf, "Elizabeth ");
12     );
13 
14     szCatBuf[0] = '\0';
15     TIME_ELAPSED(
16         unsigned short wIdx = 0;
17         for(; wIdx < ROUND; wIdx++)
18             strcat(szCatBuf, "Elizabeth ");
19     );
20 
21     return 0;
22 }

     测试结果如下:

1 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ gcc -Wall -o test test.c
2 [wangxiaoyuan_@localhost test1]$ ./test
3 [test.c(12)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 99us!
4 [test.c(19)]Elapsed Time: SecTime = 0s, UsecTime = 3834us!

     可见,批量执行时,FastStrcat远快于strcat库函数。

 

四  总结

     单次拼接时,strcat库函数最快,FastStrcat居中,sprintf库函数最慢(若非格式化需要不建议用于字符串拼接)。

     频繁拼接时,FastStrcat相比strcat库函数具有明显的速度优势。

 

 

posted @ 2014-08-01 15:56  clover_toeic  阅读(7913)  评论(4编辑  收藏  举报