自适应XAML布局经验总结 (二) 局部布局设计模式1

本系列对实际项目中的XAML布局场景进行总结,给出了较优化的自适应布局解决方案,希望对大家有所帮助。

下面开始介绍局部布局设计模式。

1. 工具栏模式

适用于工具栏,标题等的布局。

此块布局区域外层使用Grid,然后分为两行或三行,标题或工具栏区域为Auto,主要内容区域为*。如果是标题,使用TextBlock,设置文字的字体和字号,还有Margin,把此行撑开。如果是工具栏,可放置一个横向的StackPanel,右对齐,其中放置多个按钮,通过设置按钮的Content,Margin和Padding,把此行撑开。Content可以是文字,也可以是图标或图标加文字。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP1"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="工具栏模式" Height="300" Width="400">
    <Grid>
        <Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            <RowDefinition/>
        </Grid.RowDefinitions>
        <Border Background="LightCyan">
            <TextBlock Margin="5" Text="此处为标题" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
        </Border>
        <Grid Grid.Row="1" Background="AliceBlue"/>
    </Grid>
</Window>

标题和工具栏可以在一行上,这时再放置一个Grid,把该行分为两列,标题在左边,其列为*,工具栏在右边,其列为Auto,标题和工具栏的处理方式和前述方式类似,如果工具栏较高,标题设置为垂直居中对齐即可。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP1a"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="工具栏模式" Height="300" Width="400">
    <Grid>
        <Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            <RowDefinition/>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
        </Grid.RowDefinitions>
        <Grid Background="LightCyan">
            <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <ColumnDefinition />
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
            </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="此处为标题" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
            <StackPanel Grid.Column="1" Orientation="Horizontal" HorizontalAlignment="Right">
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
            </StackPanel>
        </Grid>
        <Grid Grid.Row="1" Background="AliceBlue"/>
        <StackPanel Grid.Row="2" Orientation="Horizontal" HorizontalAlignment="Right">
            <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content="按钮1"/>
            <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content="按钮2"/>
            <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content="按钮3"/>
        </StackPanel>
    </Grid>
</Window>

更复杂的情况,标题可能由多个部分组成,这时标题部分再由Grid分为多个列,前几个列为Auto,最后一个为*,最后一个部分设置文字截断。工具栏部分如果要实现按钮大小相等的效果,可以使用Grid替代StackPanel,Grid设置多列为Auto,并设置 Grid.IsSharedSizeScope ="True",设置列宽时把SharedSizeGroup 设置为相同的字符串即可。这时再设置按钮的Content,Margin和Padding,按钮的大小都为由最大内容撑开的大小。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP1b"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="工具栏模式" Height="300" Width="400">
    <Grid>
        <Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            <RowDefinition/>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
        </Grid.RowDefinitions>
        <Grid Background="LightCyan">
            <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <ColumnDefinition />
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
            </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <Grid VerticalAlignment="Center">
                <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                    <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                    <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                    <ColumnDefinition />
                </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <TextBlock Margin="5,5,0,5" Text="标题第1部分"/>
                <TextBlock Grid.Column="1" Margin="5,5,0,5" Text="-"/>
                <TextBlock Grid.Column="2" Margin="5,5,0,5" Text="标题第2部分" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
            </Grid>
            <StackPanel Grid.Column="1" Orientation="Horizontal" HorizontalAlignment="Right">
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
                <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content=""/>
            </StackPanel>
        </Grid>
        <Grid Grid.Row="1" Background="AliceBlue"/>
        <Grid Grid.Row="2" HorizontalAlignment="Right" Grid.IsSharedSizeScope="True">
            <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" SharedSizeGroup="c1"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" SharedSizeGroup="c1"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto" SharedSizeGroup="c1"/>
            </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <Button Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="15,5" Content="按钮按钮1"/>
            <Button Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="10,5" Content="按钮2"/>
            <Button Grid.Column="2" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="10,5" Content="按钮3"/>
        </Grid>
    </Grid>
</Window>

 

2. 压缩空白模式

一块显示区域较大,但显示内容较少,这时可以把这块区域使用Grid布局,显示的区域使用Auto,剩余的空白区域使用多个不同比例的*分割。比如左侧的查询栏,两块查询条件区和按钮区是有效显示区,这三块区域使用Auto,四块空白区域使用4*,4*, 4*, 3*分割,能够达到较好的效果。按钮区域又使用了这个模式,分为5列,按钮部分为Auto,空白部分为2*,*, 2* ,中间的*还设置了最小宽15,这样在一定范围内能做到较好的自适应效果。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP2"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="压缩空白模式" Height="400" Width="600">
    <Grid>
        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <ColumnDefinition Width="*" MinWidth="165"/>
            <ColumnDefinition Width="3*"/>
        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
        <Border Background="LightCyan">
            <Grid Margin="10,0">
                <Grid.RowDefinitions>
                    <RowDefinition Height="4*"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="4*"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="4*"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                    <RowDefinition Height="3*"/>
                </Grid.RowDefinitions>
                <StackPanel Grid.Row="1">
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="姓名:"/>
                        <TextBox Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
                    </Grid>
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="性别:"/>
                        <ComboBox Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
                    </Grid>
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="年龄:"/>
                        <TextBox Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
                    </Grid>
                </StackPanel>
                <StackPanel Grid.Row="3">
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="起始:"/>
                        <DatePicker Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
                    </Grid>
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="截至:"/>
                        <DatePicker Grid.Column="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
                    </Grid>
                </StackPanel>
                <Grid Grid.Row="5">
                    <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <ColumnDefinition Width="2*"/>
                        <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                        <ColumnDefinition Width="*" MinWidth="15"/>
                        <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                        <ColumnDefinition Width="2*"/>
                    </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                    <Button Grid.Column="1" Content="查询" Padding="15,5"/>
                    <Button Grid.Column="3" Content="清空" Padding="15,5"/>
                </Grid>
            </Grid>
        </Border>
        <Grid Grid.Column="1" Background="AliceBlue"/>
    </Grid>
</Window>

 

3. 表单模式

如果要完成一个表单,可以使用Grid分为多行多列,行为Auto,列为Auto和*相间,其中标签部分为Auto,填写内容部分为*。每个部分都设置合适的字体字号,Margin和Padding,而不设置固定的大小,这样就能完成一个自适应的表单。如果有的填写内容长些,可以设置跨列为3,跨越两个大的区域,或更大的数跨越更多的区域。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP3"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="表单模式" Height="400" Width="600">
    <Grid>
        <Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            <RowDefinition/>
        </Grid.RowDefinitions>
        <Grid Background="LightCyan">
            <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="Auto"/>
                <ColumnDefinition Width="*"/>
            </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
            <Grid.RowDefinitions>
                <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
            </Grid.RowDefinitions>
            <TextBlock Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="姓名:"/>
            <TextBox Margin="0,5" Grid.Column="1" Padding="2"/>
            <TextBlock Grid.Column="2" Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="性别:" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
            <ComboBox Grid.Column="3" Margin="0,5" Padding="2"/>
            <TextBlock Grid.Column="4" Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="年龄:" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
            <TextBox Grid.Column="5" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
            <TextBlock Grid.Row="1" Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="电话:"/>
            <TextBox Grid.Row="1" Margin="0,5" Grid.Column="1" Padding="2"/>
            <TextBlock Grid.Column="2" Grid.Row="1" Margin="5" VerticalAlignment="Center" Text="地址:" TextTrimming="WordEllipsis"/>
            <TextBox Grid.Column="3" Grid.ColumnSpan="3" Grid.Row="1" Margin="0,5,5,5" Padding="2"/>
        </Grid>
        <Grid Grid.Row="1" Background="AliceBlue"/>
    </Grid>
</Window>

 

4. 表格模式

可以使用下述Grid布局组合的方式显示表格数据,但更好的方式是使用DataGrid控件。

首先,在最外层放一个ScrollViewer,设置水平滚动条可见性为Auto,垂直滚动条可见性为Disabled。其中放置一个Border用于显示表格线。在其中放置一个Grid,分为2行,第0行为Auto,第1行为*。

然后,在外层Grid中第0行的位置上放置一个Grid,分为几列,设置一定的宽度,每列中放置一个Border显示表格线,Border中放一个TextBlock,显示列标题,设置水平居中对齐,和合适的Margin。除了最后一列,还放置了GridSplitter,用于调节列的宽度。

最后,在外层Grid中第1行的位置上放置一个ScrollViewer,设置垂直滚动条可见性为Auto。其中放置一个ItemsControl,绑定到合适的数据,设置数据模板为Grid,分为和标题Grid一致的列数,使用SharedSizeGroup保证列的宽度和标题Grid的列的宽度一致。每列中放置一个Border显示表格线,Border中放一个TextBlock,Text绑定到数据中对应的属性上,设置水平居中对齐,和合适的Margin。

image

<Window x:Class="BlendDemo.DP4"
        xmlns="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml/presentation"
        xmlns:x="http://schemas.microsoft.com/winfx/2006/xaml"
        xmlns:d="http://schemas.microsoft.com/expression/blend/2008"
        xmlns:mc="http://schemas.openxmlformats.org/markup-compatibility/2006"
        mc:Ignorable="d"
        Title="表格模式" Height="600" Width="800">
    <Grid>
        <ScrollViewer Grid.Row="1" HorizontalScrollBarVisibility="Auto" VerticalScrollBarVisibility="Disabled">
            <Border BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.5">
                <Grid Grid.IsSharedSizeScope="True">
                    <Grid.RowDefinitions>
                        <RowDefinition Height="Auto"/>
                        <RowDefinition Height="*"/>
                    </Grid.RowDefinitions>
                    <Grid>
                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="200" SharedSizeGroup="c1"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="200" SharedSizeGroup="c2"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="200" SharedSizeGroup="c3"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="200" SharedSizeGroup="c4"/>
                            <ColumnDefinition Width="200" SharedSizeGroup="c5"/>
                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                        <Border Grid.Column="0" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                            <TextBlock Text="第1列" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                        </Border>
                        <GridSplitter Grid.Column="0" Width="2" HorizontalAlignment="Right"/>
                        <Border Grid.Column="1" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                            <TextBlock Text="第2列" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                        </Border>
                        <GridSplitter Grid.Column="1" Width="2" HorizontalAlignment="Right"/>
                        <Border Grid.Column="2" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                            <TextBlock Text="第3列" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                        </Border>
                        <GridSplitter Grid.Column="2" Width="2" HorizontalAlignment="Right"/>
                        <Border Grid.Column="3" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                            <TextBlock Text="第4列" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                        </Border>
                        <GridSplitter Grid.Column="3" Width="2" HorizontalAlignment="Right"/>
                        <Border Grid.Column="4" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                            <TextBlock Text="第5列" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                        </Border>
                    </Grid>
                    <ScrollViewer Grid.Row="1" VerticalScrollBarVisibility="Auto">
                        <ItemsControl ItemsSource="{Binding}">
                            <ItemsControl.ItemTemplate>
                                <DataTemplate>
                                    <Grid>
                                        <Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                                            <ColumnDefinition SharedSizeGroup="c1"/>
                                            <ColumnDefinition SharedSizeGroup="c2"/>
                                            <ColumnDefinition SharedSizeGroup="c3"/>
                                            <ColumnDefinition SharedSizeGroup="c4"/>
                                            <ColumnDefinition SharedSizeGroup="c5"/>
                                        </Grid.ColumnDefinitions>
                                        <Border Grid.Column="0" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                                            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Column1}" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                                        </Border>
                                        <Border Grid.Column="1" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                                            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Column2}" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                                        </Border>
                                        <Border Grid.Column="2" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                                            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Column3}" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                                        </Border>
                                        <Border Grid.Column="3" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                                            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Column4}" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                                        </Border>
                                        <Border Grid.Column="4" BorderBrush="Black" BorderThickness="0.3">
                                            <TextBlock Text="{Binding Column5}" HorizontalAlignment="Center" Margin="5"/>
                                        </Border>
                                    </Grid>
                                </DataTemplate>
                            </ItemsControl.ItemTemplate>
                        </ItemsControl>
                    </ScrollViewer>
                </Grid>
            </Border>
        </ScrollViewer>
    </Grid>
</Window>
    public class TableDataItem
    {
        public string Column1 { get; set; }
        public string Column2 { get; set; }
        public string Column3 { get; set; }
        public string Column4 { get; set; }
        public string Column5 { get; set; }
    }

    public partial class DP4 : Window
    {
        public DP4()
        {
            InitializeComponent();
            var data = new List<TableDataItem>();
            for (var i = 0; i < 30; i++)
            {
                data.Add(new TableDataItem { Column1 = "第1列数据", Column2 = "第2列数据", Column3 = "第3列数据", Column4 = "第4列数据", Column5 = "第5列数据" });
            }
            DataContext = data;
        }
    }
posted @ 2015-05-21 03:21  ClockDotNet  阅读(3301)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报