Tomcat access log配置

在tomcat的access中打印出请求的情况可以帮助我们分析问题,通常比较关注的有访问IP、线程号、访问url、返回状态码、访问时间、持续时间。

在Spring boot中使用了内嵌的tomcat,可以通过server.tomcat.accesslog配置tomcat 的access日志,这里就以Spring boot 1.5.3为例。

server.tomcat.accesslog.buffered=true # Buffer output such that it is only flushed periodically.
server.tomcat.accesslog.directory=logs # Directory in which log files are created. Can be relative to the tomcat base dir or absolute.
server.tomcat.accesslog.enabled=false # Enable access log.
server.tomcat.accesslog.file-date-format=.yyyy-MM-dd # Date format to place in log file name.
server.tomcat.accesslog.pattern=common # Format pattern for access logs.
server.tomcat.accesslog.prefix=access_log # Log file name prefix.
server.tomcat.accesslog.rename-on-rotate=false # Defer inclusion of the date stamp in the file name until rotate time.
server.tomcat.accesslog.request-attributes-enabled=false # Set request attributes for IP address, Hostname, protocol and port used for the request.
server.tomcat.accesslog.rotate=true # Enable access log rotation.
server.tomcat.accesslog.suffix=.log # Log file name suffix.

比较常用的有(省略了前缀server.tomcat.accesslog.):

  • enabled,取值true、false,需要accesslog时设置为true
  • directory,指定access文件的路径
  • pattern,定义日志的格式,后续详述
  • rotate,指定是否启用日志轮转。默认为true。这个参数决定是否需要切换切换日志文件,如果被设置为false,则日志文件不会切换,即所有文件打到同一个日志文件中,并且file-date-format参数也会被忽略

pattern的配置:

  • %a - Remote IP address,远程ip地址,注意不一定是原始ip地址,中间可能经过nginx等的转发
  • %A - Local IP address,本地ip
  • %b - Bytes sent, excluding HTTP headers, or '-' if no bytes were sent
  • %B - Bytes sent, excluding HTTP headers
  • %h - Remote host name (or IP address if enableLookups for the connector is false),远程主机名称(如果resolveHosts为false则展示IP)
  • %H - Request protocol,请求协议
  • %l - Remote logical username from identd (always returns '-')
  • %m - Request method,请求方法(GET,POST)
  • %p - Local port,接受请求的本地端口
  • %q - Query string (prepended with a '?' if it exists, otherwise an empty string
  • %r - First line of the request,HTTP请求的第一行(包括请求方法,请求的URI)
  • %s - HTTP status code of the response,HTTP的响应代码,如:200,404
  • %S - User session ID
  • %t - Date and time, in Common Log Format format,日期和时间,Common Log Format格式
  • %u - Remote user that was authenticated
  • %U - Requested URL path
  • %v - Local server name
  • %D - Time taken to process the request, in millis,处理请求的时间,单位毫秒
  • %T - Time taken to process the request, in seconds,处理请求的时间,单位秒
  • %I - current Request thread name (can compare later with stacktraces),当前请求的线程名,可以和打印的log对比查找问题

Access log 也支持将cookie、header、session或者其他在ServletRequest中的对象信息打印到日志中,其配置遵循Apache配置的格式({xxx}指值的名称):

  • %{xxx}i for incoming headers,request header信息
  • %{xxx}o for outgoing response headers,response header信息
  • %{xxx}c for a specific cookie
  • %{xxx}r xxx is an attribute in the ServletRequest
  • %{xxx}s xxx is an attribute in the HttpSession
  • %{xxx}t xxx is an enhanced SimpleDateFormat pattern (see Configuration Reference document for details on supported time patterns)

Access log内置了两个日志格式模板,可以直接指定pattern为模板名称,如:server.tomcat.accesslog.pattern=common

  • common - %h %l %u %t "%r" %s %b,依次为:远程主机名称,远程用户名,被认证的远程用户,日期和时间,请求的第一行,response code,发送的字节数
  • combined - %h %l %u %t "%r" %s %b "%{Referer}i" "%{User-Agent}i",依次为:远程主机名称,远程用户名,被认证的远程用户,日期和时间,请求的第一行,response code,发送的字节数,request header的Referer信息,request header的User-Agent信息。

除了内置的模板,我们常用的配置有:

  • %t %a "%r" %s (%D ms),日期和时间,请求来自的IP(不一定是原始IP),请求第一行,response code,响应时间(毫秒),样例:[21/Mar/2017:00:06:40 +0800] 127.0.0.1 POST /bgc/syncJudgeResult HTTP/1.0 200 63,这里请求来自IP就是经过本机的nginx转发的。
  • %t [%I] %{X-Forwarded-For}i %a %r %s (%D ms),日期和时间,线程名,原始IP,请求来自的IP(不一定是原始IP),请求第一行,response code,响应时间(毫秒),样例:[21/Apr/2017:00:24:40 +0800][http-nio-7001-exec-4] 10.125.15.1 127.0.0.1 POST /bgc/syncJudgeResult HTTP/1.0 200 5,这里的第一个IP是Nginx配置了X-Forwarded-For记录了原始IP。

这里简要介绍下上面用到的HTTP请求头X-Forwarded-For,它是一个 HTTP 扩展头部,用来表示 HTTP 请求端真实 IP,其格式为:X-Forwarded-For: client, proxy1, proxy2,其中的值通过一个逗号+空格把多个IP地址区分开,最左边(client)是最原始客户端的IP地址,代理服务器每成功收到一个请求,就把请求来源IP地址添加到右边。

参考

Tomcat Access Log配置
AccessLogValve
X-Forwarded-For

posted @ 2017-04-21 21:47  苍枫露雨  阅读(15792)  评论(7编辑  收藏