Spring Boot Rest控制器单元测试

Spring Boot提供了一种为Rest Controller文件编写单元测试的简便方法。在SpringJUnit4ClassRunner和MockMvc的帮助下,可以创建一个Web应用程序上下文来为Rest Controller文件编写单元测试。
单元测试应该写在src/test/java目录下,用于编写测试的类路径资源应该放在src/test/resources目录下。
对于编写单元测试,需要在构建配置文件中添加Spring Boot Starter Test依赖项,如下所示。

<dependency>
   <groupId>org.springframework.boot</groupId>
   <artifactId>spring-boot-starter-test</artifactId>
   <scope>test</scope>
</dependency>
XML

Gradle用户可以在build.gradle 文件中添加以下依赖项。

testCompile('org.springframework.boot:spring-boot-starter-test')

在编写测试用例之前,应该先构建RESTful Web服务。 有关构建RESTful Web服务的更多信息,请参阅本教程中给出的相同章节。

编写REST控制器的单元测试

在本节中,看看如何为REST控制器编写单元测试。
首先,需要创建用于通过使用MockMvc创建Web应用程序上下文的Abstract类文件,并定义mapToJson()mapFromJson()方法以将Java对象转换为JSON字符串并将JSON字符串转换为Java对象。

package com.yiibai.demo;

import java.io.IOException;
import org.junit.runner.RunWith;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.annotation.Autowired;
import org.springframework.boot.test.context.SpringBootTest;
import org.springframework.test.context.junit4.SpringJUnit4ClassRunner;
import org.springframework.test.context.web.WebAppConfiguration;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MockMvc;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.setup.MockMvcBuilders;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;

import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonParseException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.core.JsonProcessingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.JsonMappingException;
import com.fasterxml.jackson.databind.ObjectMapper;

@RunWith(SpringJUnit4ClassRunner.class)
@SpringBootTest(classes = DemoApplication.class)
@WebAppConfiguration
public abstract class AbstractTest {
   protected MockMvc mvc;
   @Autowired
   WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext;

   protected void setUp() {
      mvc = MockMvcBuilders.webAppContextSetup(webApplicationContext).build();
   }
   protected String mapToJson(Object obj) throws JsonProcessingException {
      ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
      return objectMapper.writeValueAsString(obj);
   }
   protected <T> T mapFromJson(String json, Class<T> clazz)
      throws JsonParseException, JsonMappingException, IOException {

      ObjectMapper objectMapper = new ObjectMapper();
      return objectMapper.readValue(json, clazz);
   }
}
Java

接下来,编写一个扩展AbstractTest类的类文件,并为每个方法(如GETPOSTPUTDELETE)编写单元测试。

下面给出了GET API测试用例的代码。 此API用于查看产品列表。

@Test
public void getProductsList() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products";
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.get(uri)
      .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   Product[] productlist = super.mapFromJson(content, Product[].class);
   assertTrue(productlist.length > 0);
}
Java

POST API测试用例的代码如下。 此API用于创建产品。

@Test
public void createProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products";
   Product product = new Product();
   product.setId("3");
   product.setName("Ginger");

   String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.post(uri)
      .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE).content(inputJson)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(201, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is created successfully");
}
Java

下面给出了PUT API测试用例的代码。 此API用于更新现有产品。

@Test
public void updateProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products/2";
   Product product = new Product();
   product.setName("Lemon");

   String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.put(uri)
      .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE).content(inputJson)).andReturn();

   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is updated successsfully");
}
Java

Delete API测试用例的代码如下。 此API将删除现有产品。

@Test
public void deleteProduct() throws Exception {
   String uri = "/products/2";
   MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.delete(uri)).andReturn();
   int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
   assertEquals(200, status);
   String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
   assertEquals(content, "Product is deleted successsfully");
}
Java

完整的控制器测试类文件代码如下 -

package com.yiibai.demo;

import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;

import org.junit.Before;
import org.junit.Test;
import org.springframework.http.MediaType;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.MvcResult;
import org.springframework.test.web.servlet.request.MockMvcRequestBuilders;

import com.yiibai.demo.model.Product;

public class ProductServiceControllerTest extends AbstractTest {
   @Override
   @Before
   public void setUp() {
      super.setUp();
   }
   @Test
   public void getProductsList() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products";
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.get(uri)
         .accept(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      Product[] productlist = super.mapFromJson(content, Product[].class);
      assertTrue(productlist.length > 0);
   }
   @Test
   public void createProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products";
      Product product = new Product();
      product.setId("3");
      product.setName("Ginger");
      String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.post(uri)
         .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)
         .content(inputJson)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(201, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is created successfully");
   }
   @Test
   public void updateProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products/2";
      Product product = new Product();
      product.setName("Lemon");
      String inputJson = super.mapToJson(product);
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.put(uri)
         .contentType(MediaType.APPLICATION_JSON_VALUE)
         .content(inputJson)).andReturn();

      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is updated successsfully");
   }
   @Test
   public void deleteProduct() throws Exception {
      String uri = "/products/2";
      MvcResult mvcResult = mvc.perform(MockMvcRequestBuilders.delete(uri)).andReturn();
      int status = mvcResult.getResponse().getStatus();
      assertEquals(200, status);
      String content = mvcResult.getResponse().getContentAsString();
      assertEquals(content, "Product is deleted successsfully");
   }
}
Java

创建一个可执行的JAR文件,并使用下面给出的Maven或Gradle命令运行Spring Boot应用程序 -

对于Maven,可以使用下面给出的命令 -

mvn clean install
Shell

现在,在控制台窗口中看到测试结果。

posted @ 2020-03-05 23:37  borter  阅读(721)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报