Spring Security认证流程分析--练气后期

写在前面

在前一篇文章中,我们介绍了如何配置spring security的自定义认证页面,以及前后端分离场景下如何获取spring security的CSRF Token。在这一篇文章中我们将来分析一下spring security的认证流程。
提示:我使用的spring security的版本是5.3.4.RELEASE。如果读者使用的不是和我同一个版本,源码细微之处有些不同,但是大体流程都是一样的。

认证流程分析

通过查阅spring security的官方文档我们知道,spring security的认证过滤操作由UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter 完成。那么,我们这次的流程分析就从这个过滤器开始。

UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter

先上部分源码

public class UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter extends
		AbstractAuthenticationProcessingFilter {
	
	public static final String SPRING_SECURITY_FORM_USERNAME_KEY = "username";
	public static final String SPRING_SECURITY_FORM_PASSWORD_KEY = "password";

	private String usernameParameter = SPRING_SECURITY_FORM_USERNAME_KEY;
	private String passwordParameter = SPRING_SECURITY_FORM_PASSWORD_KEY;
	private boolean postOnly = true;

	public UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter() {
		super(new AntPathRequestMatcher("/login", "POST"));
	}


	public Authentication attemptAuthentication(HttpServletRequest request,
			HttpServletResponse response) throws AuthenticationException {
// 1. 必须为POST请求
		if (postOnly && !request.getMethod().equals("POST")) {
			throw new AuthenticationServiceException(
					"Authentication method not supported: " + request.getMethod());
		}
//2.取出用户填写的用户名和密码
		String username = obtainUsername(request);
		String password = obtainPassword(request);
//3.防止出现空指针
		if (username == null) {
			username = "";
		}

		if (password == null) {
			password = "";
		}
		//4.去掉用户名的空格
		username = username.trim();
		//5.在层层校验后,开始对username和password进行封装
		UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authRequest = new UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(
				username, password);

		// Allow subclasses to set the "details" property
		setDetails(request, authRequest);
		// 6.认证逻辑
		return this.getAuthenticationManager()
            .authenticate(authRequest);
	}
}

从上面的分析我们知道了,当表单信息进入到这个过滤器之后,经过层层校验,将其封装成UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken对象。接下来我们进入到这个对象里面看看。

一下是部分源码

public class UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken extends AbstractAuthenticationToken {
    private static final long serialVersionUID = 530L;
   //用户名
   private final Object principal;
   //密码
   private Object credentials;

	//5.1还未认证,走这个构造方法
    public UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(Object principal, Object credentials) {
        super((Collection)null);
        this.principal = principal;
        this.credentials = credentials;
        
        this.setAuthenticated(false);
    }
}

AuthenticationManager

在上方第6步,进入了认证逻辑,(真正认证操作在AuthenticationManager里面 )我们接下来进入到AuthenticationManager对象的authenticate()方法里看看。

发现这是一个接口。从图中可以知道除了ProviderManager这个类之外,其他的都是内部类,所有我们就直接进入到ProviderManager对象的authenticate方法里看看

	public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication)
			throws AuthenticationException {
        
		Class<? extends Authentication> toTest = authentication.getClass();
		AuthenticationException lastException = null;
		AuthenticationException parentException = null;
		Authentication result = null;
		Authentication parentResult = null;
		boolean debug = logger.isDebugEnabled();
//7.找到与之对应的认证方式(本系统账户登录。。微信登录等)
		for (AuthenticationProvider provider : getProviders()) {
			if (!provider.supports(toTest)) {
				continue;
			}

			if (debug) {
				logger.debug("Authentication attempt using "
						+ provider.getClass().getName());
			}
//8。 调用认证服务提供者的方法进行认证
			try {
				result = provider.authenticate(authentication);

				if (result != null) {
					copyDetails(authentication, result);
					break;
				}
			}
			catch (AccountStatusException | InternalAuthenticationServiceException e) {
				prepareException(e, authentication);
				// SEC-546: Avoid polling additional providers if auth failure is due to
				// invalid account status
				throw e;
			} catch (AuthenticationException e) {
				lastException = e;
			}
		}

		if (result == null && parent != null) {
			// Allow the parent to try.
			try {
				result = parentResult = parent.authenticate(authentication);
			}
			catch (ProviderNotFoundException e) {
				// ignore as we will throw below if no other exception occurred prior to
				// calling parent and the parent
				// may throw ProviderNotFound even though a provider in the child already
				// handled the request
			}
			catch (AuthenticationException e) {
				lastException = parentException = e;
			}
		}

		if (result != null) {
			if (eraseCredentialsAfterAuthentication
					&& (result instanceof CredentialsContainer)) {
				// Authentication is complete. Remove credentials and other secret data
				// from authentication
				((CredentialsContainer) result).eraseCredentials();
			}

			// If the parent AuthenticationManager was attempted and successful then it will publish an AuthenticationSuccessEvent
			// This check prevents a duplicate AuthenticationSuccessEvent if the parent AuthenticationManager already published it
			if (parentResult == null) {
				eventPublisher.publishAuthenticationSuccess(result);
			}
			return result;
		}

		// Parent was null, or didn't authenticate (or throw an exception).

		if (lastException == null) {
			lastException = new ProviderNotFoundException(messages.getMessage(
					"ProviderManager.providerNotFound",
					new Object[] { toTest.getName() },
					"No AuthenticationProvider found for {0}"));
		}

		// If the parent AuthenticationManager was attempted and failed then it will publish an AbstractAuthenticationFailureEvent
		// This check prevents a duplicate AbstractAuthenticationFailureEvent if the parent AuthenticationManager already published it
		if (parentException == null) {
			prepareException(lastException, authentication);
		}

		throw lastException;
	}
// spring security将其所有认证方式都封装成一个AuthenticationProvider集合,第一步便是找出对应的认证方式
public List<AuthenticationProvider> getProviders() {
		return providers;
	}

}

AuthenticationProvider

在步骤8中,调用了认证提供者的认证方法,接下来我们进去看看。发现AuthenticationProvider是一个接口

我们从实现类的名称当中猜一个进去看看,就看AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider这个类。

public Authentication authenticate(Authentication authentication)
			throws AuthenticationException {
		Assert.isInstanceOf(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken.class, authentication,
				() -> messages.getMessage(
						"AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.onlySupports",
						"Only UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken is supported"));

		// Determine username
		String username = (authentication.getPrincipal() == null) ? "NONE_PROVIDED"
				: authentication.getName();
//8.1尝试从缓存中获取用户
		boolean cacheWasUsed = true;
    //UserDetails就是spring Security内定义的用户对象
		UserDetails user = this.userCache.getUserFromCache(username);

		if (user == null) {
			cacheWasUsed = false;
//8.2如果缓存中不存在用户,则开始检索
			try {
				user = retrieveUser(username,
						(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
			}
			catch (UsernameNotFoundException notFound) {
				logger.debug("User '" + username + "' not found");

				if (hideUserNotFoundExceptions) {
					throw new BadCredentialsException(messages.getMessage(
							"AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider.badCredentials",
							"Bad credentials"));
				}
				else {
					throw notFound;
				}
			}

			Assert.notNull(user,
					"retrieveUser returned null - a violation of the interface contract");
		}

		try {
			preAuthenticationChecks.check(user);
			additionalAuthenticationChecks(user,
					(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
		}
		catch (AuthenticationException exception) {
			if (cacheWasUsed) {
				// There was a problem, so try again after checking
				// we're using latest data (i.e. not from the cache)
				cacheWasUsed = false;
				user = retrieveUser(username,
						(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
				preAuthenticationChecks.check(user);
				additionalAuthenticationChecks(user,
						(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken) authentication);
			}
			else {
				throw exception;
			}
		}

		postAuthenticationChecks.check(user);

		if (!cacheWasUsed) {
			this.userCache.putUserInCache(user);
		}

		Object principalToReturn = user;

		if (forcePrincipalAsString) {
			principalToReturn = user.getUsername();
		}

		return createSuccessAuthentication(principalToReturn, authentication, user);
	}

在步骤8.2中,调用了retrieveUser方法查找用户,接下来我们进去看看

protected abstract UserDetails retrieveUser(String username,
			UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication)
			throws AuthenticationException;

发现它是一个抽象的方法,接下来点进去,看看它已经提供好的实现方法。这个方法在DaoAuthenticationProvider对象中

protected final UserDetails retrieveUser(String username,
			UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken authentication)
			throws AuthenticationException {
		prepareTimingAttackProtection();
		try {
            //8.2.1通过用户名加载用户
			UserDetails loadedUser = this.getUserDetailsService().loadUserByUsername(username);
			if (loadedUser == null) {
				throw new InternalAuthenticationServiceException(
						"UserDetailsService returned null, which is an interface contract violation");
			}
			return loadedUser;
		}
		catch (UsernameNotFoundException ex) {
			mitigateAgainstTimingAttack(authentication);
			throw ex;
		}
		catch (InternalAuthenticationServiceException ex) {
			throw ex;
		}
		catch (Exception ex) {
			throw new InternalAuthenticationServiceException(ex.getMessage(), ex);
		}
	}

通过阅读代码发现,它又调用了UserDetailsService对象的loadUserByUsername(方法去做加载操作,我们点进去看看

UserDetailsService

public interface UserDetailsService {
	
	UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) throws UsernameNotFoundException;
}

发现这是一个接口,并且到了这一步就得到了我们的用户对象UserDetails。如果说大家要自定义认证信息检索,查找自己定义的User对象话就实现这个接口,并且让自己的用户对象实现UserDetails接口。并且实现相关查询方法和注册。

接下来我们看spring security已经提供好的实现类它的实现类

我们重点关注的有两个,一个是JdbcDaoImpl,一个是CachingUserDetailsService。前者从数据库中查询用户,后者从缓存中查询用户信息

我们先看CachingUserDetailsService的源码

public class CachingUserDetailsService implements UserDetailsService {
	private UserCache userCache = new NullUserCache();
	private final UserDetailsService delegate;

	public CachingUserDetailsService(UserDetailsService delegate) {
		this.delegate = delegate;
	}

	public UserCache getUserCache() {
		return userCache;
	}

	public void setUserCache(UserCache userCache) {
		this.userCache = userCache;
	}

	public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username) {
		UserDetails user = userCache.getUserFromCache(username);

		if (user == null) {
			user = delegate.loadUserByUsername(username);
		}

		Assert.notNull(user, () -> "UserDetailsService " + delegate
				+ " returned null for username " + username + ". "
				+ "This is an interface contract violation");

		userCache.putUserInCache(user);

		return user;
	}
}

再看JdbcDaoImpl(部分)

public class JdbcDaoImpl extends JdbcDaoSupport
		implements UserDetailsService, MessageSourceAware {
@Override
	public UserDetails loadUserByUsername(String username)
			throws UsernameNotFoundException {
		List<UserDetails> users = loadUsersByUsername(username);

		if (users.size() == 0) {
			this.logger.debug("Query returned no results for user '" + username + "'");

			throw new UsernameNotFoundException(
					this.messages.getMessage("JdbcDaoImpl.notFound",
							new Object[] { username }, "Username {0} not found"));
		}

		UserDetails user = users.get(0); // contains no GrantedAuthority[]

		Set<GrantedAuthority> dbAuthsSet = new HashSet<>();

		if (this.enableAuthorities) {
			dbAuthsSet.addAll(loadUserAuthorities(user.getUsername()));
		}

		if (this.enableGroups) {
			dbAuthsSet.addAll(loadGroupAuthorities(user.getUsername()));
		}

		List<GrantedAuthority> dbAuths = new ArrayList<>(dbAuthsSet);

		addCustomAuthorities(user.getUsername(), dbAuths);

		if (dbAuths.size() == 0) {
			this.logger.debug("User '" + username
					+ "' has no authorities and will be treated as 'not found'");

			throw new UsernameNotFoundException(this.messages.getMessage(
					"JdbcDaoImpl.noAuthority", new Object[] { username },
					"User {0} has no GrantedAuthority"));
		}

		return createUserDetails(username, user, dbAuths);
	}
	
protected List<UserDetails> loadUsersByUsername(String username) {
		return getJdbcTemplate().query(this.usersByUsernameQuery,
				new String[] { username }, (rs, rowNum) -> {
					String username1 = rs.getString(1);
					String password = rs.getString(2);
					boolean enabled = rs.getBoolean(3);
					return new User(username1, password, enabled, true, true, true,
							AuthorityUtils.NO_AUTHORITIES);
				});
	}
		

这两个获取方式的逻辑都比较简单,相信大家能看的明白。

稍微总结一下:

  1. UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter拦截到用户填写的表单信息后,先进行校参处理(判断请求是否为POST请求,将null值转为空字符串),然后将参数封装成UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken(这是一个Authentication实现类AbstractAuthenticationToken的子类)对象,再然后调用AuthenticationManager对象的实现类ProviderManager的authenticate方法进行认证操作;

  2. ProviderManager在接收到token后,先根据token的className比对spring security内置的认证方式,找到后调用AuthenticationProvider的实现类AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider的authenticate方法进行认证操作

  3. AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider对象在收到Authentication对象后,先确定用户名,再根据用户名从缓存里查找用户信息,找不到则调用retrieveUser方法在持久层查找数据(持久层数据可以是文本、数据库里的数据)。在spring security中,只有DaoAuthenticationProvider实现了这个方法(目前为止)。这时DaoAuthenticationProvider便调用UserDetailsService的loadUserByUsername方法找到userDetails。在通过了一系列的判断验证后,调用createSuccessAuthentication方法给授权,并将其(UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken)返回给了AuthenticationManager的实现类ProviderManager。

  4. ProviderManager在收到UsernamePasswordAuthenticationToken对象后,先进行参数校验(判空,判null),之后调用事件发布者eventPublisher的publishAuthenticationSuccess方法将验证结果发布出去。最后将结果返回给UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter。至此验证流程大体上就结束了.

也就述说,UsernamePasswordAuthenticationFilter负责拦截,AuthenticationManager负责组织流程,真正执行操作的是认证AuthenticationProvider的子类AbstractUserDetailsAuthenticationProvider对象。

End

给大家画了一张简化版的认证时序图

posted @ 2020-08-22 14:26  赖柄沣  阅读(649)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报