代码改变世界

自定义Ubuntu Server 安装光盘(Ubuntu 12.10)

2013-03-26 17:44 梁小白 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

项目需要一张自定义的Ubuntu 安装光盘,要求尽可能简单配置,并安装好自定义的一些软件。

 
可以使用ISO MASTER 编辑光盘的ISO文件
 
也可以使用apt-get install isomaster 来安装
 
Ubuntu的光盘自定义主要由preseed 文件实现. 
 
下面这个样例是其主要配置,采用以下默认配置,即可实现光盘的一键安装.(语言选择、IP配置,自动分区、安装软件集,安装自定义软件包,执行安装后脚本)可以通过最后的smart_vm.sh脚本
在系统中做更多配置.
 
preseed 文件位于ISO/preseed目录下面 
 
#### Contents of the preconfiguration file (for &releasename;)
d-idebian-installer/quietboolean true
d-idebian-installer/splashboolean true
### Localization
# Locale sets language and country.
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_US
d-i debian-installer/language string en
d-i debian-installer/country string ZH
d-i debian-installer/locale string en_GB.UTF-8
# Optionally specify additional locales to be generated.
#d-i localechooser/supported-locales en_US.UTF-8, nl_NL.UTF-8
 
# Keyboard selection.
# Disable automatic (interactive) keymap detection.
d-i console-setup/ask_detect boolean false
#d-i console-setup/modelcode string pc105
d-i console-setup/layoutcode string us
# To select a variant of the selected layout (if you leave this out, the
# basic form of the layout will be used):
#d-i console-setup/variantcode string dvorak
 
### Network configuration
# Disable network configuration entirely. This is useful for cdrom
# installations on non-networked devices where the network questions,
# warning and long timeouts are a nuisance.
#d-i netcfg/enable boolean false
 
# netcfg will choose an interface that has link if possible. This makes it
# skip displaying a list if there is more than one interface.
d-i netcfg/choose_interface select auto
 
# To pick a particular interface instead:
#d-i netcfg/choose_interface select eth1
 
# If you have a slow dhcp server and the installer times out waiting for
# it, this might be useful.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_timeout string 60
 
# If you prefer to configure the network manually, uncomment this line and
# the static network configuration below.
d-i netcfg/disable_dhcp boolean true
 
# If you want the preconfiguration file to work on systems both with and
# without a dhcp server, uncomment these lines and the static network
# configuration below.
d-i netcfg/dhcp_failed note
d-i netcfg/dhcp_options select Configure network manually
 
# Static network configuration.
d-i netcfg/get_nameservers string 192.168.10.1
d-i netcfg/get_ipaddress string 192.168.10.192
d-i netcfg/get_netmask string 255.255.255.0
d-i netcfg/get_gateway string 192.168.10.1
d-i netcfg/confirm_static boolean true
 
# Any hostname and domain names assigned from dhcp take precedence over
# values set here. However, setting the values still prevents the questions
# from being shown, even if values come from dhcp.
d-i netcfg/get_hostname string smartvm-server
d-i netcfg/get_domain string 8.8.8.8
 
# Disable that annoying WEP key dialog.
#d-i netcfg/wireless_wep string
# The wacky dhcp hostname that some ISPs use as a password of sorts.
#d-i netcfg/dhcp_hostname string radish
 
# If non-free firmware is needed for the network or other hardware, you can
# configure the installer to always try to load it, without prompting. Or
# change to false to disable asking.
#d-i hw-detect/load_firmware boolean true
 
### Network console
# Use the following settings if you wish to make use of the network-console
# component for remote installation over SSH. This only makes sense if you
# intend to perform the remainder of the installation manually.
#d-i anna/choose_modules string network-console
#d-i network-console/password password r00tme
#d-i network-console/password-again password r00tme
# Use this instead if you prefer to use key-based authentication
#d-i network-console/authorized_keys_url http://host/authorized_keys
 
### Mirror settings
# If you select ftp, the mirror/country string does not need to be set.
#d-i mirror/protocol string ftp
#d-i mirror/country string manual
#d-i mirror/http/hostname string http.us.debian.org
#d-i mirror/http/directory string /ubuntu
#d-i mirror/http/proxy string
 
# Alternatively: by default, the installer uses CC.archive.ubuntu.com where
# CC is the ISO-3166-2 code for the selected country. You can preseed this
# so that it does so without asking.
#d-i mirror/http/mirror select CC.archive.ubuntu.com
 
# Suite to install.
#d-i mirror/suite string &releasename;
# Suite to use for loading installer components (optional).
#d-i mirror/udeb/suite string &releasename;
# Components to use for loading installer components (optional).
#d-i mirror/udeb/components multiselect main, restricted
 
### Clock and time zone setup
# Controls whether or not the hardware clock is set to UTC.
d-i clock-setup/utc boolean true
 
# You may set this to any valid setting for $TZ; see the contents of
# /usr/share/zoneinfo/ for valid values.
d-i time/zone string Asia/HongKong
 
# Controls whether to use NTP to set the clock during the install
d-i clock-setup/ntp boolean false
# NTP server to use. The default is almost always fine here.
#d-i clock-setup/ntp-server string ntp.example.com
 
### Partitioning
# If the system has free space you can choose to only partition that space.
# Alternatives: custom, some_device, some_device_crypto, some_device_lvm.
#d-i partman-auto/init_automatically_partition select biggest_free
 
# Alternatively, you can specify a disk to partition. The device name must
# be given in traditional non-devfs format.
# Note: A disk must be specified, unless the system has only one disk.
# For example, to use the first SCSI/SATA hard disk:
#d-i partman-auto/disk string /dev/sda
# In addition, you'll need to specify the method to use.
# The presently available methods are: "regular", "lvm" and "crypto"
d-i partman-auto/method string lvm
 
# If one of the disks that are going to be automatically partitioned
# contains an old LVM configuration, the user will normally receive a
# warning. This can be preseeded away...
d-i partman-lvm/device_remove_lvm boolean true
# The same applies to pre-existing software RAID array:
d-i partman-md/device_remove_md boolean true
# And the same goes for the confirmation to write the lvm partitions.
d-i partman-lvm/confirm boolean true
 
# For LVM partitioning, you can select how much of the volume group to use
# for logical volumes.
d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string max
#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 10GB
#d-i partman-auto-lvm/guided_size string 50%
 
# You can choose one of the three predefined partitioning recipes:
# - atomic: all files in one partition
# - home:   separate /home partition
# - multi:  separate /home, /usr, /var, and /tmp partitions
d-i partman-auto/choose_recipe select atomic
 
# Or provide a recipe of your own...
# The recipe format is documented in the file devel/partman-auto-recipe.txt.
# If you have a way to get a recipe file into the d-i environment, you can
# just point at it.
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe_file string /hd-media/recipe
 
# If not, you can put an entire recipe into the preconfiguration file in one
# (logical) line. This example creates a small /boot partition, suitable
# swap, and uses the rest of the space for the root partition:
#d-i partman-auto/expert_recipe string                        
#      boot-root ::                                            
#              40 50 100 ext3                                  
#                      $primary{ } $bootable{ }                
#                      method{ format } format{ }              
#                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }    
#                      mountpoint{ /boot }                    
#              .                                              
#              500 10000 1000000000 ext3                      
#                      method{ format } format{ }              
#                      use_filesystem{ } filesystem{ ext3 }    
#                      mountpoint{ / }                        
#              .                                              
#              64 512 300% linux-swap                          
#                      method{ swap } format{ }                
#              .
 
# If you just want to change the default filesystem from ext3 to something
# else, you can do that without providing a full recipe.
d-i partman/default_filesystem string ext4
 
# This makes partman automatically partition without confirmation, provided
# that you told it what to do using one of the methods above.
d-i partman/confirm_write_new_label boolean true
d-i partman/choose_partition select finish
d-i partman/confirm boolean true
d-i partman/confirm_nooverwrite boolean true
 
### Controlling how partitions are mounted
# The default is to mount by UUID, but you can also choose "traditional" to
# use traditional device names, or "label" to try filesystem labels before
# falling back to UUIDs.
#d-i partman/mount_style select uuid
 
### Base system installation
# The kernel image (meta) package to be installed; "none" can be used if no
# kernel is to be installed.
d-i base-installer/kernel/image string linux-generic
 
### Account setup
# Skip creation of a root account (normal user account will be able to
# use sudo). The default is false; preseed this to true if you want to set
# a root password.
d-i passwd/root-login boolean true
# Alternatively, to skip creation of a normal user account.
d-i passwd/make-user boolean true
 
# Root password, either in clear text
d-i passwd/root-password password password
d-i passwd/root-password-again password password
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/root-password-crypted password [MD5 hash]
 
# To create a normal user account.
d-i passwd/user-fullname string smartuser User
d-i passwd/username string smartuser
# Normal user's password, either in clear text
d-i passwd/user-password password password
d-i passwd/user-password-again password password
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash.
#d-i passwd/user-password-crypted password [MD5 hash]
# Create the first user with the specified UID instead of the default.
#d-i passwd/user-uid string 1010
# The installer will warn about weak passwords. If you are sure you know
# what you're doing and want to override it, uncomment this.
d-i user-setup/allow-password-weak boolean true
 
# The user account will be added to some standard initial groups. To
# override that, use this.
d-i passwd/user-default-groups string cdrom root
 
# Set to true if you want to encrypt the first user's home directory.
d-i user-setup/encrypt-home boolean false
 
### Apt setup
# You can choose to install restricted and universe software, or to install
# software from the backports repository.
d-i apt-setup/restricted boolean true
d-i apt-setup/universe boolean true
#d-i apt-setup/backports boolean true
# Uncomment this if you don't want to use a network mirror.
d-i apt-setup/use_mirror boolean false
# Select which update services to use; define the mirrors to be used.
# Values shown below are the normal defaults.
#d-i apt-setup/services-select multiselect security
#d-i apt-setup/security_host string security.ubuntu.com
#d-i apt-setup/security_path string /ubuntu
 
# Additional repositories, local[0-9] available
#d-i apt-setup/local0/repository string
#       http://local.server/ubuntu &releasename; main
#d-i apt-setup/local0/comment string local server
# Enable deb-src lines
#d-i apt-setup/local0/source boolean true
# URL to the public key of the local repository; you must provide a key or
# apt will complain about the unauthenticated repository and so the
# sources.list line will be left commented out
#d-i apt-setup/local0/key string http://local.server/key
 
# By default the installer requires that repositories be authenticated
# using a known gpg key. This setting can be used to disable that
# authentication. Warning: Insecure, not recommended.
#d-i debian-installer/allow_unauthenticated string true
 
### Package selection
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect ubuntu-desktop
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect lamp-server, print-server
#tasksel tasksel/first multiselect kubuntu-desktop
# Install the Ubuntu Server seed.
taskseltasksel/force-tasks string server,lamp-server,virt-host,openssh-server,samba-server
 
# Individual additional packages to install
d-i pkgsel/include string vim,nfs-common,nfs-kernel-server
# Whether to upgrade packages after debootstrap.
# Allowed values: none, safe-upgrade, full-upgrade
#d-i pkgsel/upgrade select none
 
# Language pack selection
#d-i pkgsel/language-packs multiselect de, en, zh
 
# Policy for applying updates. May be "none" (no automatic updates),
# "unattended-upgrades" (install security updates automatically), or
# "landscape" (manage system with Landscape).
#d-i pkgsel/update-policy select none
 
# Some versions of the installer can report back on what software you have
# installed, and what software you use. The default is not to report back,
# but sending reports helps the project determine what software is most
# popular and include it on CDs.
popularity-contest popularity-contest/participate boolean true
 
# By default, the system's locate database will be updated after the
# installer has finished installing most packages. This may take a while, so
# if you don't want it, you can set this to "false" to turn it off.
d-i pkgsel/updatedb boolean true
 
### Boot loader installation
# Grub is the default boot loader (for x86). If you want lilo installed
# instead, uncomment this:
#d-i grub-installer/skip boolean true
# To also skip installing lilo, and install no bootloader, uncomment this
# too:
#d-i lilo-installer/skip boolean true
 
# This is fairly safe to set, it makes grub install automatically to the MBR
# if no other operating system is detected on the machine.
d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean true
 
# This one makes grub-installer install to the MBR if it also finds some other
# OS, which is less safe as it might not be able to boot that other OS.
d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean true
 
# Alternatively, if you want to install to a location other than the mbr,
# uncomment and edit these lines:
#d-i grub-installer/only_debian boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/with_other_os boolean false
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev  string (hd0,0)
# To install grub to multiple disks:
#d-i grub-installer/bootdev  string (hd0,0) (hd1,0) (hd2,0)
 
# Optional password for grub, either in clear text
#d-i grub-installer/password password r00tme
#d-i grub-installer/password-again password r00tme
# or encrypted using an MD5 hash, see grub-md5-crypt(8).
#d-i grub-installer/password-crypted password [MD5 hash]
 
### Finishing up the installation
# During installations from serial console, the regular virtual consoles
# (VT1-VT6) are normally disabled in /etc/inittab. Uncomment the next
# line to prevent this.
#d-i finish-install/keep-consoles boolean true
 
# Avoid that last message about the install being complete.
d-i finish-install/reboot_in_progress note
 
# This will prevent the installer from ejecting the CD during the reboot,
# which is useful in some situations.
d-i cdrom-detect/eject boolean true
 
# This is how to make the installer shutdown when finished, but not
# reboot into the installed system.
#d-i debian-installer/exit/halt boolean true
# This will power off the machine instead of just halting it.
#d-i debian-installer/exit/poweroff boolean true
 
### X configuration
# X can detect the right driver for some cards, but if you're preseeding,
# you override whatever it chooses. Still, vesa will work most places.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/device/driver select vesa
 
# A caveat with mouse autodetection is that if it fails, X will retry it
# over and over. So if it's preseeded to be done, there is a possibility of
# an infinite loop if the mouse is not autodetected.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/autodetect_mouse boolean true
 
# Monitor autodetection is recommended.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/autodetect_monitor boolean true
# Uncomment if you have an LCD display.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/lcd boolean true
# X has three configuration paths for the monitor. Here's how to preseed
# the "medium" path, which is always available. The "simple" path may not
# be available, and the "advanced" path asks too many questions.
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/selection-method select medium
#xserver-xorg xserver-xorg/config/monitor/mode-list select 1024x768 @ 60 Hz
 
### Preseeding other packages
# Depending on what software you choose to install, or if things go wrong
# during the installation process, it's possible that other questions may
# be asked. You can preseed those too, of course. To get a list of every
# possible question that could be asked during an install, do an
# installation, and then run these commands:
#   debconf-get-selections --installer > file
#   debconf-get-selections >> file
 
#### Advanced options
### Running custom commands during the installation
# d-i preseeding is inherently not secure. Nothing in the installer checks
# for attempts at buffer overflows or other exploits of the values of a
# preconfiguration file like this one. Only use preconfiguration files from
# trusted locations! To drive that home, and because it's generally useful,
# here's a way to run any shell command you'd like inside the installer,
# automatically.
 
# This first command is run as early as possible, just after
# preseeding is read.
#d-i preseed/early_command string anna-install some-udeb
 
# This command is run immediately before the partitioner starts. It may be
# useful to apply dynamic partitioner preseeding that depends on the state
# of the disks (which may not be visible when preseed/early_command runs).
#d-i partman/early_command string debconf-set partman-auto/disk "$(list-devices disk | head -n1)"
 
# This command is run just before the install finishes, but when there is
# still a usable /target directory. You can chroot to /target and use it
# directly, or use the apt-install and in-target commands to easily install
# packages and run commands in the target system.
#d-i preseed/late_command string apt-install zsh; in-target chsh -s /bin/zsh
d-i preseed/late_command string cp -R /cdrom/install/archives /target/var/cache/apt/; cp -R /cdrom/install/smartvm /target/var/; chroot /target chmod +x /var/smartvm/smart_vm.sh; chroot /target bash /var/smartvm/smart_vm.sh
 
还有一些通常需要修改的文件位置ISO/isolinux目录下:
 
1. back.jpg ,这个文件是光盘启动时的背景图片文件,尺寸最好小于200k,太大不会显示。
2.gfxboot.cfg 这个文件可能定义引导界面的文字颜色等信息
foreground=0xFFFFFF
background=0x00aeef
screen-colour=0x005aab
 
3. isolinux.cfg 这个即是引导的主要文件,它一般会包含几个子文件,修改最好在相关子文件中进行
# D-I config version 2.0
include menu.cfg
default vesamenu.c32
prompt 0
timeout 0
ui gfxboot bootlogo
 
4. txt.cfg  此文件定义光盘引导时的安装项目列表,其中有一些项目可以配置,
default install
label install
  menu label ^Install Ubuntu Server 12.10
  kernel /install/vmlinuz
  append  file=/cdrom/preseed/ubuntu-server.seed vga=normal fb=false netcfg/disable_autoconfig=true initrd=/install/initrd.gz debian-installer/locale=en_US console-setup/layoutcode=us DEBIAN_FRONTEND=text DEBCONF_PRIORITY=critical debconf/priority=critical quiet --
 
label hd
  menu label ^Boot from first hard disk
  localboot 0x80
 
其实以上信息的配置说明在ISO/doc/manual目录都有说明。对于通常简的定制是足够了。