Spring MVC 学习总结(一)——MVC概要与环境配置(IDea与Eclipse示例)

 一、MVC概要

MVC是模型(Model)、视图(View)、控制器(Controller)的简写,是一种软件设计规范,用一种将业务逻辑、数据、显示分离的方法组织代码,MVC主要作用是降低了视图与业务逻辑间的双向偶合。MVC不是一种设计模式,MVC是一种架构模式。当然不同的MVC存在差异。

在web早期的开发中,通常采用的都是Model1。Model1中,如图所示主要分为两层,视图层和模型层。Model2把一个项目分成三部分,包括视图、控制、模型。这样不仅提高的代码的复用率与项目的扩展性,且大大降低了项目的维护成本。Model 1模式的实现比较简单,适用于快速开发小规模项目,Model1中JSP页面身兼View和Controller两种角色,将控制逻辑和表现逻辑混杂在一起,从而导致代码的重用性非常低,增加了应用的扩展性和维护的难度。Model2消除了Model1的缺点。

Model1

Model1 的时序图

Model2

Model2的时序图

1、Model1适合小型项目开发,结构简单,开发迅速。但是JSP页面相对复杂,不利于维护。

2、Model2适合大型项目开发,职责明确,而且适应变动的需求,目的是可复用、可扩展、可维护。

3、从模型上和时序图上很容易看出,Model2是在Model1的基础上,分离了控制,将业务逻辑处理分离出来。这样Model2相对来说便于维护。

常见的服务器端MVC框架有:Struts、Spring MVC、ASP.NET MVC、Zend Framework、JSF;常见前端MVC框架:vue、angularjs、react、backbone;由MVC演化出了另外一些模式如:MVP、MVVM。

二、Spring MVC介绍

Spring MVC是Spring Framework的一部分,是基于Java实现MVC的轻量级Web框架。Spring MVC的特点:
1、轻量
2、高效
3、与Spring兼容性好
4、功能强大
RESTful、数据验证、格式化、绑定机制、本地化、主题等
5、简洁灵活

Spring的web框架围绕DispatcherServlet设计。 DispatcherServlet的作用是将请求分发到不同的处理器。从Spring 2.5开始,使用Java 5或者以上版本的用户可以采用基于注解的controller声明方式。官网上说Spring的web模块提供了大量独特的功能,包括:
清晰的角色划分:控制器(controller)、验证器(validator)、 命令对象(command object)、表单对象(form object)、模型对象(model object)、 Servlet分发器(DispatcherServlet)、 处理器映射(handler mapping)、视图解析器(view resolver)等等。 每一个角色都可以由一个专门的对象来实现。

强大而直接的配置方式:将框架类和应用程序类都能作为JavaBean配置,支持跨多个context的引用,例如,在web控制器中对业务对象和验证器(validator)的引用。

可适配、非侵入:可以根据不同的应用场景,选择合适的控制器子类 (simple型、command型、form型、wizard型、multi-action型或者自定义),而不是从单一控制器 (比如Action/ActionForm)继承。

可重用的业务代码:可以使用现有的业务对象作为命令或表单对象,而不需要去扩展某个特定框架的基类。

可定制的绑定(binding) 和验证(validation):比如将类型不匹配作为应用级的验证错误, 这可以保存错误的值。再比如本地化的日期和数字绑定等等。在其他某些框架中,你只能使用字符串表单对象, 需要手动解析它并转换到业务对象。

可定制的handler mapping和view resolution:Spring提供从最简单的URL映射, 到复杂的、专用的定制策略。与某些web MVC框架强制开发人员使用单一特定技术相比,Spring显得更加灵活。

灵活的model转换:在Springweb框架中,使用基于Map的 键/值对来达到轻易地与各种视图技术的集成。

可定制的本地化和主题(theme)解析:支持在JSP中可选择地使用Spring标签库、支持JSTL、支持Velocity(不需要额外的中间层)等等。

简单而强大的JSP标签库(Spring Tag Library):支持包括诸如数据绑定和主题(theme) 之类的许多功能。它提供在标记方面的最大灵活性。

JSP表单标签库:在Spring2.0中引入的表单标签库,使得在JSP中编写 表单更加容易。

Spring Bean的生命周期可以被限制在当前的HTTP Request或者HTTP Session。 准确的说,这并非Spring MVC框架本身特性,而应归属于Sping MVC使用的WebApplicationContext容器。

三、第一个Spring MVC 项目:Hello World(Eclipse版)

3.1、通过Maven新建一个Web项目

在Eclipse中新建Maven项目,选择“Create a simple project”,创建一个简单项目,不选择模板。

修改层面信息,更加详细的内容请参考前面写过的文章:

将webcontent中的所有内容复制到webapp目录下,并删除webContent目录,删除后的结果如下:

修改项目的部署信息,删除测试文件夹,添加webapp为项目根目录:

 如果不打算在pom.xml中添加对Server runtime的依赖,则这里必须手动添加依赖,如下图所示:

另外如果pom.xml报错,修改任意位置保存。

3.2、添加依赖的jar包

1、修改pom.xml文件、添加jar包的依赖,主要有:Spring框架核心库、Spring MVC、JSTL等,具体信息如下:

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
    <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>
    <groupId>com.zhangguo</groupId>
    <artifactId>SpringMVC01</artifactId>
    <version>0.0.1</version>
    <packaging>war</packaging>

    <properties>
        <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
        <spring.version>4.3.0.RELEASE</spring.version>
    </properties>

    <dependencies>
        <!--Spring框架核心库 -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- Spring MVC -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
            <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
            <version>${spring.version}</version>
        </dependency>
        <!-- JSTL -->
        <dependency>
            <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
            <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
            <version>1.2</version>
        </dependency>
</dependencies>
</project>

当依赖成功时,会加载的jar包如下:

3.3、修改web.xml注册中心控制器DispatcherServlet

Spring MVC框架像许多其他MVC框架一样, 请求驱动,围绕一个中心Servlet分派请求及提供其他功能,DispatcherServlet是一个实际的Servlet (它继承自HttpServlet 基类)。如下图所示当发起请求时被前置的控制器拦截到请求,根据请求参数生成代理请求,找到请求对应的实际控制器,控制器处理请求,创建数据模型,访问数据库,将模型响应给中心控制器,控制器使用模型与视图渲染视图结果,将结果返回给中心控制器,再将结果返回给请求者。

修改web.xml文件注册该Servlet,修改后的web.xml文件如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
    xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
    id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0">

    <servlet>
        <!--名称 -->
        <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
        <!-- Servlet类 -->
        <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
        <!-- 启动顺序,数字越小,启动越早 -->
        <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
        <init-param>
            <!--SpringMVC配置参数文件的位置 -->
            <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
            <!--默认名称为ServletName-servlet.xml -->
            <param-value>classpath*:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
        </init-param>
    </servlet>

    <!--所有请求都会被springmvc拦截 -->
    <servlet-mapping>
        <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
        <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
    </servlet-mapping>

</web-app> 

3.4、添加Spring MVC配置文件

在src/main/java源代码目录下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件,配置的形式与Spring容器配置基本类似,为了支持基于注解的IOC,设置了自动扫描包的功能,具体配置信息如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
    xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance" 
    xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
    xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
    xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans 
         http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc 
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.3.xsd">

    <!-- 自动扫描包,实现支持注解的IOC -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="com.zhangguo.springmvc01" />

    <!-- Spring MVC不处理静态资源 -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />

    <!-- 支持mvc注解驱动 -->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />

    <!-- 视图解析器 -->
    <bean
        class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver"
        id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/view/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

在视图解析中我们把所有的视图都存放在/WEB-INF/目录下,这样是为了视图安全,因为这个目录客户端不能直接访问。

mvc:annotation-driven:

在spring中一般采用@RequestMapping注解来完成映射关系,要想使@RequestMapping注解生效必须向上下文中注册DefaultAnnotationHandlerMapping和一个AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter实例,这两个实例分别在类级别和方法级别处理。而annotation-driven配置帮助我们自动完成上述两个实例的注入。

3.5、创建HelloWorld控制器

在src/main/java源代码目录下创建包com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller,在包下创建一个普通的类:HelloWorld,具体代码如下:

package com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller;
import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

@Controller
@RequestMapping("/Hello")
public class HelloWorld {
    @RequestMapping("/Sayhi")
    public String SayHi(Model model) {
        model.addAttribute("message", "Hello Spring MVC!");
        return "sayhi";
    }
}

 注解为@Controller是为了让Spring IOC容器初始化时自动扫描到;@RequestMapping是为了映射请求路径,这里因为类与方法上都有映射所以访问时应该是/Hello/Sayhi;方法中声明Model类型的参数是为了把Action中的数据带到视图中;方法返回的结果是视图的名称sayhi。

3.6、创建视图

在WEB-INF/view目录中创建视图,视图将从Action中带回的信息展示,具体内容如下:

<%@ page language="java" contentType="text/html; charset=UTF-8" pageEncoding="UTF-8"%>
<%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" %>
<!DOCTYPE html>
<html>
<head>
<meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8">
<title>Hello Spring MVC!</title>
</head>
<body>
    <h2>${message}</h2>
</body>
</html>

3.7、测试运行

启动Tomcat运行项目,请注意查看启动信息,如果有异常应该先解决异常信息,运行成功后的结果如下所示:

四、第一个Spring MVC 项目:Hello World(IDEA)

4.1、在IDEA中使用Maven根据WebApp骨架创建一个项目

在Idea中新建Maven项目,选择“org.apache.maven.archetypes:maven-archetype-webapp”骨架(模板),创建一个Web项目:

输入项目的坐标:

选择仓库位置与配置信息,建议使用默认设置(先使用IDEA的默认设置将Maven配置好)

设置项目位置,完成即可

初始化的项目如下:

根据Maven规范,需要创建源代码、资源与测试目录:

在main上右键创建java目录、resources目录,创建与main平级的test测试目录:

设置目录的特殊属性:

设置完成后的结果:

4.2、添加依赖的jar包

1、修改pom.xml文件、添加jar包的依赖,主要有:Spring框架核心库、Spring MVC、JSTL等,具体信息如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>

<project xmlns="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://maven.apache.org/POM/4.0.0 http://maven.apache.org/xsd/maven-4.0.0.xsd">
  <modelVersion>4.0.0</modelVersion>

  <groupId>com.zhangguo.springmvc01</groupId>
  <artifactId>SpringMVC01</artifactId>
  <version>1.0-SNAPSHOT</version>
  <packaging>war</packaging>

  <name>SpringMVC01 Maven Webapp</name>
  <!-- FIXME change it to the project's website -->
  <url>http://www.example.com</url>

  <properties>
    <project.build.sourceEncoding>UTF-8</project.build.sourceEncoding>
    <maven.compiler.source>1.7</maven.compiler.source>
    <maven.compiler.target>1.7</maven.compiler.target>
    <spring.version>4.3.0.RELEASE</spring.version>
  </properties>

  <dependencies>
    <dependency>
      <groupId>junit</groupId>
      <artifactId>junit</artifactId>
      <version>4.11</version>
      <scope>test</scope>
    </dependency>
    <!--Spring框架核心库 -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-context</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <!-- Spring MVC -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>org.springframework</groupId>
      <artifactId>spring-webmvc</artifactId>
      <version>${spring.version}</version>
    </dependency>
    <!--Servlet核心-->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
      <artifactId>javax.servlet-api</artifactId>
      <version>3.0.1</version>
      <scope>provided</scope>
    </dependency>
    <!-- JSTL -->
    <dependency>
      <groupId>javax.servlet</groupId>
      <artifactId>jstl</artifactId>
      <version>1.2</version>
    </dependency>
  </dependencies>

  <build>
    <finalName>SpringMVC01</finalName>
    <pluginManagement><!-- lock down plugins versions to avoid using Maven defaults (may be moved to parent pom) -->
      <plugins>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-clean-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>3.0.0</version>
        </plugin>
        <!-- see http://maven.apache.org/ref/current/maven-core/default-bindings.html#Plugin_bindings_for_war_packaging -->
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-resources-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>3.0.2</version>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-compiler-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>3.7.0</version>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-surefire-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>2.20.1</version>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-war-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>3.2.0</version>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-install-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>2.5.2</version>
        </plugin>
        <plugin>
          <artifactId>maven-deploy-plugin</artifactId>
          <version>2.8.2</version>
        </plugin>
      </plugins>
    </pluginManagement>
  </build>
</project>

当依赖成功时,会加载的jar包如下:

4.3、修改web.xml注册中心控制器DispatcherServlet

Spring MVC框架像许多其他MVC框架一样, 请求驱动,围绕一个中心Servlet分派请求及提供其他功能,DispatcherServlet是一个实际的Servlet (它继承自HttpServlet 基类)。如下图所示当发起请求时被前置的控制器拦截到请求,根据请求参数生成代理请求,找到请求对应的实际控制器,控制器处理请求,创建数据模型,访问数据库,将模型响应给中心控制器,控制器使用模型与视图渲染视图结果,将结果返回给中心控制器,再将结果返回给请求者。

Spring MVC中心控制器的源码如下:

/*
 * Copyright 2002-2016 the original author or authors.
 *
 * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
 * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
 * You may obtain a copy of the License at
 *
 *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
 *
 * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
 * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
 * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
 * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
 * limitations under the License.
 */

package org.springframework.web.servlet;

import java.io.IOException;
import java.util.ArrayList;
import java.util.Collections;
import java.util.Enumeration;
import java.util.HashMap;
import java.util.HashSet;
import java.util.LinkedList;
import java.util.List;
import java.util.Locale;
import java.util.Map;
import java.util.Properties;
import java.util.Set;
import javax.servlet.ServletContext;
import javax.servlet.ServletException;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;
import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;

import org.apache.commons.logging.Log;
import org.apache.commons.logging.LogFactory;

import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanFactoryUtils;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.BeanInitializationException;
import org.springframework.beans.factory.NoSuchBeanDefinitionException;
import org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.ConfigurableApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.context.i18n.LocaleContext;
import org.springframework.core.annotation.AnnotationAwareOrderComparator;
import org.springframework.core.io.ClassPathResource;
import org.springframework.core.io.support.PropertiesLoaderUtils;
import org.springframework.http.server.ServletServerHttpRequest;
import org.springframework.ui.context.ThemeSource;
import org.springframework.util.ClassUtils;
import org.springframework.util.StringUtils;
import org.springframework.web.context.WebApplicationContext;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.ServletWebRequest;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.async.WebAsyncManager;
import org.springframework.web.context.request.async.WebAsyncUtils;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartException;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartHttpServletRequest;
import org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartResolver;
import org.springframework.web.util.NestedServletException;
import org.springframework.web.util.WebUtils;

/**
 * Central dispatcher for HTTP request handlers/controllers, e.g. for web UI controllers
 * or HTTP-based remote service exporters. Dispatches to registered handlers for processing
 * a web request, providing convenient mapping and exception handling facilities.
 *
 * <p>This servlet is very flexible: It can be used with just about any workflow, with the
 * installation of the appropriate adapter classes. It offers the following functionality
 * that distinguishes it from other request-driven web MVC frameworks:
 *
 * <ul>
 * <li>It is based around a JavaBeans configuration mechanism.
 *
 * <li>It can use any {@link HandlerMapping} implementation - pre-built or provided as part
 * of an application - to control the routing of requests to handler objects. Default is
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.handler.BeanNameUrlHandlerMapping} and
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.DefaultAnnotationHandlerMapping}.
 * HandlerMapping objects can be defined as beans in the servlet's application context,
 * implementing the HandlerMapping interface, overriding the default HandlerMapping if
 * present. HandlerMappings can be given any bean name (they are tested by type).
 *
 * <li>It can use any {@link HandlerAdapter}; this allows for using any handler interface.
 * Default adapters are {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.HttpRequestHandlerAdapter},
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter}, for Spring's
 * {@link org.springframework.web.HttpRequestHandler} and
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.Controller} interfaces, respectively. A default
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter}
 * will be registered as well. HandlerAdapter objects can be added as beans in the
 * application context, overriding the default HandlerAdapters. Like HandlerMappings,
 * HandlerAdapters can be given any bean name (they are tested by type).
 *
 * <li>The dispatcher's exception resolution strategy can be specified via a
 * {@link HandlerExceptionResolver}, for example mapping certain exceptions to error pages.
 * Default are
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.AnnotationMethodHandlerExceptionResolver},
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.annotation.ResponseStatusExceptionResolver}, and
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.support.DefaultHandlerExceptionResolver}.
 * These HandlerExceptionResolvers can be overridden through the application context.
 * HandlerExceptionResolver can be given any bean name (they are tested by type).
 *
 * <li>Its view resolution strategy can be specified via a {@link ViewResolver}
 * implementation, resolving symbolic view names into View objects. Default is
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver}.
 * ViewResolver objects can be added as beans in the application context, overriding the
 * default ViewResolver. ViewResolvers can be given any bean name (they are tested by type).
 *
 * <li>If a {@link View} or view name is not supplied by the user, then the configured
 * {@link RequestToViewNameTranslator} will translate the current request into a view name.
 * The corresponding bean name is "viewNameTranslator"; the default is
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.view.DefaultRequestToViewNameTranslator}.
 *
 * <li>The dispatcher's strategy for resolving multipart requests is determined by a
 * {@link org.springframework.web.multipart.MultipartResolver} implementation.
 * Implementations for Apache Commons FileUpload and Servlet 3 are included; the typical
 * choice is {@link org.springframework.web.multipart.commons.CommonsMultipartResolver}.
 * The MultipartResolver bean name is "multipartResolver"; default is none.
 *
 * <li>Its locale resolution strategy is determined by a {@link LocaleResolver}.
 * Out-of-the-box implementations work via HTTP accept header, cookie, or session.
 * The LocaleResolver bean name is "localeResolver"; default is
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.i18n.AcceptHeaderLocaleResolver}.
 *
 * <li>Its theme resolution strategy is determined by a {@link ThemeResolver}.
 * Implementations for a fixed theme and for cookie and session storage are included.
 * The ThemeResolver bean name is "themeResolver"; default is
 * {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.theme.FixedThemeResolver}.
 * </ul>
 *
 * <p><b>NOTE: The {@code @RequestMapping} annotation will only be processed if a
 * corresponding {@code HandlerMapping} (for type-level annotations) and/or
 * {@code HandlerAdapter} (for method-level annotations) is present in the dispatcher.</b>
 * This is the case by default. However, if you are defining custom {@code HandlerMappings}
 * or {@code HandlerAdapters}, then you need to make sure that a corresponding custom
 * {@code DefaultAnnotationHandlerMapping} and/or {@code AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter}
 * is defined as well - provided that you intend to use {@code @RequestMapping}.
 *
 * <p><b>A web application can define any number of DispatcherServlets.</b>
 * Each servlet will operate in its own namespace, loading its own application context
 * with mappings, handlers, etc. Only the root application context as loaded by
 * {@link org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener}, if any, will be shared.
 *
 * <p>As of Spring 3.1, {@code DispatcherServlet} may now be injected with a web
 * application context, rather than creating its own internally. This is useful in Servlet
 * 3.0+ environments, which support programmatic registration of servlet instances.
 * See the {@link #DispatcherServlet(WebApplicationContext)} javadoc for details.
 *
 * @author Rod Johnson
 * @author Juergen Hoeller
 * @author Rob Harrop
 * @author Chris Beams
 * @author Rossen Stoyanchev
 * @see org.springframework.web.HttpRequestHandler
 * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.mvc.Controller
 * @see org.springframework.web.context.ContextLoaderListener
 */
@SuppressWarnings("serial")
public class DispatcherServlet extends FrameworkServlet {

    /** Well-known name for the MultipartResolver object in the bean factory for this namespace. */
    public static final String MULTIPART_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME = "multipartResolver";

    /** Well-known name for the LocaleResolver object in the bean factory for this namespace. */
    public static final String LOCALE_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME = "localeResolver";

    /** Well-known name for the ThemeResolver object in the bean factory for this namespace. */
    public static final String THEME_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME = "themeResolver";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the HandlerMapping object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     * Only used when "detectAllHandlerMappings" is turned off.
     * @see #setDetectAllHandlerMappings
     */
    public static final String HANDLER_MAPPING_BEAN_NAME = "handlerMapping";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the HandlerAdapter object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     * Only used when "detectAllHandlerAdapters" is turned off.
     * @see #setDetectAllHandlerAdapters
     */
    public static final String HANDLER_ADAPTER_BEAN_NAME = "handlerAdapter";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the HandlerExceptionResolver object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     * Only used when "detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers" is turned off.
     * @see #setDetectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers
     */
    public static final String HANDLER_EXCEPTION_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME = "handlerExceptionResolver";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the RequestToViewNameTranslator object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     */
    public static final String REQUEST_TO_VIEW_NAME_TRANSLATOR_BEAN_NAME = "viewNameTranslator";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the ViewResolver object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     * Only used when "detectAllViewResolvers" is turned off.
     * @see #setDetectAllViewResolvers
     */
    public static final String VIEW_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME = "viewResolver";

    /**
     * Well-known name for the FlashMapManager object in the bean factory for this namespace.
     */
    public static final String FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_BEAN_NAME = "flashMapManager";

    /**
     * Request attribute to hold the current web application context.
     * Otherwise only the global web app context is obtainable by tags etc.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#findWebApplicationContext
     */
    public static final String WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".CONTEXT";

    /**
     * Request attribute to hold the current LocaleResolver, retrievable by views.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getLocaleResolver
     */
    public static final String LOCALE_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".LOCALE_RESOLVER";

    /**
     * Request attribute to hold the current ThemeResolver, retrievable by views.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getThemeResolver
     */
    public static final String THEME_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".THEME_RESOLVER";

    /**
     * Request attribute to hold the current ThemeSource, retrievable by views.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getThemeSource
     */
    public static final String THEME_SOURCE_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".THEME_SOURCE";

    /**
     * Name of request attribute that holds a read-only {@code Map<String,?>}
     * with "input" flash attributes saved by a previous request, if any.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getInputFlashMap(HttpServletRequest)
     */
    public static final String INPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".INPUT_FLASH_MAP";

    /**
     * Name of request attribute that holds the "output" {@link FlashMap} with
     * attributes to save for a subsequent request.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getOutputFlashMap(HttpServletRequest)
     */
    public static final String OUTPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".OUTPUT_FLASH_MAP";

    /**
     * Name of request attribute that holds the {@link FlashMapManager}.
     * @see org.springframework.web.servlet.support.RequestContextUtils#getFlashMapManager(HttpServletRequest)
     */
    public static final String FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".FLASH_MAP_MANAGER";

    /**
     * Name of request attribute that exposes an Exception resolved with an
     * {@link HandlerExceptionResolver} but where no view was rendered
     * (e.g. setting the status code).
     */
    public static final String EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE = DispatcherServlet.class.getName() + ".EXCEPTION";

    /** Log category to use when no mapped handler is found for a request. */
    public static final String PAGE_NOT_FOUND_LOG_CATEGORY = "org.springframework.web.servlet.PageNotFound";

    /**
     * Name of the class path resource (relative to the DispatcherServlet class)
     * that defines DispatcherServlet's default strategy names.
     */
    private static final String DEFAULT_STRATEGIES_PATH = "DispatcherServlet.properties";


    /** Additional logger to use when no mapped handler is found for a request. */
    protected static final Log pageNotFoundLogger = LogFactory.getLog(PAGE_NOT_FOUND_LOG_CATEGORY);

    private static final Properties defaultStrategies;

    static {
        // Load default strategy implementations from properties file.
        // This is currently strictly internal and not meant to be customized
        // by application developers.
        try {
            ClassPathResource resource = new ClassPathResource(DEFAULT_STRATEGIES_PATH, DispatcherServlet.class);
            defaultStrategies = PropertiesLoaderUtils.loadProperties(resource);
        }
        catch (IOException ex) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Could not load 'DispatcherServlet.properties': " + ex.getMessage());
        }
    }

    /** Detect all HandlerMappings or just expect "handlerMapping" bean? */
    private boolean detectAllHandlerMappings = true;

    /** Detect all HandlerAdapters or just expect "handlerAdapter" bean? */
    private boolean detectAllHandlerAdapters = true;

    /** Detect all HandlerExceptionResolvers or just expect "handlerExceptionResolver" bean? */
    private boolean detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers = true;

    /** Detect all ViewResolvers or just expect "viewResolver" bean? */
    private boolean detectAllViewResolvers = true;

    /** Throw a NoHandlerFoundException if no Handler was found to process this request? **/
    private boolean throwExceptionIfNoHandlerFound = false;

    /** Perform cleanup of request attributes after include request? */
    private boolean cleanupAfterInclude = true;

    /** MultipartResolver used by this servlet */
    private MultipartResolver multipartResolver;

    /** LocaleResolver used by this servlet */
    private LocaleResolver localeResolver;

    /** ThemeResolver used by this servlet */
    private ThemeResolver themeResolver;

    /** List of HandlerMappings used by this servlet */
    private List<HandlerMapping> handlerMappings;

    /** List of HandlerAdapters used by this servlet */
    private List<HandlerAdapter> handlerAdapters;

    /** List of HandlerExceptionResolvers used by this servlet */
    private List<HandlerExceptionResolver> handlerExceptionResolvers;

    /** RequestToViewNameTranslator used by this servlet */
    private RequestToViewNameTranslator viewNameTranslator;

    /** FlashMapManager used by this servlet */
    private FlashMapManager flashMapManager;

    /** List of ViewResolvers used by this servlet */
    private List<ViewResolver> viewResolvers;


    /**
     * Create a new {@code DispatcherServlet} that will create its own internal web
     * application context based on defaults and values provided through servlet
     * init-params. Typically used in Servlet 2.5 or earlier environments, where the only
     * option for servlet registration is through {@code web.xml} which requires the use
     * of a no-arg constructor.
     * <p>Calling {@link #setContextConfigLocation} (init-param 'contextConfigLocation')
     * will dictate which XML files will be loaded by the
     * {@linkplain #DEFAULT_CONTEXT_CLASS default XmlWebApplicationContext}
     * <p>Calling {@link #setContextClass} (init-param 'contextClass') overrides the
     * default {@code XmlWebApplicationContext} and allows for specifying an alternative class,
     * such as {@code AnnotationConfigWebApplicationContext}.
     * <p>Calling {@link #setContextInitializerClasses} (init-param 'contextInitializerClasses')
     * indicates which {@code ApplicationContextInitializer} classes should be used to
     * further configure the internal application context prior to refresh().
     * @see #DispatcherServlet(WebApplicationContext)
     */
    public DispatcherServlet() {
        super();
        setDispatchOptionsRequest(true);
    }

    /**
     * Create a new {@code DispatcherServlet} with the given web application context. This
     * constructor is useful in Servlet 3.0+ environments where instance-based registration
     * of servlets is possible through the {@link ServletContext#addServlet} API.
     * <p>Using this constructor indicates that the following properties / init-params
     * will be ignored:
     * <ul>
     * <li>{@link #setContextClass(Class)} / 'contextClass'</li>
     * <li>{@link #setContextConfigLocation(String)} / 'contextConfigLocation'</li>
     * <li>{@link #setContextAttribute(String)} / 'contextAttribute'</li>
     * <li>{@link #setNamespace(String)} / 'namespace'</li>
     * </ul>
     * <p>The given web application context may or may not yet be {@linkplain
     * ConfigurableApplicationContext#refresh() refreshed}. If it has <strong>not</strong>
     * already been refreshed (the recommended approach), then the following will occur:
     * <ul>
     * <li>If the given context does not already have a {@linkplain
     * ConfigurableApplicationContext#setParent parent}, the root application context
     * will be set as the parent.</li>
     * <li>If the given context has not already been assigned an {@linkplain
     * ConfigurableApplicationContext#setId id}, one will be assigned to it</li>
     * <li>{@code ServletContext} and {@code ServletConfig} objects will be delegated to
     * the application context</li>
     * <li>{@link #postProcessWebApplicationContext} will be called</li>
     * <li>Any {@code ApplicationContextInitializer}s specified through the
     * "contextInitializerClasses" init-param or through the {@link
     * #setContextInitializers} property will be applied.</li>
     * <li>{@link ConfigurableApplicationContext#refresh refresh()} will be called if the
     * context implements {@link ConfigurableApplicationContext}</li>
     * </ul>
     * If the context has already been refreshed, none of the above will occur, under the
     * assumption that the user has performed these actions (or not) per their specific
     * needs.
     * <p>See {@link org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer} for usage examples.
     * @param webApplicationContext the context to use
     * @see #initWebApplicationContext
     * @see #configureAndRefreshWebApplicationContext
     * @see org.springframework.web.WebApplicationInitializer
     */
    public DispatcherServlet(WebApplicationContext webApplicationContext) {
        super(webApplicationContext);
        setDispatchOptionsRequest(true);
    }


    /**
     * Set whether to detect all HandlerMapping beans in this servlet's context. Otherwise,
     * just a single bean with name "handlerMapping" will be expected.
     * <p>Default is "true". Turn this off if you want this servlet to use a single
     * HandlerMapping, despite multiple HandlerMapping beans being defined in the context.
     */
    public void setDetectAllHandlerMappings(boolean detectAllHandlerMappings) {
        this.detectAllHandlerMappings = detectAllHandlerMappings;
    }

    /**
     * Set whether to detect all HandlerAdapter beans in this servlet's context. Otherwise,
     * just a single bean with name "handlerAdapter" will be expected.
     * <p>Default is "true". Turn this off if you want this servlet to use a single
     * HandlerAdapter, despite multiple HandlerAdapter beans being defined in the context.
     */
    public void setDetectAllHandlerAdapters(boolean detectAllHandlerAdapters) {
        this.detectAllHandlerAdapters = detectAllHandlerAdapters;
    }

    /**
     * Set whether to detect all HandlerExceptionResolver beans in this servlet's context. Otherwise,
     * just a single bean with name "handlerExceptionResolver" will be expected.
     * <p>Default is "true". Turn this off if you want this servlet to use a single
     * HandlerExceptionResolver, despite multiple HandlerExceptionResolver beans being defined in the context.
     */
    public void setDetectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers(boolean detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers) {
        this.detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers = detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers;
    }

    /**
     * Set whether to detect all ViewResolver beans in this servlet's context. Otherwise,
     * just a single bean with name "viewResolver" will be expected.
     * <p>Default is "true". Turn this off if you want this servlet to use a single
     * ViewResolver, despite multiple ViewResolver beans being defined in the context.
     */
    public void setDetectAllViewResolvers(boolean detectAllViewResolvers) {
        this.detectAllViewResolvers = detectAllViewResolvers;
    }

    /**
     * Set whether to throw a NoHandlerFoundException when no Handler was found for this request.
     * This exception can then be caught with a HandlerExceptionResolver or an
     * {@code @ExceptionHandler} controller method.
     * <p>Note that if {@link org.springframework.web.servlet.resource.DefaultServletHttpRequestHandler}
     * is used, then requests will always be forwarded to the default servlet and a
     * NoHandlerFoundException would never be thrown in that case.
     * <p>Default is "false", meaning the DispatcherServlet sends a NOT_FOUND error through the
     * Servlet response.
     * @since 4.0
     */
    public void setThrowExceptionIfNoHandlerFound(boolean throwExceptionIfNoHandlerFound) {
        this.throwExceptionIfNoHandlerFound = throwExceptionIfNoHandlerFound;
    }

    /**
     * Set whether to perform cleanup of request attributes after an include request, that is,
     * whether to reset the original state of all request attributes after the DispatcherServlet
     * has processed within an include request. Otherwise, just the DispatcherServlet's own
     * request attributes will be reset, but not model attributes for JSPs or special attributes
     * set by views (for example, JSTL's).
     * <p>Default is "true", which is strongly recommended. Views should not rely on request attributes
     * having been set by (dynamic) includes. This allows JSP views rendered by an included controller
     * to use any model attributes, even with the same names as in the main JSP, without causing side
     * effects. Only turn this off for special needs, for example to deliberately allow main JSPs to
     * access attributes from JSP views rendered by an included controller.
     */
    public void setCleanupAfterInclude(boolean cleanupAfterInclude) {
        this.cleanupAfterInclude = cleanupAfterInclude;
    }


    /**
     * This implementation calls {@link #initStrategies}.
     */
    @Override
    protected void onRefresh(ApplicationContext context) {
        initStrategies(context);
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the strategy objects that this servlet uses.
     * <p>May be overridden in subclasses in order to initialize further strategy objects.
     */
    protected void initStrategies(ApplicationContext context) {
        initMultipartResolver(context);
        initLocaleResolver(context);
        initThemeResolver(context);
        initHandlerMappings(context);
        initHandlerAdapters(context);
        initHandlerExceptionResolvers(context);
        initRequestToViewNameTranslator(context);
        initViewResolvers(context);
        initFlashMapManager(context);
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the MultipartResolver used by this class.
     * <p>If no bean is defined with the given name in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * no multipart handling is provided.
     */
    private void initMultipartResolver(ApplicationContext context) {
        try {
            this.multipartResolver = context.getBean(MULTIPART_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME, MultipartResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Using MultipartResolver [" + this.multipartResolver + "]");
            }
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // Default is no multipart resolver.
            this.multipartResolver = null;
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Unable to locate MultipartResolver with name '" + MULTIPART_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME +
                        "': no multipart request handling provided");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the LocaleResolver used by this class.
     * <p>If no bean is defined with the given name in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * we default to AcceptHeaderLocaleResolver.
     */
    private void initLocaleResolver(ApplicationContext context) {
        try {
            this.localeResolver = context.getBean(LOCALE_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME, LocaleResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Using LocaleResolver [" + this.localeResolver + "]");
            }
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // We need to use the default.
            this.localeResolver = getDefaultStrategy(context, LocaleResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Unable to locate LocaleResolver with name '" + LOCALE_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME +
                        "': using default [" + this.localeResolver + "]");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the ThemeResolver used by this class.
     * <p>If no bean is defined with the given name in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * we default to a FixedThemeResolver.
     */
    private void initThemeResolver(ApplicationContext context) {
        try {
            this.themeResolver = context.getBean(THEME_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME, ThemeResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Using ThemeResolver [" + this.themeResolver + "]");
            }
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // We need to use the default.
            this.themeResolver = getDefaultStrategy(context, ThemeResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Unable to locate ThemeResolver with name '" + THEME_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME +
                        "': using default [" + this.themeResolver + "]");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the HandlerMappings used by this class.
     * <p>If no HandlerMapping beans are defined in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * we default to BeanNameUrlHandlerMapping.
     */
    private void initHandlerMappings(ApplicationContext context) {
        this.handlerMappings = null;

        if (this.detectAllHandlerMappings) {
            // Find all HandlerMappings in the ApplicationContext, including ancestor contexts.
            Map<String, HandlerMapping> matchingBeans =
                    BeanFactoryUtils.beansOfTypeIncludingAncestors(context, HandlerMapping.class, true, false);
            if (!matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
                this.handlerMappings = new ArrayList<HandlerMapping>(matchingBeans.values());
                // We keep HandlerMappings in sorted order.
                AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(this.handlerMappings);
            }
        }
        else {
            try {
                HandlerMapping hm = context.getBean(HANDLER_MAPPING_BEAN_NAME, HandlerMapping.class);
                this.handlerMappings = Collections.singletonList(hm);
            }
            catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
                // Ignore, we'll add a default HandlerMapping later.
            }
        }

        // Ensure we have at least one HandlerMapping, by registering
        // a default HandlerMapping if no other mappings are found.
        if (this.handlerMappings == null) {
            this.handlerMappings = getDefaultStrategies(context, HandlerMapping.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("No HandlerMappings found in servlet '" + getServletName() + "': using default");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the HandlerAdapters used by this class.
     * <p>If no HandlerAdapter beans are defined in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * we default to SimpleControllerHandlerAdapter.
     */
    private void initHandlerAdapters(ApplicationContext context) {
        this.handlerAdapters = null;

        if (this.detectAllHandlerAdapters) {
            // Find all HandlerAdapters in the ApplicationContext, including ancestor contexts.
            Map<String, HandlerAdapter> matchingBeans =
                    BeanFactoryUtils.beansOfTypeIncludingAncestors(context, HandlerAdapter.class, true, false);
            if (!matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
                this.handlerAdapters = new ArrayList<HandlerAdapter>(matchingBeans.values());
                // We keep HandlerAdapters in sorted order.
                AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(this.handlerAdapters);
            }
        }
        else {
            try {
                HandlerAdapter ha = context.getBean(HANDLER_ADAPTER_BEAN_NAME, HandlerAdapter.class);
                this.handlerAdapters = Collections.singletonList(ha);
            }
            catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
                // Ignore, we'll add a default HandlerAdapter later.
            }
        }

        // Ensure we have at least some HandlerAdapters, by registering
        // default HandlerAdapters if no other adapters are found.
        if (this.handlerAdapters == null) {
            this.handlerAdapters = getDefaultStrategies(context, HandlerAdapter.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("No HandlerAdapters found in servlet '" + getServletName() + "': using default");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the HandlerExceptionResolver used by this class.
     * <p>If no bean is defined with the given name in the BeanFactory for this namespace,
     * we default to no exception resolver.
     */
    private void initHandlerExceptionResolvers(ApplicationContext context) {
        this.handlerExceptionResolvers = null;

        if (this.detectAllHandlerExceptionResolvers) {
            // Find all HandlerExceptionResolvers in the ApplicationContext, including ancestor contexts.
            Map<String, HandlerExceptionResolver> matchingBeans = BeanFactoryUtils
                    .beansOfTypeIncludingAncestors(context, HandlerExceptionResolver.class, true, false);
            if (!matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
                this.handlerExceptionResolvers = new ArrayList<HandlerExceptionResolver>(matchingBeans.values());
                // We keep HandlerExceptionResolvers in sorted order.
                AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(this.handlerExceptionResolvers);
            }
        }
        else {
            try {
                HandlerExceptionResolver her =
                        context.getBean(HANDLER_EXCEPTION_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME, HandlerExceptionResolver.class);
                this.handlerExceptionResolvers = Collections.singletonList(her);
            }
            catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
                // Ignore, no HandlerExceptionResolver is fine too.
            }
        }

        // Ensure we have at least some HandlerExceptionResolvers, by registering
        // default HandlerExceptionResolvers if no other resolvers are found.
        if (this.handlerExceptionResolvers == null) {
            this.handlerExceptionResolvers = getDefaultStrategies(context, HandlerExceptionResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("No HandlerExceptionResolvers found in servlet '" + getServletName() + "': using default");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the RequestToViewNameTranslator used by this servlet instance.
     * <p>If no implementation is configured then we default to DefaultRequestToViewNameTranslator.
     */
    private void initRequestToViewNameTranslator(ApplicationContext context) {
        try {
            this.viewNameTranslator =
                    context.getBean(REQUEST_TO_VIEW_NAME_TRANSLATOR_BEAN_NAME, RequestToViewNameTranslator.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Using RequestToViewNameTranslator [" + this.viewNameTranslator + "]");
            }
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // We need to use the default.
            this.viewNameTranslator = getDefaultStrategy(context, RequestToViewNameTranslator.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Unable to locate RequestToViewNameTranslator with name '" +
                        REQUEST_TO_VIEW_NAME_TRANSLATOR_BEAN_NAME + "': using default [" + this.viewNameTranslator +
                        "]");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the ViewResolvers used by this class.
     * <p>If no ViewResolver beans are defined in the BeanFactory for this
     * namespace, we default to InternalResourceViewResolver.
     */
    private void initViewResolvers(ApplicationContext context) {
        this.viewResolvers = null;

        if (this.detectAllViewResolvers) {
            // Find all ViewResolvers in the ApplicationContext, including ancestor contexts.
            Map<String, ViewResolver> matchingBeans =
                    BeanFactoryUtils.beansOfTypeIncludingAncestors(context, ViewResolver.class, true, false);
            if (!matchingBeans.isEmpty()) {
                this.viewResolvers = new ArrayList<ViewResolver>(matchingBeans.values());
                // We keep ViewResolvers in sorted order.
                AnnotationAwareOrderComparator.sort(this.viewResolvers);
            }
        }
        else {
            try {
                ViewResolver vr = context.getBean(VIEW_RESOLVER_BEAN_NAME, ViewResolver.class);
                this.viewResolvers = Collections.singletonList(vr);
            }
            catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
                // Ignore, we'll add a default ViewResolver later.
            }
        }

        // Ensure we have at least one ViewResolver, by registering
        // a default ViewResolver if no other resolvers are found.
        if (this.viewResolvers == null) {
            this.viewResolvers = getDefaultStrategies(context, ViewResolver.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("No ViewResolvers found in servlet '" + getServletName() + "': using default");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Initialize the {@link FlashMapManager} used by this servlet instance.
     * <p>If no implementation is configured then we default to
     * {@code org.springframework.web.servlet.support.DefaultFlashMapManager}.
     */
    private void initFlashMapManager(ApplicationContext context) {
        try {
            this.flashMapManager = context.getBean(FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_BEAN_NAME, FlashMapManager.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Using FlashMapManager [" + this.flashMapManager + "]");
            }
        }
        catch (NoSuchBeanDefinitionException ex) {
            // We need to use the default.
            this.flashMapManager = getDefaultStrategy(context, FlashMapManager.class);
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Unable to locate FlashMapManager with name '" +
                        FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_BEAN_NAME + "': using default [" + this.flashMapManager + "]");
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return this servlet's ThemeSource, if any; else return {@code null}.
     * <p>Default is to return the WebApplicationContext as ThemeSource,
     * provided that it implements the ThemeSource interface.
     * @return the ThemeSource, if any
     * @see #getWebApplicationContext()
     */
    public final ThemeSource getThemeSource() {
        if (getWebApplicationContext() instanceof ThemeSource) {
            return (ThemeSource) getWebApplicationContext();
        }
        else {
            return null;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Obtain this servlet's MultipartResolver, if any.
     * @return the MultipartResolver used by this servlet, or {@code null} if none
     * (indicating that no multipart support is available)
     */
    public final MultipartResolver getMultipartResolver() {
        return this.multipartResolver;
    }

    /**
     * Return the default strategy object for the given strategy interface.
     * <p>The default implementation delegates to {@link #getDefaultStrategies},
     * expecting a single object in the list.
     * @param context the current WebApplicationContext
     * @param strategyInterface the strategy interface
     * @return the corresponding strategy object
     * @see #getDefaultStrategies
     */
    protected <T> T getDefaultStrategy(ApplicationContext context, Class<T> strategyInterface) {
        List<T> strategies = getDefaultStrategies(context, strategyInterface);
        if (strategies.size() != 1) {
            throw new BeanInitializationException(
                    "DispatcherServlet needs exactly 1 strategy for interface [" + strategyInterface.getName() + "]");
        }
        return strategies.get(0);
    }

    /**
     * Create a List of default strategy objects for the given strategy interface.
     * <p>The default implementation uses the "DispatcherServlet.properties" file (in the same
     * package as the DispatcherServlet class) to determine the class names. It instantiates
     * the strategy objects through the context's BeanFactory.
     * @param context the current WebApplicationContext
     * @param strategyInterface the strategy interface
     * @return the List of corresponding strategy objects
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    protected <T> List<T> getDefaultStrategies(ApplicationContext context, Class<T> strategyInterface) {
        String key = strategyInterface.getName();
        String value = defaultStrategies.getProperty(key);
        if (value != null) {
            String[] classNames = StringUtils.commaDelimitedListToStringArray(value);
            List<T> strategies = new ArrayList<T>(classNames.length);
            for (String className : classNames) {
                try {
                    Class<?> clazz = ClassUtils.forName(className, DispatcherServlet.class.getClassLoader());
                    Object strategy = createDefaultStrategy(context, clazz);
                    strategies.add((T) strategy);
                }
                catch (ClassNotFoundException ex) {
                    throw new BeanInitializationException(
                            "Could not find DispatcherServlet's default strategy class [" + className +
                                    "] for interface [" + key + "]", ex);
                }
                catch (LinkageError err) {
                    throw new BeanInitializationException(
                            "Error loading DispatcherServlet's default strategy class [" + className +
                                    "] for interface [" + key + "]: problem with class file or dependent class", err);
                }
            }
            return strategies;
        }
        else {
            return new LinkedList<T>();
        }
    }

    /**
     * Create a default strategy.
     * <p>The default implementation uses
     * {@link org.springframework.beans.factory.config.AutowireCapableBeanFactory#createBean}.
     * @param context the current WebApplicationContext
     * @param clazz the strategy implementation class to instantiate
     * @return the fully configured strategy instance
     * @see org.springframework.context.ApplicationContext#getAutowireCapableBeanFactory()
     * @see org.springframework.beans.factory.config.AutowireCapableBeanFactory#createBean
     */
    protected Object createDefaultStrategy(ApplicationContext context, Class<?> clazz) {
        return context.getAutowireCapableBeanFactory().createBean(clazz);
    }


    /**
     * Exposes the DispatcherServlet-specific request attributes and delegates to {@link #doDispatch}
     * for the actual dispatching.
     */
    @Override
    protected void doService(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            String resumed = WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request).hasConcurrentResult() ? " resumed" : "";
            logger.debug("DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'" + resumed +
                    " processing " + request.getMethod() + " request for [" + getRequestUri(request) + "]");
        }

        // Keep a snapshot of the request attributes in case of an include,
        // to be able to restore the original attributes after the include.
        Map<String, Object> attributesSnapshot = null;
        if (WebUtils.isIncludeRequest(request)) {
            attributesSnapshot = new HashMap<String, Object>();
            Enumeration<?> attrNames = request.getAttributeNames();
            while (attrNames.hasMoreElements()) {
                String attrName = (String) attrNames.nextElement();
                if (this.cleanupAfterInclude || attrName.startsWith("org.springframework.web.servlet")) {
                    attributesSnapshot.put(attrName, request.getAttribute(attrName));
                }
            }
        }

        // Make framework objects available to handlers and view objects.
        request.setAttribute(WEB_APPLICATION_CONTEXT_ATTRIBUTE, getWebApplicationContext());
        request.setAttribute(LOCALE_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE, this.localeResolver);
        request.setAttribute(THEME_RESOLVER_ATTRIBUTE, this.themeResolver);
        request.setAttribute(THEME_SOURCE_ATTRIBUTE, getThemeSource());

        FlashMap inputFlashMap = this.flashMapManager.retrieveAndUpdate(request, response);
        if (inputFlashMap != null) {
            request.setAttribute(INPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE, Collections.unmodifiableMap(inputFlashMap));
        }
        request.setAttribute(OUTPUT_FLASH_MAP_ATTRIBUTE, new FlashMap());
        request.setAttribute(FLASH_MAP_MANAGER_ATTRIBUTE, this.flashMapManager);

        try {
            doDispatch(request, response);
        }
        finally {
            if (!WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request).isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                // Restore the original attribute snapshot, in case of an include.
                if (attributesSnapshot != null) {
                    restoreAttributesAfterInclude(request, attributesSnapshot);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Process the actual dispatching to the handler.
     * <p>The handler will be obtained by applying the servlet's HandlerMappings in order.
     * The HandlerAdapter will be obtained by querying the servlet's installed HandlerAdapters
     * to find the first that supports the handler class.
     * <p>All HTTP methods are handled by this method. It's up to HandlerAdapters or handlers
     * themselves to decide which methods are acceptable.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @param response current HTTP response
     * @throws Exception in case of any kind of processing failure
     */
    protected void doDispatch(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
        HttpServletRequest processedRequest = request;
        HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler = null;
        boolean multipartRequestParsed = false;

        WebAsyncManager asyncManager = WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request);

        try {
            ModelAndView mv = null;
            Exception dispatchException = null;

            try {
                processedRequest = checkMultipart(request);
                multipartRequestParsed = (processedRequest != request);

                // Determine handler for the current request.
                mappedHandler = getHandler(processedRequest);
                if (mappedHandler == null || mappedHandler.getHandler() == null) {
                    noHandlerFound(processedRequest, response);
                    return;
                }

                // Determine handler adapter for the current request.
                HandlerAdapter ha = getHandlerAdapter(mappedHandler.getHandler());

                // Process last-modified header, if supported by the handler.
                String method = request.getMethod();
                boolean isGet = "GET".equals(method);
                if (isGet || "HEAD".equals(method)) {
                    long lastModified = ha.getLastModified(request, mappedHandler.getHandler());
                    if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                        logger.debug("Last-Modified value for [" + getRequestUri(request) + "] is: " + lastModified);
                    }
                    if (new ServletWebRequest(request, response).checkNotModified(lastModified) && isGet) {
                        return;
                    }
                }

                if (!mappedHandler.applyPreHandle(processedRequest, response)) {
                    return;
                }

                // Actually invoke the handler.
                mv = ha.handle(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler.getHandler());

                if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                    return;
                }

                applyDefaultViewName(processedRequest, mv);
                mappedHandler.applyPostHandle(processedRequest, response, mv);
            }
            catch (Exception ex) {
                dispatchException = ex;
            }
            catch (Throwable err) {
                // As of 4.3, we're processing Errors thrown from handler methods as well,
                // making them available for @ExceptionHandler methods and other scenarios.
                dispatchException = new NestedServletException("Handler dispatch failed", err);
            }
            processDispatchResult(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, mv, dispatchException);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            triggerAfterCompletion(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler, ex);
        }
        catch (Throwable err) {
            triggerAfterCompletion(processedRequest, response, mappedHandler,
                    new NestedServletException("Handler processing failed", err));
        }
        finally {
            if (asyncManager.isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
                // Instead of postHandle and afterCompletion
                if (mappedHandler != null) {
                    mappedHandler.applyAfterConcurrentHandlingStarted(processedRequest, response);
                }
            }
            else {
                // Clean up any resources used by a multipart request.
                if (multipartRequestParsed) {
                    cleanupMultipart(processedRequest);
                }
            }
        }
    }

    /**
     * Do we need view name translation?
     */
    private void applyDefaultViewName(HttpServletRequest request, ModelAndView mv) throws Exception {
        if (mv != null && !mv.hasView()) {
            mv.setViewName(getDefaultViewName(request));
        }
    }

    /**
     * Handle the result of handler selection and handler invocation, which is
     * either a ModelAndView or an Exception to be resolved to a ModelAndView.
     */
    private void processDispatchResult(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
            HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler, ModelAndView mv, Exception exception) throws Exception {

        boolean errorView = false;

        if (exception != null) {
            if (exception instanceof ModelAndViewDefiningException) {
                logger.debug("ModelAndViewDefiningException encountered", exception);
                mv = ((ModelAndViewDefiningException) exception).getModelAndView();
            }
            else {
                Object handler = (mappedHandler != null ? mappedHandler.getHandler() : null);
                mv = processHandlerException(request, response, handler, exception);
                errorView = (mv != null);
            }
        }

        // Did the handler return a view to render?
        if (mv != null && !mv.wasCleared()) {
            render(mv, request, response);
            if (errorView) {
                WebUtils.clearErrorRequestAttributes(request);
            }
        }
        else {
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Null ModelAndView returned to DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() +
                        "': assuming HandlerAdapter completed request handling");
            }
        }

        if (WebAsyncUtils.getAsyncManager(request).isConcurrentHandlingStarted()) {
            // Concurrent handling started during a forward
            return;
        }

        if (mappedHandler != null) {
            mappedHandler.triggerAfterCompletion(request, response, null);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Build a LocaleContext for the given request, exposing the request's primary locale as current locale.
     * <p>The default implementation uses the dispatcher's LocaleResolver to obtain the current locale,
     * which might change during a request.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @return the corresponding LocaleContext
     */
    @Override
    protected LocaleContext buildLocaleContext(final HttpServletRequest request) {
        if (this.localeResolver instanceof LocaleContextResolver) {
            return ((LocaleContextResolver) this.localeResolver).resolveLocaleContext(request);
        }
        else {
            return new LocaleContext() {
                @Override
                public Locale getLocale() {
                    return localeResolver.resolveLocale(request);
                }
            };
        }
    }

    /**
     * Convert the request into a multipart request, and make multipart resolver available.
     * <p>If no multipart resolver is set, simply use the existing request.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @return the processed request (multipart wrapper if necessary)
     * @see MultipartResolver#resolveMultipart
     */
    protected HttpServletRequest checkMultipart(HttpServletRequest request) throws MultipartException {
        if (this.multipartResolver != null && this.multipartResolver.isMultipart(request)) {
            if (WebUtils.getNativeRequest(request, MultipartHttpServletRequest.class) != null) {
                logger.debug("Request is already a MultipartHttpServletRequest - if not in a forward, " +
                        "this typically results from an additional MultipartFilter in web.xml");
            }
            else if (request.getAttribute(WebUtils.ERROR_EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE) instanceof MultipartException) {
                logger.debug("Multipart resolution failed for current request before - " +
                        "skipping re-resolution for undisturbed error rendering");
            }
            else {
                return this.multipartResolver.resolveMultipart(request);
            }
        }
        // If not returned before: return original request.
        return request;
    }

    /**
     * Clean up any resources used by the given multipart request (if any).
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @see MultipartResolver#cleanupMultipart
     */
    protected void cleanupMultipart(HttpServletRequest request) {
        MultipartHttpServletRequest multipartRequest =
                WebUtils.getNativeRequest(request, MultipartHttpServletRequest.class);
        if (multipartRequest != null) {
            this.multipartResolver.cleanupMultipart(multipartRequest);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return the HandlerExecutionChain for this request.
     * <p>Tries all handler mappings in order.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @return the HandlerExecutionChain, or {@code null} if no handler could be found
     */
    protected HandlerExecutionChain getHandler(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
        for (HandlerMapping hm : this.handlerMappings) {
            if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
                logger.trace(
                        "Testing handler map [" + hm + "] in DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'");
            }
            HandlerExecutionChain handler = hm.getHandler(request);
            if (handler != null) {
                return handler;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    /**
     * No handler found -> set appropriate HTTP response status.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @param response current HTTP response
     * @throws Exception if preparing the response failed
     */
    protected void noHandlerFound(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
        if (pageNotFoundLogger.isWarnEnabled()) {
            pageNotFoundLogger.warn("No mapping found for HTTP request with URI [" + getRequestUri(request) +
                    "] in DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'");
        }
        if (this.throwExceptionIfNoHandlerFound) {
            throw new NoHandlerFoundException(request.getMethod(), getRequestUri(request),
                    new ServletServerHttpRequest(request).getHeaders());
        }
        else {
            response.sendError(HttpServletResponse.SC_NOT_FOUND);
        }
    }

    /**
     * Return the HandlerAdapter for this handler object.
     * @param handler the handler object to find an adapter for
     * @throws ServletException if no HandlerAdapter can be found for the handler. This is a fatal error.
     */
    protected HandlerAdapter getHandlerAdapter(Object handler) throws ServletException {
        for (HandlerAdapter ha : this.handlerAdapters) {
            if (logger.isTraceEnabled()) {
                logger.trace("Testing handler adapter [" + ha + "]");
            }
            if (ha.supports(handler)) {
                return ha;
            }
        }
        throw new ServletException("No adapter for handler [" + handler +
                "]: The DispatcherServlet configuration needs to include a HandlerAdapter that supports this handler");
    }

    /**
     * Determine an error ModelAndView via the registered HandlerExceptionResolvers.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @param response current HTTP response
     * @param handler the executed handler, or {@code null} if none chosen at the time of the exception
     * (for example, if multipart resolution failed)
     * @param ex the exception that got thrown during handler execution
     * @return a corresponding ModelAndView to forward to
     * @throws Exception if no error ModelAndView found
     */
    protected ModelAndView processHandlerException(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
            Object handler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

        // Check registered HandlerExceptionResolvers...
        ModelAndView exMv = null;
        for (HandlerExceptionResolver handlerExceptionResolver : this.handlerExceptionResolvers) {
            exMv = handlerExceptionResolver.resolveException(request, response, handler, ex);
            if (exMv != null) {
                break;
            }
        }
        if (exMv != null) {
            if (exMv.isEmpty()) {
                request.setAttribute(EXCEPTION_ATTRIBUTE, ex);
                return null;
            }
            // We might still need view name translation for a plain error model...
            if (!exMv.hasView()) {
                exMv.setViewName(getDefaultViewName(request));
            }
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Handler execution resulted in exception - forwarding to resolved error view: " + exMv, ex);
            }
            WebUtils.exposeErrorRequestAttributes(request, ex, getServletName());
            return exMv;
        }

        throw ex;
    }

    /**
     * Render the given ModelAndView.
     * <p>This is the last stage in handling a request. It may involve resolving the view by name.
     * @param mv the ModelAndView to render
     * @param request current HTTP servlet request
     * @param response current HTTP servlet response
     * @throws ServletException if view is missing or cannot be resolved
     * @throws Exception if there's a problem rendering the view
     */
    protected void render(ModelAndView mv, HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response) throws Exception {
        // Determine locale for request and apply it to the response.
        Locale locale = this.localeResolver.resolveLocale(request);
        response.setLocale(locale);

        View view;
        if (mv.isReference()) {
            // We need to resolve the view name.
            view = resolveViewName(mv.getViewName(), mv.getModelInternal(), locale, request);
            if (view == null) {
                throw new ServletException("Could not resolve view with name '" + mv.getViewName() +
                        "' in servlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'");
            }
        }
        else {
            // No need to lookup: the ModelAndView object contains the actual View object.
            view = mv.getView();
            if (view == null) {
                throw new ServletException("ModelAndView [" + mv + "] neither contains a view name nor a " +
                        "View object in servlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'");
            }
        }

        // Delegate to the View object for rendering.
        if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
            logger.debug("Rendering view [" + view + "] in DispatcherServlet with name '" + getServletName() + "'");
        }
        try {
            if (mv.getStatus() != null) {
                response.setStatus(mv.getStatus().value());
            }
            view.render(mv.getModelInternal(), request, response);
        }
        catch (Exception ex) {
            if (logger.isDebugEnabled()) {
                logger.debug("Error rendering view [" + view + "] in DispatcherServlet with name '" +
                        getServletName() + "'", ex);
            }
            throw ex;
        }
    }

    /**
     * Translate the supplied request into a default view name.
     * @param request current HTTP servlet request
     * @return the view name (or {@code null} if no default found)
     * @throws Exception if view name translation failed
     */
    protected String getDefaultViewName(HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {
        return this.viewNameTranslator.getViewName(request);
    }

    /**
     * Resolve the given view name into a View object (to be rendered).
     * <p>The default implementations asks all ViewResolvers of this dispatcher.
     * Can be overridden for custom resolution strategies, potentially based on
     * specific model attributes or request parameters.
     * @param viewName the name of the view to resolve
     * @param model the model to be passed to the view
     * @param locale the current locale
     * @param request current HTTP servlet request
     * @return the View object, or {@code null} if none found
     * @throws Exception if the view cannot be resolved
     * (typically in case of problems creating an actual View object)
     * @see ViewResolver#resolveViewName
     */
    protected View resolveViewName(String viewName, Map<String, Object> model, Locale locale,
            HttpServletRequest request) throws Exception {

        for (ViewResolver viewResolver : this.viewResolvers) {
            View view = viewResolver.resolveViewName(viewName, locale);
            if (view != null) {
                return view;
            }
        }
        return null;
    }

    private void triggerAfterCompletion(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response,
            HandlerExecutionChain mappedHandler, Exception ex) throws Exception {

        if (mappedHandler != null) {
            mappedHandler.triggerAfterCompletion(request, response, ex);
        }
        throw ex;
    }

    /**
     * Restore the request attributes after an include.
     * @param request current HTTP request
     * @param attributesSnapshot the snapshot of the request attributes before the include
     */
    @SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private void restoreAttributesAfterInclude(HttpServletRequest request, Map<?,?> attributesSnapshot) {
        // Need to copy into separate Collection here, to avoid side effects
        // on the Enumeration when removing attributes.
        Set<String> attrsToCheck = new HashSet<String>();
        Enumeration<?> attrNames = request.getAttributeNames();
        while (attrNames.hasMoreElements()) {
            String attrName = (String) attrNames.nextElement();
            if (this.cleanupAfterInclude || attrName.startsWith("org.springframework.web.servlet")) {
                attrsToCheck.add(attrName);
            }
        }

        // Add attributes that may have been removed
        attrsToCheck.addAll((Set<String>) attributesSnapshot.keySet());

        // Iterate over the attributes to check, restoring the original value
        // or removing the attribute, respectively, if appropriate.
        for (String attrName : attrsToCheck) {
            Object attrValue = attributesSnapshot.get(attrName);
            if (attrValue == null){
                request.removeAttribute(attrName);
            }
            else if (attrValue != request.getAttribute(attrName)) {
                request.setAttribute(attrName, attrValue);
            }
        }
    }

    private static String getRequestUri(HttpServletRequest request) {
        String uri = (String) request.getAttribute(WebUtils.INCLUDE_REQUEST_URI_ATTRIBUTE);
        if (uri == null) {
            uri = request.getRequestURI();
        }
        return uri;
    }

}
View Code

继承与依赖关系如下:

修改web.xml文件注册该Servlet,修改后的web.xml文件如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<web-app xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
         xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"
         xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_3_0.xsd"
         id="WebApp_ID" version="3.0">

  <!--注册servlet-->
  <servlet>
    <!--名称 -->
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <!-- Servlet类 -->
    <servlet-class>org.springframework.web.servlet.DispatcherServlet</servlet-class>
    <init-param>
      <!--SpringMVC配置参数文件的位置 -->
      <param-name>contextConfigLocation</param-name>
      <!--这里是存放在resources目录下的springmvc-servlet.xml -->
      <param-value>classpath*:springmvc-servlet.xml</param-value>
    </init-param>
    <!-- 启动顺序,数字越小,启动越早 -->
    <load-on-startup>1</load-on-startup>
  </servlet>

  <!--所有请求都会被springmvc拦截 -->
  <servlet-mapping>
    <servlet-name>springmvc</servlet-name>
    <url-pattern>/</url-pattern>
  </servlet-mapping>

</web-app>

 

4.4、添加Spring MVC配置文件

在resource目录下添加springmvc-servlet.xml配置文件,配置的形式与Spring容器配置基本类似,为了支持基于注解的IOC,设置了自动扫描包的功能,具体配置信息如下:

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>
<beans xmlns="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans"
       xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xmlns:context="http://www.springframework.org/schema/context"
       xmlns:mvc="http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc"
       xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans
         http://www.springframework.org/schema/beans/spring-beans.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/context/spring-context-4.3.xsd
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc
        http://www.springframework.org/schema/mvc/spring-mvc-4.3.xsd">

    <!-- 自动扫描包,实现支持注解的IOC -->
    <context:component-scan base-package="com.zhangguo.springmvc01" />

    <!-- Spring MVC不处理静态资源 -->
    <mvc:default-servlet-handler />

    <!-- 支持mvc注解驱动 -->
    <!--在spring中一般采用@RequestMapping注解来完成映射关系,
    要想使@RequestMapping注解生效必须向上下文中注册DefaultAnnotationHandlerMapping和一个AnnotationMethodHandlerAdapter
    实例,这两个实例分别在类级别和方法级别处理。而annotation-driven配置帮助我们自动完成上述两个实例的注入。-->
    <mvc:annotation-driven />

    <!-- 视图解析器 -->
    <bean
            class="org.springframework.web.servlet.view.InternalResourceViewResolver"
            id="internalResourceViewResolver">
        <!-- 前缀 -->
        <property name="prefix" value="/WEB-INF/view/" />
        <!-- 后缀 -->
        <property name="suffix" value=".jsp" />
    </bean>
</beans>

 

在视图解析中我们把所有的视图都存放在/WEB-INF/目录下,这样是为了视图安全,因为这个目录客户端不能直接访问。

4.5、创建HelloWorld控制器

在src/main/java源代码目录下创建包com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller,在包下创建一个普通的类:HelloWorld,具体代码如下:

package com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

/**控制器*/
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/hello")
public class HelloController {

    /**动作,action*/
    @RequestMapping("/hi")
    public String hi(Model model){
        //向模型中添加属性msg与值,将与页面模板渲染后输出
        model.addAttribute("msg","Hello Spring MVC!");
        return "hi";
    }

}

 

注解为@Controller是为了让Spring IOC容器初始化时自动扫描到;@RequestMapping是为了映射请求路径,这里因为类与方法上都有映射所以访问时应该是/hello/hi;方法中声明Model类型的参数是为了把Action中的数据带到视图中;方法返回的结果是视图的名称hi,加上配置文件中的前后缀变成WEB-INF/view/hi.jsp。

4.6、创建视图

在WEB-INF/view目录中创建视图,hi.jsp视图将从Action中带回的信息展示,具体内容如下:

<%@ page contentType="text/html;charset=UTF-8" language="java" %>
<%@ taglib prefix="c" uri="http://java.sun.com/jsp/jstl/core" %>
<html>
<head>
    <meta http-equiv="Content-Type" content="text/html; charset=UTF-8" />
    <title>${msg}</title>
</head>
<body>
<h2>${msg}</h2>
</body>
</html>

4.7、配置TomCat部署项目

点击右上角的Edit Configurations添加对tomcat的配置:

添加对tomcat的配置,设置名称,添加Deployment

可以设置context也可以没有,类似虚拟目录

4.8、测试运行

启动Tomcat运行项目,请注意查看启动信息,如果有异常应该先解决异常信息,运行成功后的结果如下所示:

五、设置引导页

使用了spring mvc如果想直接访问控制器下的某个action为引导页,可以通过如下方式实现:

5.1、方法一

删除index.jsp默认引导文件

定义一下Home控制器,如下所示:

package com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

/**控制器*/
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/")
public class HomeController {

    /**动作,action*/
    @RequestMapping("")
    public String index(Model model){
        //向模型中添加属性msg与值,将与页面模板渲染后输出
        model.addAttribute("msg","Welcome my website!");
        return "hi";
    }

}

结果:

5.2、方法二

 修改Spring MVC配置文件,增加如下配置:

    <!--此标签用以在springMVC配置文件中实现路径的转发和资源的请求-->
    <mvc:view-controller path="/" view-name="redirect:/hello/"></mvc:view-controller>

action如下:

package com.zhangguo.springmvc01.controller;

import org.springframework.stereotype.Controller;
import org.springframework.ui.Model;
import org.springframework.web.bind.annotation.RequestMapping;

/**控制器*/
@Controller
@RequestMapping("/hello")
public class HelloController {

    /**动作,action*/
    @RequestMapping("/hi")
    public String hi(Model model){
        //向模型中添加属性msg与值,将与页面模板渲染后输出
        model.addAttribute("msg","Hello Spring MVC!");
        return "hi";
    }

    /**动作,action*/
    @RequestMapping("")
    public String index(Model model){
        //向模型中添加属性msg与值,将与页面模板渲染后输出
        model.addAttribute("msg","Index Page!");
        return "hi";
    }

}

访问结果:

注意这种方法是使用的重定向方式,需发起两次请求,尽量转发。

六、示例下载

 点击下载示例

七、视频

八、作业

posted @ 2016-07-11 08:36  张果  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏
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