红蓝对抗——蓝队手册

0x01 前言

红蓝对抗的思想最早可追溯到我国现存最早的一部兵书《孙子兵法》,在孙子·谋攻篇有这么一句话:“知彼知己,百战不殆;”,意为如果对敌我双方的情况都能了解透彻,打多少次仗都不会失败。在信息安全领域目前大家都有一个共识:“未知攻,焉知防”,攻防对抗本身是一个持续的过程,在具体的对抗中,对对手了解越多就会占据主导地位。红蓝对抗的主要目的在于,提高公司安全成熟度及其检测和响应攻击的能力。Red Teams attack, and Blue Teams defend, but the primary goal is shared between them: improve the security posture of the organization.

 

0x02  准备工作

1 ) 组织结构图

2 ) 全网拓扑图

3 ) 各系统逻辑结构图

4 ) 各系统之间的调用关系

5 ) 数据流关系

6 ) 核心资产清单

7 ) 应急响应计划

8 ) 业务连续性计划

9 ) 灾难恢复计划

 

0x03 简单安全评估

1.端口扫描和漏洞检测

1.1主机发现(Ping探测)

# nmap -sn -PE IP地址或地址段

1.2端口扫描

# nmap –open IP地址或地址段

1.3服务版本检测

# nmap -sV IP地址或地址段

1.4扫描多个端口

# nmap -p 80,443 IP地址或地址段

1.5 UDP扫描

# nmap -sU -p 53 IP地址或地址段

1.6 TCP/UDP扫描(-Pn 跳过主机发现)

# nmap -v -Pn -SU -ST -p U:53,111,137,T:21-25,80,139,8080 IP地址或地址段

1.7 Nessus扫描

# nessus -q -x -T html 服务器IP 服务器端口 管理员帐号 密码 目标.txt 输出报告.html

1.8 OPENVAS扫描

# apt -y install pcregrep

# wget https://goo.gl/TYbLwE

# chmod +x openvas-automate.sh && ./openvas-automate.sh 目标IP

2. WINDOWS系统篇

2.1 网络发现

基本网络发现:

# C:> net view /all

# C:> net view 主机名

Ping探测:

# C:> for /L %I in (1,1,254) do ping -w 30 -n 1 192.168.1.%I | find "回复" >> 输出.txt

2.2 DHCP

启用DHCP服务器日志功能:

# C:> reg add HKLMSystemCurrentControlSetServicesDhcpServerParameters /v ActivityLogFlag /t REG_DWORD /d 1

默认日志文件目录:

C:> %windir%System32Dhcp

2.3 DNS

启用DNS服务器日志功能:

# C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /logLevel 0x8100F331

# 配置日志文件目录:

C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /LogFilePath C:dns.log

# 配置日志文件大小:

C:> DNSCmd DNS服务器名 /config /logfilemaxsize 0xffffffff

2.4 哈希值

文件校验和完整性验证(FCIV):

Ref:http://support2.microsoft.com/kb/841290

# 单个文件:

C:> fciv.exe 文件名

# 计算C盘所有文件并把结果保存到文件中:

C:> fciv.exe c: -r -sha1 -xml 结果.xml

# 列出所有hash值:

C:> fciv.exe -list -sha1 -xml 结果.xml

# certutil & PowerShell

# certutil -hashfile 文件名 SHA1

# PS C:> Get-FileHash 文件名 | Format-List

# PS C:> Get-FileHash -algorithm md5 文件名

2.5 NETBIOS

nbtstat 扫描

# C:> nbtstat -A 目标IP地址

NetBIOS缓存

# C:> nbtstat -c

批量扫描

# C:> for /L %I in (1,1,254) do nbtstat -An 192.168.1.%I

2.6 微软基线安全分析器(MBSA)

扫描单个IP

# C:> mbsacli.exe /target IP地址 /n os+iis+sql+password

扫描IP地址段

# C:> mbsacli.exe /r IP地址段 /n os+iis+sql+password

3. LINUX系统篇

3.1 网络发现

查看开放的SMB共享

# smbclient -L 目标主机名

Ping探测

# for ip in ip>/dev/null; [ Misplaced &ip UP" || : ; done

3.2 DHCP

DHCP日志

RHEL/CentOS

# cat /var/lib/dhcpd/dhcpd. leases

Debian/Ubuntu

# grep -Ei 'dhcp' /var/log/syslog.1

3.3 DNS

DNS日志

# rndc querylog && tail -f /var/log/messages | grep named

3.4 哈希值

计算某目录下所有可执行文件的HASH值

# find /sbin -type f -exec md5sum {} >> md5sums.txt ;

# md5deep -rs /sbin > md5sums.txt

3.5 NETBIOS

nbtstat 扫描

# nbtscan 目标IP地址或IP地址段

举例:nbtscan 192.168.1.2-100

4. 安全加固

4.1 WINDOWS系统篇

4.1.1 禁用/停止服务

# C:> sc query

# C:> sc config "服务名" start= disabled

# C:> sc stop "服务名"

# C:> wmic service where name="服务名" call ChangeStartmode Disabled

4.1.2 防火墙管理

# 列出所有规则:

# C:> netsh advfirewall firewall show rule name=all

# 启用或禁用防火墙:

C:> netsh advfirewall set currentprofile state on

C:> netsh advfirewall set currentprofile firewallpolicy blockinboundalways,allowoutbound

C:> netsh advfirewall set publicprofile state on

C:> netsh advfirewall set privateprofile state on

C:> netsh advfirewall set domainprofile state on

C:> netsh advfirewall set allprofile state on

 

C:> netsh advfirewall set allprof ile state off

# 配置举例:

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="开放TCP:80端口" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=80

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="开放TCP:443端口" dir=in action=allow protocol=TCP localport=443

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="屏蔽TCP:445端口" dir=in action=block protocol=TCP localport=445

netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="允许MyApp" dir=in action=allow program="C:MyAppMyApp.exe" enable=yes

4.1.3 清除DNS缓存和Netios缓存

# C:> ipconfig /flushdns

# C:> nbtstat -R

4.1.4 应用控制

# AppLocker配置

# 导入Applocker模块

PS C:> import-module Applocker

# 查看system32目录下所有exe文件的Applocker信息

PS C:> Get-ApplockerFileinformation -Directory C:WindowsSystem32 -Recurse -FileType Exe

 

# 增加一条针对system32目录下所有的exe文件的允许规则

PS C:> Get-Childitem C:WindowsSystem32*,exe | Get-ApplockerFileinformation | New-ApplockerPolicy -RuleType Publisher, Hash -User Everyone -RuleNamePrefix System32

4.1.5 IPSEC

#使用预共享密钥的方式新建一条IPSEC本地安全策略,应用到所有连接和协议

C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=MyIPsecFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=ANY

C:> netsh ipsec static add filteraction name=MyIPsecAction action=negotiate

C:> netsh ipsec static add policy name=MyIPsecPolicy assign=yes

C:> netsh ipsec static add rule name=MyIPsecRule policy=MyIPsecPolicy filterlist=MyIPsecFilter filteraction=MyIPsecAction conntype=all  activate=yes psk=密码

#新建一条允许访问外网TCP 80和443端口的IPSEC策略

C:> netsh ipsec static add filteraction name=Allow action=permit

C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=WebFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=TCP dstport=80

C:> netsh ipsec static add filter filterlist=WebFilter srcaddr=Any dstaddr=Any protocol=TCP dstport=443

C:> netsh ipsec static add rule name=WebAllow policy=MyIPsecPolicy filterlist=WebFilter filteraction=Allow conntype=all activate=yes psk=密码

 

#查看和禁用某条IPSEC本地安全策略

C:> netsh ipsec static show policy name=MyIPsecPolicy

C:> netsh ipsec static set policy name=MyIPsecPolicy assign=no

# 新建一条IPSEC对应的防火墙规则,源地址和目的地址为any

C:> netsh advfirewall consec add rule name="IPSEC" endpointl=any endpoint2=any action=requireinrequireout qmsecmethods=default

# 新建一条IPSEC对应的防火墙规则,所有出站请求必须提供预共享密钥

C:> netsh advfirewall firewall add rule name="IPSEC_Out" dir=out action=allow enable=yes profile=any localip=any remoteip=any protocol=any  interfacetype=any security=authenticate

4.1.6 其他安全策略

# 禁用远程桌面连接

C:> reg add "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlTerminalServer" /f /v fDenyTSConnections /t REG_DWORD /d 1

# 只发送NTLMv2响应(防止“永恒之蓝”漏洞攻击)

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlLsa /v lmcompatibilitylevel /t REG_DWORD /d 5 /f

# 禁用IPV6

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetservicesTCPIP6Parameters /v DisabledComponents /t REG_DWORD /d 255 /f

 

# 禁用sticky键

C:> reg add "HKCUControlPanelAccessibilityStickyKeys" /v Flags /t REG_SZ /d 506 /f

# 禁用管理共享(Servers/Workstations)

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesLanmanServerParameters /f /v AutoShareServer /t REG_DWORD /d 0

C:> reg add HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetServicesLanmanServerParameters /f /v AutoShareWks /t REG_DWORD /d 0

# 禁用注册表编辑器和CMD命令提示符

C:> reg add HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem /v DisableRegistryTools /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

C:> reg add HKCUSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsSystem /v DisableCMD /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

# 启用UAC

C:> reg add HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesSystem /v EnableLUA /t REG_DWORD /d 1 /f

# 启用防火墙日志

C:> netsh firewall set logging droppedpackets = enable

C:> netsh firewall set logging connections = enable

 

4.2 LINUX系统篇

4.2.1 服务管理

# 查看服务状态

service –status-all

ps -ef OR ps -aux

initctl list

systemctl list-unit-files

# 启动,停止和禁用服务

# For Upstart services:

/etc/init.d/apache2 start | stop | status

service apache2 start | stop | status

update-rc.d apache2 disable

# For Systemd services:

systemctl start | stop | status ntp.service

systemctl disable sshd.service

4.2.2 防火墙管理

# iptables 常用操作:

iptables-save > filewall_rules.bak # 导出当前规则

iptables -vnL –line # 列出所有规则

iptables -S # 同上

iptables -P INPUT DROP # 默认策略,禁止所有连接

iptables -A INPUT -s 10.10.10.10 -j DROP # 禁止单个IP

iptables -A INPUT -s 10,10.10.0/24 -j DROP # 禁止一个网段

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport ssh -s 10.10.10.10 -j DROP # 禁止某IP访问本机SSH服务

iptables -A INPUT -p tcp –dport ssh -j DROP # 禁止访问本机SSH服务

iptables -I INPUT 5 -m limit –limit 5/min -j LOG –log-prefix "

iptables denied: " –log-level 7 # 启用日志

iptables -F # 清除所有已加载的工作

4.2.3 DNS缓存

# Unix/Linux系统没有系统级别DNS缓存

4.2.4 配置IPSEC

# 在两台服务器之间建立IPSEC通道

 1.)添加防火墙规则允许IPSEC协议

iptables -A INPUT -p esp -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p ah -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p udp –dport 500 -j ACCEPT

iptables -A INPUT -p udp –dport 4500 -j ACCEPT

2.)安装Racoon

 

apt -y install racoon

3.)编辑配置文件:/etc/ipsec-tools.conf

flush;

spdflush;

spdadd 主机A的IP地址 主机B的IP地址 any -P out ipsec

 esp/transport//require;

spdadd 主机B的IP地址 主机A的IP地址 any -P in ipsec

 esp/transport//require;

4.)编辑配置文件:/etc/racoon/racoon.conf

log notify;

path pre_shared_key "/etc/racoon/psk.txt";

path certificate "/etc/racoon/certs";

remote anonymous {

 exchange_mode main,aggressive;proposal {    encryption_algorithm aes_256;    hash_algorithm sha256;    authentication_method

pre_shared_key;

 

     dh_group modp1024;

}

 

 generate_policy off;

}

 

sainfo anonymous{

 

 pfs_group 2;encryption_algorithm aes_256;authentication_algorithm hmac_sha256;compression_algorithm deflate;

}  

5.)添加预共享密钥

主机A:echo 主机B 123 >> /etc/racoon/psk.txt

主机B:echo 主机A 123 >> /etc/racoon/psk.txt

6.)重启服务,检查协商及配置策略

service setkey restart

setkey -D

setkey -DP

5. 检测(Visibility)

5.1  网络安全监控

5.1.1 数据包捕捉与分析

1.)TCPDUMP

tcpdump -tttt -n -vv # 打印时戳、不进行名称解析及verbose方式显示

tcpdump -nn -c 1000 | awk '{print $3}' | cut -d. -f1-4 | sort -n | uniq -c | sort -nr # 捕捉1000个数据包,找出Top talkers

 

tcpdump -w target.pcap -i any dst targetIP and port 80 # 在所有接口上捕捉目标IP为:targetIP且端口为80的数据包并写入target.pcap文件

tcpdump host 10.0.0.1 && host 10.0.0.2 # 捕捉两个主机之间的数据包

tcpdump not net 10.10 && not host 192.168.1.2 #检视非10.10网段及非192.168.1.2主机的数据包

tcpdump host 10.10.10.10 && (10.10.10.20 or 10.10.10.30) # 检视主机A和主机B或C的数据包

tcpdump -n -s0 -C 100 -w 001.pcap # 轮询,文件大小超过100M后自动创建新文件

tcpdump -w – | ssh ServerIP -p 50005 "cat – > /tmp/remotecapture.pcap" # 保存捕获的数据包到远程服务器上的/tmp/remotecapture.pcap文件

tcpdump -n -A -s0 port http or port ftp or port smtp or port imap or port pop3 | egrep -i 'pass=|pwd=|log=|login=|user=|username=|pw=|passw=|Passwd=|password=|pass:|user:|username:|password:|login:|pass|user' –color=auto –line-buffered -B20 # 抓取明文密码

tcpdump -s 1500 -A '(tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2)+5:1] = 0x01) and (tcp[((tcp[12:1] & 0xf0) >> 2):1] =  0x16)' #查找自签名证书

2.)TSHARK

tshark -nr 001.pcap -Y "ssl.handshake.ciphersuites" -Vx | grep "ServerName:" | sort | uniq -c | sort -r # 提取证书Server Name字段

 

tshark -D # 列出所有接口

tshark -i eth0 -i eth1 # 监听多个接口

tshark -nn -w 001.pcap # 禁用名称解析并保存到文件

tshark arp or icmp # 捕捉arp或者icmp

tshark "host 主机A && host 主机B" # 捕捉两个主机之间的数据包

tshark -r 001.pcap # 对已保存的数据包进行分析

tshark -n -e ip.src -e ip.dst -T fields -E separator=, -2 -R ip -r 001.pcap # 提取源/目的IP地址

tshark -n -e ip.src -e dns,qry.name -E separator=';' -T fields port 53 # 提取DNS查询的源IP及DNS查询的域名

tshark -2 -R http.request -T fields -E separator=';' -e http.host -e http.request.uri -r 001.pcap # 提取HTTP请求中的host参数和请求uri

tshark -n -c 150 I awk '{print $4}' I sort -n | uniq -c | sort -nr # 提取top talkers

tshark -q -z io,phs -r 001.pcap # 协议统计tshark -n -c 100 -e ip.src -Y "dns.flags.response eq 1" -T fields port 53 # 提取响应的DNS服务器地址

tshark -n -e http.request.uri -Y http.request -T fields | grep exe # 提取通过http下载exe可执行文件的数据包

3.)SNORT

snort -T -c /etc/snort/snort.conf # 测试配置文件配置

snort -dv -r 001.log # 分析数据包

snort -dvr 001.log icmp # 取icmp数据包

 

snort -K ascii -l 001 # 抓包,ASCII格式显示

snort -q -A console -i eth0 -c /etc/snort/snort.conf # 在终端打印

snort eventsecho 'log tcp 192.168.1.0/24 any -> 192.168.1.95 22 ( msg: "ssh access" ; sid:1618008; )' > 001.rule && snort -T -c 001.rule # 规则测试

mkdir logs && snort -vd -c 001.rule -r 001.pcap -A console -l logs # 执行规则

4.)Bro NSM

apt -y install bro bro-aux

pip install bro-pkg

bro-pkg install bro/hosom/file-extraction

wget https://www.malware-traffic-analysis.net/2018/01/12/2018-01-12-NanoCore-RAT-traffic.pcap.zip

wget https://www.bro.org/static/exchange-2013/faf-exercise.pcap

bro -r 2018-01-12-NanoCore-RAT-traffic.pcap # 从pcap文件中读取数据并创建相关日志文件

bro -r faf-exercise.pcap /root/.bro-pkg/scratch/file-extraction/scripts/plugins/extract-pe.bro && ls -lhct ./extract_files/ # 提取exe文件

bro -r faf-exercise.pcap /usr/share/bro/policy/frameworks/files/extract-all-files.bro # 提取多个类型的文件

bro -C -r faf-exercise.pcap && cat ssl.log | bro-cut server_name , subject , issuer # 提取证书中的server_name,issuer和subjects字段

 

cat conn.log | bro-cut id.orig_h , id.orig_p , id.resp_h , id.resp_p , proto , conn_state # 提取源IP,源端口,目的IP,目的端口,协议类型,tcp标记

cat dns.log | bro-cut query | sort -u # 提取DNS查询namecat http.log | bro-cut id.orig_h , id.orig_p , id.resp_h , id.resp_p , host , uri , referrer # 提取源IP,源端口,目的IP,目的端口,host,uri,referrer字段

 

cat http.log | bro-cut user_agent | sort -u # 提取user_agent字段

5.)EDITCAP

editcap -F pcap -c 1000 orignal.pcap out_split.pcap # 以1000为单位进行分割

editcap -F pcap -t+3600 orignal.pcap out_split.pcap # 以1小时为单位进行分割

6.)MERGECAP

mergecap -w merged_cap.pcap capl.pcap cap2.pcap cap3.pcap # 合并多个文件

7.)PacketTotal

https://www.packettotal.com/app/analysis?id=c8c11b792272ac19a49299a3687466be&name=files

8.)NetworkMiner

http://netres.ec/?b=173588E

5.2  蜜罐技术

5.2.1 WINDOWS系统篇

 

1.)端口蜜罐

# 原理:监听一些端口,客户端成功建立TCP连接后,记录访问日志,然后添加防火墙规则封禁此IP

PS C:> certutil.exe -urlcache -split -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Pwdrkeg/honeyport/master/honeyport.ps1

PS C:> .honeyport.ps1 -Ports 4444,22,21,23 -WhiteList 192.168.10.1,192.168.10.2 -Block $true -Verbose

PS C:> Get-EventLog HoneyPort # 查看日志信息

PS C:> stop-job -name HoneyPort # 停止任务

PS C:> remove-job -name HoneyPort # 移除任务

5.3.2 LINUX系统篇

1.)端口蜜罐

# 原理同上

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/gchetrick/honeyports/master/honeyports-0.5.pypython honeyports-0.5.py -p 1234 -h 192.168.1.100 -D

2.) (PASSIVE)监控DNS解析

apt -y install dnstop

dnstop -l 3 eth0

dnstop -l 3 001.pcap | out.txt

 

5.3 日志审计

5.3.1 WINDOWS

# 增加日志文件大小进行日志审计

C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventlogApplication /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x19000

C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventlogSecurity /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x64000

C:> reg add HKLMSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsEventLogSystem /v MaxSize /t REG_DWORD /d 0x19000

# 查看Windows事件日志-安全日志的配置

C:> wevtutil gl Security

# 检查审核策略

auditpol /get /category:*

# 对所有项启用成功和失败的审核策略

C:> auditpol /set /category:* /success:enable /failure:enable

# 查看已配置的事件日志的概要信息

PS C:> Get-Eventlog -list

# 取最近5条应用程序日志

PS C:> Get-Eventlog -newest 5 -logname application | Format-List

# 取Eent ID:4672的所有日志

PS C:> Get-Eventlog Security | ? { $_.Eventid -eq 4672}

 

# 登录与注销事件

PS C:> Get-Eventlog Security

4625,4634,4647,4624,4625,4648,4675,6272,6273,6274,6275,6276,6277,6278,6279,6280,4649,4778,4779,4800,4801,4802,4803,5378,5632,5633,4964 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1))

# DPAPI行为,进程终止,RPC事件

PS C:> Get-EventLog Security 4692,4693,4694,4695,4689,5712 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1)

# 文件共享,文件系统,SAM,注册表,证书时间

PS C: Get-EventLog Security

4671,4691,4698,4699,4700,4701,4702,5148,5149,5888,5889,5890,4657,5039,4659,4660,4661,4663,4656,4658,4690,4874,4875,4880,4881,4882,4884,4885,4888,4890,4891,4892,4895,4896,4898,5145,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,5140,5142,5143,5144,5168,4664,4985,5152,5153,5031,5140,5150,5151,5154,5155,5156,5157,5158,5159 -after ((get-date).addDays(-1))

# 查看Eent ID:4672的详细信息

Get-Eventlog Security | ? { $_.Eventid -eq 4672} | Format-List

5.3.2 LINUX

# 认证日志

tail /var/log/auth. log

 

grep -i "fail" /var/log/auth. log

tail /var/log/secure

grep -i "fail" /var/log/secure

# samba,cron,sudo相关日志

grep -i samba /var/log/syslog

grep -i samba /var/log/messages

grep -i cron /var/log/syslog

grep -i sudo /var/log/auth. log

grep -i sudo /var/log/secure

# Apache 404错误日志

grep 404 apache.log | grep -v -E "favicon.ico|robots.txt"

# 监控新文件,5分钟刷新一次

watch -n 300 -d ls -lR /web_root

5.4 响应(取证)

5.4.1  WINDOWS系统篇

1.)系统信息

C:> echo %DATE% %TIME%

C:> hostname

C:> systeminfo

C:> systeminfo | findstr /B /C:"OS Name" /C:"OS Version"

C:> wmic csproduct get name

C:> wmic bios get serialnumber

C:> wmic computersystem list brief

C:> psinfo -accepteula -s -h -d

2.)用户信息

C:> whoamiC:> net users

C:> net localgroup administrators

C:> net group administrators

C:> wmic rdtoggle list

C:> wmic useraccount list

C:> wmic group list

C:> wmic netlogin get name,lastlogon,badpasswordcount

C:> wmic netclient list brief

C:> doskey /history > history.txt

3.)网络信息

C:> netstat -e

C:> netstat -naob

C:> netstat -nr

C:> netstat -vb

C:> nbtstat -s

C:> route print

C:> arp -a

C:> ipconfig /displaydns

C:> netsh winhttp show proxy

C:> ipconfig /allcompartments /all

C:> netsh wlan show interfaces

C:> netsh wlan show all

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionInternet SettingsConnectionsWinHttpSettings"

C:> type %SYSTEMROOT%system32driversetchosts

C:> wmic nicconfig get descriptions,IPaddress,MACaddress

C:> wmic netuse get name,username,connectiontype, localname

4.)服务信息

C:> at

C:> tasklist

C:> tasklist /svc

C:> tasklist /SVC /fi "imagename eq svchost.exe"

C:> tasklist /SVC /fi "imagename eq svchost.exe"

C:> schtasks

C:> net start

C:> sc query

C:> wmic service list brief | findstr "Running"

C:> wmic service list conf ig

 

C:> wmic process list brief

C:> wmic process list status

C:> wmic process list memory

C:> wmic job list briefPS

C:> Get-Service | Where-Object { $_.Status -eq "running" }

5.)策略、补丁、环境变量信息

C:> set

C:> gpresult /r

C:> gpresult /z > output.txt

C:> gpresult /H report.html /F

C:> wmic qfe

6.)自启动信息

C:> wmic startup list full

C:> wmic ntdomain list brief

6.1)检查自启动文件目录

C:> dir "%SystemDrive%ProgramDataMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir "%SystemDrive%Documents and SettingsAll UsersStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir %userprofile%Start MenuProgramsStartup

C:> %ProgramFiles%Startup

C:> dir C:WindowsStart MenuProgramsstartup

C:> dir "C:Users%username%AppDataRoamingMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir "C:ProgramDataMicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir "%APPDATA%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir "%ALLUSERSPROFILE%MicrosoftWindowsStart MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> dir "%ALLUSERSPROFILE%Start MenuProgramsStartup"

C:> type C:Windowswinstart.bat

C:> type %windir%wininit.ini

C:> type %windir%win.ini

C:> type C:Autoexec.bat"

6.2)使用autoruns

C:> autorunsc -accepteula -m

6.3)自启动注册表位置

HKEY_CLASSES_ROOT:

C:> reg query HKCRComfileShellOpenCommand

C:> reg query HKCRBatfileShellOpenCommand

C:> reg query HKCRhtafileShellOpenCommand

C:> reg query HKCRExefileShellOpenCommand

C:> reg query HKCRExefilesShellOpenCommand

C:> reg query HKCRpiffileshellopencommand

HKEY_CURRENT_USERS:

C:> reg query "HKCUControl PanelDesktop"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunonce"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunOnceEx"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServices"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServicesOnce"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsRun"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsLoad"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWindowsScripts"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f run

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f load

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerRecentDocs"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComDlg32LastVisitedMRU"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComD1g32OpenSaveMRU"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComDlg32LastVisitedPidlMRU"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerComD1g32OpenSavePidlMRU" /s

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerRunMRU"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerShell Folders"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerUser Shell Folders"

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionAppletsRegEdit" /v LastKey

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwareMicrosoftInternetExplorer" TypedURLs

C:> reg query "HKCUSoftwarePoliciesMicrosoftWindowsControlPanelDesktop"HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE:

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftActive SetupInstalled Components" /s

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerUser Shell Folders"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerShell Folders"

C:> reg query "HKLMSoftwareMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionexplorerShellExecuteHooks"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerBrowser Helper Objects" /s

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionPoliciesExplorerRun"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRun"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunonce"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunOnceEx"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServices"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionRunServicesOnce"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionWinlogonUserinit"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionshellServiceObjectDelayLoad"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionScheduleTaskCacheTasks" /s

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWindows" /f Appinit_DLLs

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMicrosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWinlogon" /f Shell

 

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREMic rosoftWindowsNTCurrentVersionWinlogon" /f Userinit

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREPoliciesMicrosoftWindowsSysternScripts"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassesbatfileshellopencornrnand"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassescornfileshellopencornrnand"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassesexefileshellopencommand"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClasseshtafileShellOpenCommand"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREClassespiffileshellopencommand"

C:> reg query "HKLMSOFTWAREWow6432NodeMicrosoftWindowsCurrentVersionExplorerBrowser Helper Objects" /s

C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSessionManager"

C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMCurrentControlSetControlSessionManagerKnownDLLs"

C:> reg query "HKLMSYSTEMControlSet001ControlSessionManagerKnownDLLs"

7.)取日志文件

C:> wevtutil epl Security C:bakSecurity-logs.evtx

C:> wevtutil epl System C:bakSystem-logs.evtx

C:> wevtutil epl Application C:bakApplication-logs.evtx

 

8.)文件、目录、共享信息

C:> net use 目标IP

C:> net share

C:> net session

C:> wmic volume list brief

C:> wmic logicaldisk get description,filesystem,name,size

C:> wmic share get name,path

# 查找多个类型的文件或某个文件

C:> dir /A /S /T:A *.exe *.dll *.bat *.PS1 *.zip

C:> dir /A /S /T:A evil.exe

# 查找2017/1/1之后创建的文件

C:> forfiles /p C: /M *.exe /S /D +2017/1/1 /C "cmd /c echo @fdate @ftime @path"

C:> for %G in (.exe, .dll, .bat, .ps) do forfiles -p "C:" -m *%G -s -d +2017/1/1 -c "cmd /c echo @fdate @ftime @path"

# 查找文件大小>20MB的文件

forfiles /S /M * /C "cmd /c if @fsize GEQ 2097152 echo @path @fsize"

# 在Alternate Data Streams中查找文件

C:> streams -s 文件或目录

# 检查数字签名,vt扫描

C:> sigcheck -e -u -vr -s C:

C:> listdlls.exe -u# 扫描病毒

C:> "C:Program FilesWindows DefenderMpCmdRun.exe" -SignatureUpdate

C:> "C:Program FilesWindows DefenderMpCmdRun.exe" -Scan“

5.4.2 LINUX篇

1.)系统信息

uname -a

uptime

timedatectl

mount

2.)用户信息

Wlastlog  last

faillog -a

cat /etc/passwd

cat /etc/shadow

cat /etc/group

cat /etc/sudoers

# 查找UID为0的用户

awk -F:  '($3 == "0") {print}' /etc/passwd

egrep ':0+' /etc/passwd

cat /root/.ssh/authorized_keys

lsof -u root

 

cat /root/.bash_history

3.)网络信息

# 查看网络接口

ifconfig OR ip a l

# 查看监听端口

netstat -tupnl

# 查看网络连接

netstat -tupnlanetstat -tupnlax

# 路由信息

route OR netstat -r OR ip r l

# ARP表

arp -ne

# 监听端口的进程

lsof -i

4.)服务信息

# 列出所有进程

ps aux OR ps -ef

# 已加载内核模块

lsmod

# 打开的文件

lsof

 

lsof -c sshd

lsof -p PID

lsof -nPi | cut -f1  -d" " | uniq | tail -n +2

# 监控日志

less +F /var/log/messages

tail -F /var/log/messages

journalctl -u ssh.service -f

# 列出所有服务

chkconfig –list

systemctl list-units

5.)策略、补丁、环境变量信息

# 检查pam.d目录相关文件

cat /etc/pam.d/common*

 # 自启动信息 – 计划任务

crontab -l

crontab -u root -l

cat /etc/crontab

ls /etc/cron,*

6.)命令历史

cat /root/.*history

7.)文件、目录、共享信息

df -ah

ls -lhcta /etc/init.d/

stat -x filenamefile

filename

# 特殊属性文件

lsattr -R / | grep "-i-"

# 全局可写文件

find / -xdev -type d ( -perm -0002 -a ! -perm -1000 ) -print

# 某时间点之后新建的文件

find / -newermt 2018-01-22q

# 打印文件的所有属性信息

find /labs -printf "%m;%Ax;%AT;%Tx;%TT;%Cx;%CT;%U;%G;%s;%pn"

# 查看文件的元数据stat 文件名

8.) 简单基线检查

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/pentestmonkey/unix-privesc-check/1_x/unix-privesc-check && ./unix-privesc-check > output.txt

9.) 检测rootkit

chkrootkit

rkhunter –update && rkhunter -check

tiger && less /var/log/tiger/security.report.*

lynis && lynis audit system && more /var/logs/lynis. log

 

10.) Fastir Collector Linux,收集artefacts,包括:内核版本、内核模块、网卡、系统版本、主机名、登录、网络连接、SSH know_host、日志文件、进程数据、自启动等信息

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/SekoiaLab/Fastir_Collector_Linux/master/fastIR_collector_linux.py

python fastIR_collector_linux.py –debug –output_dir output

11.) Sysdig and Sysdig Falco 行为监控

# 观察root用户查看过的目录

sysdig -p"%evt.arg.path" "evt.type=chdir and user.name=root"

# 观察SSHD行为

sysdig -A -c echo_fds fd.name=/dev/ptmx and proc.name=sshd

# id为5459的登录shell执行过的所有命令

sysdig -r trace.scap.gz -c spy_users proc.loginshellid=5459

# 安装,启动falco

curl -s https://s3.amazonaws.com/download.draios.com/DRAIOS-GPG-KEY.public | apt-key add -curl -s -o /etc/apt/sources.list.d/draios.list http://download.draios.com/stable/deb/draios.list

sudo apt update

apt -y install falco

modprobe sysdig-probe

service falco start

 

falco

5.4.2 病毒样本分析

 

# 静态分析

# 挂载Sysinternals工具集

live.sysinternals.comtools

# 检查数字签名

C:> sigcheck.exe -u -e C:malware

C:> sigcheck.exe -vt malware.exe

# 16机制和ASCII方式查看PE文件

hexdump -C -n 500 malware.exe

od -x mailware.exe

xxd malware.exe

strings -a malware.exe | more

# 内存镜像分析

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 malfind -D /output

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 malfind -p PID -D /output

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 pslist

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 pstree

 

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 dlllist

python vol.py -f malware_memory_dump.raw -profile=Win7SPFix64 dlldump -D /output

# HASH分析

curl -v –request POST –url https://www.virustotal.com/vtapi/v2/file/report' -d apikey=VT API KEY -d 'resource=样本文件hash'

curl -v -F 'file=malware.exe' -F apikey=VT API KEY>https://www.virustotal.com/vtapi/v2/file/scanwhois -h hash,cymru.com 样本文件hash

# 获取磁盘和内存镜像

# WINDOWS

C:> psexec.exe IP -u <DOMAIN>administrator -p 123 -c mdd_l.3.exe –o C:memory.dmp

C:> dc3dd.exe if=.c: of=d:diskiamge.dd hash=md5 log=d:output.log

# LINUX

dd if=/dev/fmem of=/tmp/mem_dump.dd

# 使用LiME

get https://github.com/504ensicslabs/LiME/archive/master.zip

unzip master.zip

cd LiME-master/src

 

make

cp lime-*.ko /media/USB/

insmod lime-3.13.0-79-generic.ko "path=/media/USB/mem_dump.lime format= raw"

# 从内存中拷贝PE文件

cp /proc/进程ID/exe /output

# 创建进程core dump

gcore 进程ID

strings -a gcore.* | more

dd if=/dev/sda of=/root/sda.dd

dd if=/dev/sda | ssh root@RemoteIP "dd of=/root/sda.dd"

# 通过netcat传送接收镜像文件

bzip2 -c /dev/sda | nc 8.8.8.8 53

nc -p 53 -l | bzip2 -d | dd of=/root/sda.dd

6. 常用技巧和工具

6.1  技巧

6.1.1 WINDOWS系统篇

# 将命令结果通过管道输出到粘帖板,然后将粘帖板的内容重定向到文件

C:> some_command.exe | clip

PS C:> Get-Clipboard > clip.txt

 

# 检查注册表某路径是否存在

PS C:> Test-Path "HKCU:SoftwareMicrosoft123"

# 可靠文件复制

robocopy c:src 目标计算机dst /E

# 检查某目录是否存在ps1,vbs扩展的文件

PS C:> Test-Path C:ScriptsArchive* -include *.ps1, *.vbs

# 合并多个文件

C:> type 1.txt 2.txt > output.txt

# 多个桌面窗口(Desktops)

C:>"%ProgramFiles%Internet Exploreriexplore.exe" https://live.sysinternals.com/desktops.exe

# 在远程计算机执行命令

C:> psexec.exe 远程计算机 -u admin -p 123 /c c:123.exe

PS C:> Invoke-Command -远程计算机 { ls }

# 比较两个文件的差异

PS C:> Compare-Object (-Content 1.log) -DifferenceObject (Get-Content 2.log)

# 进制转换与编码

C:> set /a 0xff

PS C:> 0xff

C:> certutil -decode BASE64编码文件 output.file

# 解码XOR,搜索关键字:http

 

C:> xorsearch.exe -i -s input.file http

6.1.2 LINUX系统篇

1.)SNORT

# 通过ssh在远程服务器上抓包

ssh root@8.8.8.8 tcpdump -i any -U -s 0 -w – 'not port 22'

# SNORT规则检测Meterpreter

# Snort rules by Didier Stevens (http://DidierStevens.com)

alert tcp HOME_NET any -> EXTERNAL_NET HTTP_PORTS (msg:"Metasploit Meterpreter"; flow:to_server,established; content:"RECV"; http_client_body; depth:4; fast_pattern; isdataat:!0,relative; urilen:23<>24,norm; content:"POST"; pcre:"/^/[a-z0-9]{4,5}_[a-z0-9]{16}//Ui"; classtype:trojan-activity; reference:url,blog.didierstevens.com/2015/05/11/detecting-network-traffic-from-metasploits-meterpreter-reverse-http-module/; sid:1618008; rev:1;)

https://didierstevens.com/files/software/snort-rules-V0_0_1.zip

# SNORT规则检测PSEXEC

alert tcp HOME_NET any -> HOME_NET [139,445] (msg:"POLICY-OTHER use of psexec remote administration tool"; flow:to_server,established; content:"|FF|SMB|A2|"; depth:5; offset:4; content:"|5C 00|p|00|s|00|e|00|x|00|e|00|c|00|s|00|v|00|c"; nocase; metadata:service netbios-ssn; reference:url,technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx; classtype:policy-violation; sid:24008; rev:1;)

 

alert tcp HOME_NET any -> HOME_NET [139,445] (msg:"POLICY-OTHER use of psexec remote administration tool SMBv2"; flow:to_server,established; content:"|FE|SMB"; depth:8; nocase; content:"|05 00|"; within:2; distance:8; content:"P|00|S||E|00|X|00|E|00|S|00|V|00|C|00|"; fast_pattern:only; metadata:service netbios-ssn; reference:url,technet.microsoft.com/en-us/sysinternals/bb897553.aspx; classtype:policy-violation; sid:30281; rev:1;)

2. )  Bro NSM

# 检测横向渗透

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/richiercyrus/Bro-Scripts/master/detect-mal-smb-files.bro

bro -r faf-exercise.pcap detect-mal-smb-files.bro

less notice.log

# 检测勒索软件

wget https://raw.githubusercontent.com/fox-it/bro-scripts/master/smb-ransomware/smb-ransomware.bro

bro -r faf-exercise.pcap smb-ransomware.bro

3.) 检测DOS/DDOS

 

# 检测攻击类型SYN Flood,ICMP Flood,UDP Flood

tshark -r 001.pcap -q -z io,phs

tshark -c 1000 – -z io,phs

tcpdump -tnr $ | awk -F '.' '{print $1"."$2"."$3"."$4}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n | tail

tcpdump -qnn "tcp[tcpflags] & (tcp-syn) != 0"

netstat -s

tcpdump -nn not arp and not icmp and not udp

netstat -n | awk '{print $6}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr | head

# 应用层

tshark -c 10000 -T fields -e http.host | sort | uniq -c | sort -r | head -n 10

tshark -r capture6 -T fields -e http.request.full_uri | sort | uniq -c | sort -r | head -n 10c

tcpdump -n 'tcp[32:4] = 0x47455420' | cut -f 7- -d":"

# 查找http请求中包含:GIF,ZIP,JPEG,PDF,PNG扩展的数据包

tshark -Y "http contains "ff:d8"" || "http contains "GIF89a"" || "http contains "x50x4Bx03x04"" || "http contains "xffxd8"" || "http contains "%PDF"" || "http contains "x89x50x4Ex47""

取'user-agent'和refer字段

tcpdump -c 1000 -Ann I grep -Ei 'user-agent' | sort | uniq -c | sort -nr | head -1

tcpdump -i en0 -A -s 500 | grep -i refer

 

# 第二层攻击

 

tcpdump 'arp or icmp'

 

tcpdump -tnr 001.pcap ARP | awk -F '.' '{print 1"."2"."3"."4}' | sort | uniq -c | sort -n | tail

tshark -r 001.pcap -q -z io,phs | grep arp.duplicate-address-detected

 

6.2  兵器谱

1.)KALI 渗透测试发行版

https://www.kali.org

2.)SIFT SANS 取证工具箱

http://sift.readthedocs.org/

3.)REMNUX 软件逆向和病毒分析发行版

https://remnux.org

4.) OPENVAS

http://www.openvas.org

5.) Security Onion 入侵检测、网络安全监控、日志分析发行版

https://securityonion.net

6.)OSSEC 开源主机入侵检测系统

http://ossec.github.io

 

0x4  参考

  https://www.4hou.com/technology/10173.html

   https://github.com/fu4ck/btfm

 

posted @ 2019-06-06 14:54 渗透测试中心 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏