Hi_Amos
坚持每天都在进步!!

本文将要介绍的内容都是Java5中的新特性,一个是倒计时记数器---CountDownLatch,另一个是用于线程间数据交换的Exchanger.

一.CountDownLatch

1.什么是CountDownLatch? 

倒计时计数器,调用CountDownLatch对象的CountDown()方法就将计数器减一,当计数到达0时,则所有等待者或者全部等待者开始执行.

2.如何用?

new CountDownLatch(1);

直接new,其构造函数必须传一个int类型的参数,参数的意思是:

count the number of times countDown must be invoked before threads can pass through await

大致可理解成,有一个门,有N个门闩,要想打开门必须把所有门闩都打开,对应到线程上是说在线程通过等待前必须要执行的倒计时操作.

3.举例

package com.amos.concurrent;

import java.util.Random;
import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

/** 
* @ClassName: Count_Down_Latch_Test 
* @Description: 倒计时学习
* @author: amosli
* @email:hi_amos@outlook.com
* @date Apr 27, 2014 11:51:43 PM  
*/
public class Count_Down_Latch_Test {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        ExecutorService executorService = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        final CountDownLatch countdownOrder = new CountDownLatch(1);// an order
        final CountDownLatch countdownAnwser = new CountDownLatch(3);// anwser
        for (int i = 0; i < 3; i++) {
            Runnable runnable = new Runnable() {
                public void run() {
                    try {
                        countdownOrder.await();
                        System.out.println("线程" + Thread.currentThread().getName() + " 正准备接受命令");
                        System.out.println("线程"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 已经接受命令!");
                        Thread.sleep(new Random().nextInt(1000));
                        System.out.println("线程"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 回应处理结果!");
                        countdownAnwser.countDown();
                    } catch (Exception e) {
                        e.printStackTrace();
                    }
                }
            };
            executorService.execute(runnable);//启动线程池
        }
               
        
        try {
            Thread.sleep(new Random().nextInt(1000));
            System.out.println("线程"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 即将下达命令!!");
            countdownOrder.countDown();
            System.out.println("线程"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 已经下达命令,正在等待返回结果!");
            countdownAnwser.await();
            System.out.println("线程"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 已经收到所有处理结果!");

        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
      }
}

1).效果如下图所示:

2)程序说明

首先是创建了一个可缓存的线程池--->接着,创建两个CountDownLatch类,一个赋值为1,一个赋值为3;----->然后,执行一个for循环,在循环中,首先是实现了一个Runnable接口,然后,将Runnable接口加入到线程池中; 其中Runnable接口,首先是等待计数器为0,然后如果为0那么将计数器2的值减一,每循环一次减一,当第三次循环时,线程执行完毕;----->在Runnable接口中等待计数器为0,整个程序无法向下走,这时main方法,即主线程执行CountDown方法,计数器减一-------->最后等待所有的线程都执行完毕,返回最终的结果.

4.扩展--官方例子

package com.amos.concurrent;

import java.util.concurrent.CountDownLatch;

public class CountDownLatchTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        try {
            new CountDownLatchTest().new Driver().main();
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
    class Driver { // ...
        void main() throws InterruptedException {
            CountDownLatch startSignal = new CountDownLatch(1);
            CountDownLatch doneSignal = new CountDownLatch(3);

            for (int i = 0; i < 3; ++i)
                // create and start threads
            new Thread(new worker(startSignal, doneSignal)).start();
            dosomethingelse(); // don't let run yet
            startSignal.countDown(); // let all threads proceed
            dosomethingelse();
            doneSignal.await(); // wait for all to finish
        }

        private void dosomethingelse() {
            System.out.println("dosomethingelse...");
        }
    }

    class worker implements Runnable {
        private final CountDownLatch startsignal;
        private final CountDownLatch donesignal;

        worker(CountDownLatch startsignal, CountDownLatch donesignal) {
            this.startsignal = startsignal;
            this.donesignal = donesignal;
        }

        public void run() {
            try {
                startsignal.await();
                dowork();
                donesignal.countDown();
            } catch (Exception ex) {
            } // return;
        }

        void dowork() {
            System.out.println("dowork....");
        }
    }

}
View Code

跟上面例子差不多,首先都是设置一个等待,然后再调用计数器减一,执行最后的操作.

CountDownLatch很适用于跑步比赛,当发令枪一声令下,所有选手开始跑起来.

 

二.Exchanger

1.什么是Exchange?作用是什么?

用于实现两人之间的数据交换,每个人在完成一定的事务后想与对方交换数据;只有两人见面才会有交换.就像是情人间的约会,不见不散.

2.如何使用?

new Exchanger<V>();

这里用到了泛型,即可以指定任意格式的数据,基本类型,对象等等都可以.

这里要注意的是线程要成对出现才能进行数据交换.用来交换的方法为exchange(x); 

Parameters:
x the object to exchange

参数为要进行交换给对方的数据.

3.举例:

package com.amos.concurrent;

import java.util.Random;
import java.util.concurrent.Exchanger;
import java.util.concurrent.ExecutorService;
import java.util.concurrent.Executors;

/** 
* @ClassName: ExchangerTest 
* @Description: 线程间的数据交换Exchanger
* @author: amosli
* @email:hi_amos@outlook.com
* @date Apr 28, 2014 12:26:48 AM  
*/
public class ExchangerTest {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        final Exchanger<String> exchanger = new Exchanger<String>();
    
        ExecutorService newCachedThreadPool = Executors.newCachedThreadPool();
        
        //线程一
        newCachedThreadPool.execute(new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                try {
                    String data1="111";
                    System.out.println("线程:"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 要换出去的数据为:"+data1);
                    Thread.sleep(new Random().nextInt(1000));
                    String exchange = exchanger.exchange(data1);
                    System.out.println("线程:"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 换回来的数据为:"+exchange);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                
            }
        });
        
        //线程二
        newCachedThreadPool.execute(new Runnable() {
            public void run() {
                try {
                    String data1="hi_amos";
                    System.out.println("线程:"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 要换出去的数据为:"+data1);
                    Thread.sleep(new Random().nextInt(1000));
                    String exchange = exchanger.exchange(data1);
                    System.out.println("线程:"+Thread.currentThread().getName()+" 换回来的数据为:"+exchange);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
                
            }
        });
    }
}

这里只需要注意使用exchange()方法即可.

效果:

4.扩展---官方例子

class FillAndEmpty {
   Exchanger exchanger = new Exchanger();
   DataBuffer initialEmptyBuffer = ... a made-up type
   DataBuffer initialFullBuffer = ...

   class FillingLoop implements Runnable {
     public void run() {
       DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialEmptyBuffer;
       try {
         while (currentBuffer != null) {
           addToBuffer(currentBuffer);
           if (currentBuffer.isFull())
             currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
         }
       } catch (InterruptedException ex) { ... handle ... }
     }
   }

   class EmptyingLoop implements Runnable {
     public void run() {
       DataBuffer currentBuffer = initialFullBuffer;
       try {
         while (currentBuffer != null) {
           takeFromBuffer(currentBuffer);
           if (currentBuffer.isEmpty())
             currentBuffer = exchanger.exchange(currentBuffer);
         }
       } catch (InterruptedException ex) { ... handle ...}
     }
   }

   void start() {
     new Thread(new FillingLoop()).start();
     new Thread(new EmptyingLoop()).start();
   }
 }
 } 

官方的例子,也比较简单,启动两个线程,然后调用exchange()方法进行两个线程间的数据交换.

 

 

 

 

 

 

posted on 2014-04-28 00:45  Hi_Amos  阅读(1325)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报