asp.net core 系列之用户认证(authentication)

 

ASP.NET Core 的 identity 是一种需要用户登录的会员系统,用户可以创建一个登录信息存储在 Identity 的的账号,

或者也可以使用第三方登录,支持的第三方登录包括:Facebook, Google, Microsoft Account, and Twitter.

 

Identity 使用Sql Server 存储用户的姓名,密码等数据,当然你也可以选择其他的存储工具进行存储

 

这篇教程,将会讲解如何使用Identity进行用户的注册,登录,登出

 

1.创建一个带认证(authentication)的web应用

  • 文件->新建->项目
  • 选择ASP.NET Core Web 应用程序,命名WebApp1 ,点击确定
  • 然后选择web 应用程序,然后更改身份验证
  • 选择个人用户账号,确定

 

生成的项目会提供 ASP.NET Core Identity 功能,并且 Identity area 会暴露 下面几个 终端(endpoint):

  • /Identity/Account/Login
  • /Identity/Account/Logout
  • /Identity/Account/Manage

2.迁移

观察生成的代码,发现migration已经生成了,只需要更新到数据库

在nuget 程序控制台中,输入:

Update-Database

 

直接在vs中的视图,打开sql server 对象管理器,查看数据库效果,确认数据库更新成功:

 

 

 

3.配置 Identity 服务(Identity service)

服务被添加到了StartUp下的 ConfigureServices方法中

public void ConfigureServices(IServiceCollection services)
{
    services.Configure<CookiePolicyOptions>(options =>
    {
        options.CheckConsentNeeded = context => true;
        options.MinimumSameSitePolicy = SameSiteMode.None;
    });

    services.AddDbContext<ApplicationDbContext>(options =>
        options.UseSqlServer(
            Configuration.GetConnectionString("DefaultConnection")));
    services.AddDefaultIdentity<IdentityUser>()
        .AddDefaultUI(UIFramework.Bootstrap4)
        .AddEntityFrameworkStores<ApplicationDbContext>();

  //这里对Identity做一些配置 services.Configure
<IdentityOptions>(options => { // Password settings.密码配置 options.Password.RequireDigit = true; options.Password.RequireLowercase = true; options.Password.RequireNonAlphanumeric = true; options.Password.RequireUppercase = true; options.Password.RequiredLength = 6; options.Password.RequiredUniqueChars = 1; // Lockout settings.锁定设置 options.Lockout.DefaultLockoutTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5); options.Lockout.MaxFailedAccessAttempts = 5; options.Lockout.AllowedForNewUsers = true; // User settings.用户设置 options.User.AllowedUserNameCharacters = "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789-._@+"; options.User.RequireUniqueEmail = false; }); services.ConfigureApplicationCookie(options => { // Cookie settings 缓存设置 options.Cookie.HttpOnly = true; options.ExpireTimeSpan = TimeSpan.FromMinutes(5); options.LoginPath = "/Identity/Account/Login"; options.AccessDeniedPath = "/Identity/Account/AccessDenied"; options.SlidingExpiration = true; }); services.AddMvc().SetCompatibilityVersion(CompatibilityVersion.Version_2_2); }

 

 4.添加 注册,登录,登录功能

  • 在解决方案的项目上,右键添加->新搭建基架的项目
  • 选择标识,添加
  • 然后选择你想添加的项

 

 

这里的数据上下文中需要选中一个数据的,注意

 

之后,会生成相应的一些文件,包括注册,登录,登出

 

5.现在再看下,生成的代码

注册
public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync(string returnUrl = null)
{
    returnUrl = returnUrl ?? Url.Content("~/");
    if (ModelState.IsValid)
    {
        var user = new IdentityUser { UserName = Input.Email, Email = Input.Email };
        var result = await _userManager.CreateAsync(user, Input.Password); //创建账户
  
     if (result.Succeeded) { _logger.LogInformation("User created a new account with password."); var code = await _userManager.GenerateEmailConfirmationTokenAsync(user); //生成邮箱验证码 var callbackUrl = Url.Page(  //生成验证的回调地址 "/Account/ConfirmEmail", pageHandler: null, values: new { userId = user.Id, code = code }, protocol: Request.Scheme); await _emailSender.SendEmailAsync(Input.Email, "Confirm your email",  //发送邮箱验证邮件 $"Please confirm your account by <a href='{HtmlEncoder.Default.Encode(callbackUrl)}'>clicking here</a>."); await _signInManager.SignInAsync(user, isPersistent: false);  //登录 return LocalRedirect(returnUrl); } foreach (var error in result.Errors) { ModelState.AddModelError(string.Empty, error.Description); } } // If we got this far, something failed, redisplay form return Page(); }

 

创建成功后,会直接显示登录状态

 

登录
public async Task<IActionResult> OnPostAsync(string returnUrl = null)
{
    returnUrl = returnUrl ?? Url.Content("~/");

    if (ModelState.IsValid)
    {
        // This doesn't count login failures towards account lockout
        // To enable password failures to trigger account lockout, 
        // set lockoutOnFailure: true
        var result = await _signInManager.PasswordSignInAsync(Input.Email,  //密码登录
            Input.Password, Input.RememberMe, lockoutOnFailure: true);
        if (result.Succeeded)  //登录成功
        {
            _logger.LogInformation("User logged in.");
            return LocalRedirect(returnUrl);
        }
        if (result.RequiresTwoFactor)  //两步验证
        {
            return RedirectToPage("./LoginWith2fa", new { ReturnUrl = returnUrl, RememberMe = Input.RememberMe });
        }
        if (result.IsLockedOut)  //锁定
        {
            _logger.LogWarning("User account locked out.");
            return RedirectToPage("./Lockout");
        }
        else
        {
            ModelState.AddModelError(string.Empty, "Invalid login attempt.");
            return Page();
        }
    }

    // If we got this far, something failed, redisplay form
    return Page();
}

 

登出
public async Task<IActionResult> OnPost(string returnUrl = null)
        {
            await _signInManager.SignOutAsync();  //登出
            _logger.LogInformation("User logged out.");
            if (returnUrl != null)
            {
                return LocalRedirect(returnUrl);
            }
            else
            {
                return Page();
            }
        }

 

登录页面
@using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Identity
@inject SignInManager<IdentityUser> SignInManager
@inject UserManager<IdentityUser> UserManager

<ul class="navbar-nav">
    @if (SignInManager.IsSignedIn(User))
    {
        <li class="nav-item">
            <a class="nav-link text-dark" asp-area="Identity"
               asp-page="/Account/Manage/Index"
               title="Manage">Hello@User.Identity.Name!</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
            <form class="form-inline" asp-area="Identity" asp-page="/Account/Logout" 
                   asp-route-returnUrl="@Url.Page("/", new { area = "" })" 
                   method="post">
                <button type="submit" class="nav-link btn btn-link text-dark">Logout</button>
            </form>
        </li>
    }
    else
    {
        <li class="nav-item">
            <a class="nav-link text-dark" asp-area="Identity" asp-page="/Account/Register">Register</a>
        </li>
        <li class="nav-item">
            <a class="nav-link text-dark" asp-area="Identity" asp-page="/Account/Login">Login</a>
        </li>
    }
</ul>

 

 6.验证Identity

默认的web项目模板允许匿名访问到主页的,为了验证Identity,给Privacy 页面增加 [Authorize] 

using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Authorization;
using Microsoft.AspNetCore.Mvc.RazorPages;

namespace WebApp1.Pages
{
  [Authorize]
public class PrivacyModel : PageModel { public void OnGet() { } } }

 

7.运行

测试注册,登录,登出功能

以及认证效果对比(即Privacy页面增加Authrize前后):

加之前:不需要登录,即可访问Privacy页面

加之后:需要登录,才能访问此页面

 

这里先记录添加Identity操作流程,之后会具体讲解一些功能点

 

posted @ 2019-04-29 07:37  Vincent-yuan  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏