Python WSGI开发随笔

  本文记录学习WSGI时的一些知识点,值得后续学习中注意。

  wsgi应用接口只要是一个可调用的对象就行,这个可调用的对象需要:

1. 接受两个位置参数:

  a. 包含CGI形式变量的字典;

  b. 应用调用的回调函数,该回调函数的作用是将HTTP响应的状态码和header返回给server。

2. 将响应body部分的内容作为包裹在一个可迭代的对象中的(若干)字符串。

 

说明:

  1. application 的第一个参数env是一个字典,里面包含了CGI形式的环境变量,该字典是由server基于客户请求填充。

  2. headers在构建的时候,必须遵循以下规则:

    [(Header name1, Header value1), (Header name2, Header value2),]
   响应header和响应HTTP状态码通过应用的第二个参数即回调函数发回给server。

  3.body在构建的时候,必须遵循以下规则:
    [response_body]
  即响应body必须被包裹在可迭代的对象中,同时通过return 语句返回给server.

 

下面是wsgi.org官方教程中得到一个例子:

  注意environ参数的含义,start_response函数的作用,response_headers和status是由谁返回给server的,response_body需要什么样的形式,如何返回给server等。

from wsgiref.simple_server import make_server

def application( environ, start_response):
    # response_body in a list
    response_body = ['%s:%s' %(key, value)
        for key, value in sorted(environ.items())]
    response_body = '\n'.join(response_body)
    response_body = ['The Begining\n',
                        '*' * 30 + '\n',
                        response_body,
                        '\n' + '*' * 30 ,
                        '\nThe End']
    
    content_length = 0
    for s in response_body:
        content_length += len(s)
    
   #status code and response_headers
    status = '200 OK'
    response_headers =[('Content-Type', 'text/plain'),
        ('Content-Length', str(content_length))]
    # use callback function to send back status code 
    # and response headers
    start_response(status, response_headers)
    # return response body thruogh return statement
  return response_body


httpd = make_server('localhost',8051,application)
httpd.handle_request() 

  

应用端

HELLO_WORLD = b"Hello world!\n"

def simple_app(environ, start_response):
    """Simplest possible application object"""
    status = '200 OK'
    response_headers = [('Content-type', 'text/plain')]
    start_response(status, response_headers)
    return [HELLO_WORLD]

class AppClass:
    """Produce the same output, but using a class

    (Note: 'AppClass' is the "application" here, so calling it
    returns an instance of 'AppClass', which is then the iterable
    return value of the "application callable" as required by
    the spec.

    If we wanted to use *instances* of 'AppClass' as application
    objects instead, we would have to implement a '__call__'
    method, which would be invoked to execute the application,
    and we would need to create an instance for use by the
    server or gateway.
    """

    def __init__(self, environ, start_response):
        self.environ = environ
        self.start = start_response

    def __iter__(self):
        status = '200 OK'
        response_headers = [('Content-type', 'text/plain')]
        self.start(status, response_headers)
        yield HELLO_WORLD

 

服务/网关端

import os, sys

enc, esc = sys.getfilesystemencoding(), 'surrogateescape'

def unicode_to_wsgi(u):
    # Convert an environment variable to a WSGI "bytes-as-unicode" string
    return u.encode(enc, esc).decode('iso-8859-1')

def wsgi_to_bytes(s):
    return s.encode('iso-8859-1')

def run_with_cgi(application):
    environ = {k: unicode_to_wsgi(v) for k,v in os.environ.items()}
    environ['wsgi.input']        = sys.stdin.buffer
    environ['wsgi.errors']       = sys.stderr
    environ['wsgi.version']      = (1, 0)
    environ['wsgi.multithread']  = False
    environ['wsgi.multiprocess'] = True
    environ['wsgi.run_once']     = True

    if environ.get('HTTPS', 'off') in ('on', '1'):
        environ['wsgi.url_scheme'] = 'https'
    else:
        environ['wsgi.url_scheme'] = 'http'

    headers_set = []
    headers_sent = []

    def write(data):
        out = sys.stdout.buffer

        if not headers_set:
             raise AssertionError("write() before start_response()")

        elif not headers_sent:
             # Before the first output, send the stored headers
             status, response_headers = headers_sent[:] = headers_set
             out.write(wsgi_to_bytes('Status: %s\r\n' % status))
             for header in response_headers:
                 out.write(wsgi_to_bytes('%s: %s\r\n' % header))
             out.write(wsgi_to_bytes('\r\n'))

        out.write(data)
        out.flush()

    def start_response(status, response_headers, exc_info=None):
        if exc_info:
            try:
                if headers_sent:
                    # Re-raise original exception if headers sent
                    raise exc_info[1].with_traceback(exc_info[2])
            finally:
                exc_info = None     # avoid dangling circular ref
        elif headers_set:
            raise AssertionError("Headers already set!")

        headers_set[:] = [status, response_headers]

        # Note: error checking on the headers should happen here,
        # *after* the headers are set.  That way, if an error
        # occurs, start_response can only be re-called with
        # exc_info set.

        return write

    result = application(environ, start_response)
    try:
        for data in result:
            if data:    # don't send headers until body appears
                write(data)
        if not headers_sent:
            write('')   # send headers now if body was empty
    finally:
        if hasattr(result, 'close'):
            result.close()

  

中间件

from piglatin import piglatin

class LatinIter:

    """Transform iterated output to piglatin, if it's okay to do so

    Note that the "okayness" can change until the application yields
    its first non-empty bytestring, so 'transform_ok' has to be a mutable
    truth value.
    """

    def __init__(self, result, transform_ok):
        if hasattr(result, 'close'):
            self.close = result.close
        self._next = iter(result).__next__
        self.transform_ok = transform_ok

    def __iter__(self):
        return self

    def __next__(self):
        if self.transform_ok:
            return piglatin(self._next())   # call must be byte-safe on Py3
        else:
            return self._next()

class Latinator:

    # by default, don't transform output
    transform = False

    def __init__(self, application):
        self.application = application

    def __call__(self, environ, start_response):

        transform_ok = []

        def start_latin(status, response_headers, exc_info=None):

            # Reset ok flag, in case this is a repeat call
            del transform_ok[:]

            for name, value in response_headers:
                if name.lower() == 'content-type' and value == 'text/plain':
                    transform_ok.append(True)
                    # Strip content-length if present, else it'll be wrong
                    response_headers = [(name, value)
                        for name, value in response_headers
                            if name.lower() != 'content-length'
                    ]
                    break

            write = start_response(status, response_headers, exc_info)

            if transform_ok:
                def write_latin(data):
                    write(piglatin(data))   # call must be byte-safe on Py3
                return write_latin
            else:
                return write

        return LatinIter(self.application(environ, start_latin), transform_ok)


# Run foo_app under a Latinator's control, using the example CGI gateway
from foo_app import foo_app
run_with_cgi(Latinator(foo_app))

  

 

posted @ 2014-11-09 17:29  王智愚  阅读(1688)  评论(0编辑  收藏