更换Ubuntu软件源

  对于Ubuntu系统, 不同的版本的源都不一样,每一个版本都有自己专属的源。 而对于 Ubuntu 的同一个发行版本,它的源又分布在全球范围内的服务器上。Ubuntu 默认使用的官方源的服务器在欧洲,从国内访问速度很慢。国内的阿里、网易以及一些重点高校也都有 Ubuntu 的源,所以在装完 Ubuntu 系统后最好把官方源更换为国内的源。

1.获取Ubuntu代号

Ubuntu 每个发行版本都有自己的代号,我们要通过我们电脑上 Ubuntu 的代号去找对应的源,Ctrl+Alt+T 打开终端,执行以下命令:

lsb_release -a

 然后会得到我们自己的 Ubuntu 的版本信息 ,最后一栏 codename 后面的就是我们自己的 Ubuntu 的代号。比如我安装的是 Ubuntu 18.04.1,查出来的代号就是 bionic.

2.查找可用的源

https://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/源列表

3.编辑源

打开链接:https://wiki.ubuntu.org.cn/模板:18.04source

复制以下内容到编辑器:

将上图ubuntu18.4源模板里红框内的ubuntu默认官方源地址改为step2里面任意一个服务器地址,一般用阿里云和清华大学的源;然后将蓝色框中的内容改为你自己Ubuntu的代号。

例如:

# 1.阿里云源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##測試版源
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# 源碼
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##測試版源
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse


# 2.清华大学源
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##測試版源
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse
# 源碼
deb-src http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-security main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-updates main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-backports main restricted universe multiverse
##測試版源
deb-src http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ bionic-proposed main restricted universe multiverse

4.修改源文件source.list

Ubuntu 的源存放在在 /etc/apt/ 目录下的 sources.list 文件中,修改前我们先做个备份,在终端中执行以下命令:

sudo cp /etc/apt/sources.list /etc/apt/sources.list.backup

然后执行下面的命令打开 sources.list 文件,清空里面的内容,把上面我们编辑好的国内的源复制进去,保存后退出。

sudo gedit /etc/apt/sources.list

5.更新软件包列表

sudo apt-get update

6.更新软件


sudo apt-get upgrade

或者

sudo apt-get dist-upgrade  

这里提一下apt-get upgrade 与apt-get dist-upgrade的关系:

upgrade:系统将现有的Package升级,如果有相依性的问题,而此相依性需要安装其它新的Package或影响到其它Package的相依性时,此Package就不会被升级,会保留下来. 

dist-upgrade:可以聪明的解决相依性的问题,如果有相依性问题,需要安装/移除新的Package,就会试着去安装/移除它. (所以通常这个会被认为是有点风险的升级) 

 

ubuntu 16.04 source

# 东北大学
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirror.neu.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse
# 清华大学
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.tuna.tsinghua.edu.cn/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse
# 阿里云
# deb cdrom:[Ubuntu 16.04 LTS _Xenial Xerus_ - Release amd64 (20160420.1)]/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu xenial main restricted #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-updates multiverse
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-backports main restricted universe multiverse #Added by software-properties
deb http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb-src http://archive.canonical.com/ubuntu xenial partner
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted
deb-src http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security main restricted multiverse universe #Added by software-properties
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security universe
deb http://mirrors.aliyun.com/ubuntu/ xenial-security multiverse

 

posted @ 2019-11-19 11:23  Mike_2019  阅读(2660)  评论(0编辑  收藏