英语语法手边书

名词

专有名词

 

John, London, the United Nations

 

 

普通

名词

可数

 

个体名词

 

map, box, story

 

 

 

集体名词

people, family

 

 

 

不可数

物质名词

 

water, metal

 

 

 

抽象名词

honesty, happiness

 

 

1可数名词Countable Noun

1.1 规则名词的复数形式,如:

map----------------maps           box----------------boxes            story---------------stories

 

1.2不规则名词的复数形式

1,,  -o结尾的名词多数加-es构成复数:

hero----heroes 英雄     cargo----cargoes货物     potato----potatoes 土豆     tomato----tomatoes西红柿

**某些外来词-o结尾,但只加-s:

auto----autos 汽车      piano----pianos钢琴      photo----photos 照片       kilo----kilos公里

**-oo元音字母-o结尾的词也只加-s:

zoo----zoos动物园     radio----radios收音机    bamboo----bamboos竹子       studio----studios照相馆

 

2)-f-fe结尾的名词,多数变fv再加上-es:

thief----thieves小偷                       knife----knives                        wife----wives妻子                

life----lives生命                          shelf----shelves架子                      half----halves

**但有些只加-s:    belief----beliefs信念                          roof----roofs屋顶

 

3)常见特殊复数形式:

child-----children孩子    foot-----feet,英尺      goose-----geese          ox-----oxen                 

tooth-----teeth牙齿     mouse-----mice老鼠       basis-----bases基础          medium----media媒介 

man-----men 男人    woman-----women女人    chairman-----chairmen主席     datum-----data数据

                       

4)常见单复数形式相同:

sheep绵羊            deer鹿               fish                  fruit水果

yuan               shark鲨鱼            Chinese 中国人          Swiss瑞士人

5)常见的只能用复数形式的名词:

works工厂           species种类           crossroads十字路口       means手段

goods货物           clothes衣服      shoes       thanks感谢      surroundings环境

politics政治学      physics物理学      glasses眼镜      outskirts郊区       wages工资

***另外一些集合名词:cattle, mankind, police, people, staff等总是用作复数

 2、不可数名词

2.1单位词修饰不可数名词:

a piece of bread 一片面包   a bag of sand 一袋沙   a bottle of beer一瓶啤酒    a game of chess一盘棋

2.2度量词修饰不可数名词:a kilo of rice  一千克大米             a meter of string  一米带子

 

2.3常见不可数名词:

advice 忠告   bread 面包    chalk 粉笔    furniture 家具   meat   damage 损失   progress 进步

paper     news新闻   rice 大米  money     grass     luggage行李        knowledge知识      

sugar        work工作      food 食物      information信息   equipment设备    baggage行李    

 3、名词的所有格

1,,名词 + ’s                               Mary’s book   

2) 名词s (复数) +  :                          the workers’ library

特殊如: the children’s palace 少年宫            Women’s day 妇女节

3) 如某物为两人所共有,只需在两个名词后加’s:  Mary and Jane’s car 共有

否则为:Mary’s and Jane’s cars 各自

4)双重所有格:

a friend of my father’s /mine   (父亲)的一位朋友(部分概念)

a photo of Tom’s        汤姆所拥有的一张照片,但照片上的未必是他本人

***名词和数词组成复合结构:

一个为期三天的假期① a three-week holiday a three weeksholiday a holiday of three weeks

Dr. Jones has a five-year-old daughter.

 二、冠词
1、不定冠词aan泛指,用于单数可数名词前,表示任何一个/类。
1.1辅音音素开头的名词或词组前用a;以元音音素开头的名词或词组前用an

a university        a European        a book         an umbrella          an hour         an error

***不可数名词用作可数名词时,可用a/an,:            She was inspired with a new courage.

 

1.2常见使用不定冠词的固定搭配:

have a cold 患感冒           as a result因此,结果         as a rule 通常         have a good time

have a word with与…谈话     have a rest休息一会          in a hurry匆忙地       in a word 总之 

once in a while偶尔           take a walk 散步            come to an end 结束    all of a sudden 突然

make a living谋生            make a fire生火             make a fortune发财   

a couple of 一对             a great deal of大量的          a lot of 许多

 2、定冠词the特指,意为这,,些,,、那,,些,,。

1,,  第二次提到,或双方都已知道的人或事物:

There is some water in the cup. The water is hot.                             Close the door, please.(已知)

2) 单数可数名词前,表示种类

The telephone was invented by Bell.                           The early bird catches the worms.捷足先登

3) 世界上独一无二的事物,以及表示江河、海洋、山脉等地理名称:

the earth       the Bible圣经         the Universe 宇宙                the Yangtze River长江

the sun        the Lord 上帝         the Pacific Ocean太平洋           the Sahara Desert撒哈拉沙漠

4,,限定意味较强的定语:      the book you bought yesterday                       the history of China

5)用于具有鉴别意义的普通名词前,:  the planet Mercury水星           the play “King Lear”剧本《李尔王》

 

6,,其他用法:

西洋乐器前,表示演奏某种乐器:play the violin (piano)
②某些形容词前,使其名词化,表示这一类人或事物:the poor, the true
姓氏的复数形式和民名称前,表示全家和整个民族:the Turners, the Chinese
④逢十的年份前,表示几十年代:in the 1980s
⑤形容词最高级序数词前:the biggest, the second

⑥某些计量单位的名词前:Apples are sold by the pound.

 

7)常见使用定冠词的固定搭配:

by the way 顺便说一句      in the future 未来       in the morning在上午       in the end 最终 

in the meanwhile同时        in the sun在阳光下     on the average平均         on the alert警惕  

on the contrary相反         on the right在右边      on the increase增长         on the spot 当场

play the fool 做傻事       keep the house居家不外出     in the dark 在暗处     at the cost of 以…为代价

 3、零冠词

1,,不可数名词表示泛指时:Without water man cannot live.

2,,复数可数名词表示泛指时:Teachers generally like diligent students.

3,,专有名词前一般用零冠词:China, Asia, Beijing University, Hyde Park(海德公园)

4,,其他用法:   ①季节名称前:Summer is coming.
②法定节日前: National Day                      New Year’s Day
③球类运动和棋类游戏前:play football, play chess(bridge)下棋(打桥牌)
④餐名前:When will lunch be ready?
 

5,,零冠词固定短语:

at first     at desk(table) 在办公(吃饭)     at last     on purpose故意     on foot徒步    in debt负债  

in trouble陷入困境     at night      at sea在海上     at home     by accident偶然     in bed 卧床

by chance碰巧      in order of 以…的次序       go to school       go to bed      in common 相同的 

in detail详细地       in hospital住院       in/ after class      take place 发生     in return作为回敬   

in sight of 看见      on fire在燃烧        make friends with          keep in mind记在心里

 三、代词
1、人称代词

 


主格
you
we
they

宾格
you
us
them

1.1排序一般为:第二人称,第三人称,第一人称:youhe and IyouJohn and I

1.2 it 的用法

①代事物、动物、婴儿以及未知的人或事:Who is thatIts my friend.
②用于引出非人称句,表示天气、时间和距离等:It’s cloudy today.
③形式代词:It is quite right that you did that.
④引导强调句:It was his father that made him a lawyer.
 2、物主代词

 


形容词性
your
our
their

名词性
yours
ours
theirs

2.1形容词性物主代词属限定词范围,注意避免人称和数的误用。

2.2名词性物主代词可作主语、宾语和表语。

Ours is a socialist country.     This dictionary is mine.        a friend of mine           no fault of yours
 3、反身代词




myself
himselfherselfitself
yourselves
Take care of yourself.                                       He was teaching himself English.

The man in the photo is myself.                               She herself was a doctor.

 4、指示代词:thisthatthesethose

4.1关于that的固定用法:

,,1,,Jack helped finish my work and that was kind of him.杰克帮助我完成了任务,他,,那样做,,真是太好了。

,,2,,He told me only part of the story and that was that.  他只跟我讲了这个故事的一部分,就那些

4.2关于that those

,,1,,It’s a different kind of car from that  (kind of car) (which) I’m used to.这种汽车和我所习惯的那种不同。

,,2,,The president and his wife were among those (who were) present at the ceremony.

出席那个典礼有总统和他的夫人。

 5、相互代词:each other(两者)one another(两者以上)

,,1,,The two parties, the Democratic Party and the Republic Party often attack each other.

,,2,,The boys in this class like to bully one another. 这个班上的男孩子喜欢互相打斗。

 6、不定代词

6.1 allboth

,,1,,前者表示两个以上;后者表示两个。                      ,,2,,都位于行为动词之前,be动词后:

They all (both) agreed with me.                                      They are all (both) quite wealthy.

 

6.2 no one none

,,1,,no one只用于指人,none可指人也可指物。None of后接的谓语可用复数也可用单数。

No one told us that he was there.       I want some milk but there was none in the house.                      

----How many elephants did you see at the zoo?    ----None.

None of them have (has) arrived yet.                                      None of this money is mine.

 7some / any/ no/ every+,,thing one body…,,
7.1 everyone every one

前者意思为“每个人”,与everybody同义,用于泛指,不可跟of短语;

后者意思是每个人或物,用于特指,可跟of短语

everyone in the village 村子里所有的人,,泛指,,       every one of the children 这些孩子中的每一个,,特指,,

 

7.2 anybodyeverybody和“every,,each,,+单数名词”

正式英语  Anybody can do it if he or she tries.                   日常英语   if they try

Everybody started waving his flag.                               their flags

Everybody has arrived, hasn’t he?                                haven’t they

***Everything is all rightisns it

7.3 something, anything, nothing等被形容词修饰时,该形容词后置: nothing wrong

 8、否定

1,,部分否定:allbotheachevery,,bodything,,等表示整体意义的代词与否定词连用时,一般只表示部分否定。

All of the students did not turn up.不是所有的学生都出席。    现代英语常用作:Not all of the students turned up.

2,,全部否定:none, no one, neithernobodynothing 等对整体意义具有否定作用的代词或副词。

None of the students turned up.没有一个学生出席。

 9、其他限定词

1,, 常见修饰可数名词的限定词:(a) few, a couple of, both, many, many a, a great many, several, a number of

2,, 常见修饰不可数名词的限定词:,,a,,little, much, a (large) amount of, a great deal of, a bit of

 3,,some/any/no                    any:非肯定句,,否定、疑问、条件句,,            no:否定句

some:肯定句和含有肯定意味的场合,特殊如:

Can I have some coffee?请求或希望得到肯定回答时.

Some idiot parked his car outside my garage. 表示某一个= a certain

 

4,, many/much          many接可数名词复数,much接不可数名词,在肯定句中常和sotoo连用

I have met ,,so,,many people who share your view.                    (So) Much time has been wasted.

**many a +单数可数名词相当于many+复数名词

She has been to Beijing many a time. (many times)                      Many an accident has happened here.

 5,,each/every

each用作名词或形容词,every用作形容词,后面必须跟名词

“我们中的每个人”应为every one of useach of us

6,,both/either

both为两者都…,后接复数动词,either为两者中任何一个,接单数动词。两者的否定形式为neither

Truth may lie on both sideson either sideor on neither,,side,,.

 

7,,either/any                          either为两者中的任何一个;any为两者以上中的任何一个。

Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. Either day is OK.             You will find me at my desk at any hour of the day.

***either后接endside等词有时可指两个都: There are trees on either side of the street. = both sides

 

8,,neither/none

表示两者都不…,用neither;表示两者以上都不…,用none,,of,,。

Neither接单数可数名词,none of 接复数名词。

Neither book is mine.

None of the books on the shelves belong to me.       ,,用复数动词,强调“都不是,,

**Of all the books on the shelves, none belongs to me. ,,用单数动词,强调没有一本是。,,

 

9,,all/whole

区别:all可接复数可数名词或不可数名词,whole一般接单数可数名词。

②语序:all用于冠词、所有格或其他限定词之whole只用于冠词等限定词的面。

He ate all the vegetables.                                           He ate the whole pie.

The whole book is interesting.                                      All the chapters are interesting.

 

10) another/other

This book is too difficult. Show me another one.

Of the three books on the desk, two are written by Dickens, the other one is written by Mark Twain.

***other前面可带some, any, every, many, one, his等其他限定词。

Will you come some other time? 改日                              Please write on every other line.隔行

***the rest of the money  不可数名词                             the rest of the workers可数名词

 

11,,a number of/ the number of

前者为:许多…,后接复数名词,谓语用复数。后者为:…的总数,谓语用单数

A number of comrades were absent from the meeting.

The number of comrades absent from the meeting was surprising.

12) few/ a few                                               few表否定, a few表数量不大,表肯定。

quite a few 表相当多,为肯定。                                 only a few表否定,同few

13,,little/ a little用法同上

 四、介词
1、介词短语

according to       ahead of      apart from      by means of    but for    because of   due to   except for         for the sake of            in addition to          instead of             in front of     

in spite of       in the name of        on behalf of      prior to      with regard to       owing to由于 

2、分词介词          concerning    including     past    regarding    

 3、介词用法比较

3.1 表示时间的介词at, on, in, after, for, since, by, till, until, during

at表示确切时间点或较短的一段时间;in表示一天中的各部分时间或较长的时间;
  on表示具体的某天或某天上午或下午;during表示一段时间,强调时间的延续。

at 4:30 (noon, dawn, midnight……)                                on Sunday (Oct.1……)

on Saturday afternoon (an autumn evening……)                ***in the afternoon on Sunday

at Christmas                                            in (during) 1987 (December, the 19th century……)

during my military service (the trip)                             The job was done in a week.

He will be back in two hours.                                 He will be back after two o’clock.

I stayed in London (for) two days on my way to New York.                since 1950 (then)

By noon, everybody had (will have) arrived there. 到中午的时候,大家都()到那儿了。

  from 1985 to 1996

He waited till,,until,,5 o’clock.        They stayed until (till) after the meeting. (肯定句中表示:直到…时候)

Until now I knew nothing about it.       Jack didn’t come home until / till about 11. (否定句中表示:直到…才)

 3.2表示地点、位置的介词in, at, round, around, beyond, on, beneath, over, under, above, below, up, down, before, behind, between, among, amid(st)

The car pulled up at the gate.车停在大门口                              She lives at No. 52 Hazel Avenue.

They have arrived in Peking.                                          What is in the box?

He put a necklace (a)round her neck.                                   He is making a trip round the world.

beyond表示在…以外: There is a village beyond the hill.
on:在…,,平面,,上;beneath:在…,,平面,,下:
There is a book on the desk.                   The submarine can run very fast beneath the sea.
over:在,,垂直,,上方; under:在,,垂直,,下方:
There is a lamp over the table.                  The peasants are having a rest under the tree.
above:在…上方; below:在…下方:

The plane is flying above the clouds.                           The sun sank below the horizon.

before:在…前面;after:在…后面  ,,两者具有动态意义,,
  Don’t put the cart before the horse.莫本末倒置。    The object should be placed after the verb.
***in front ofbehind表示静态意义的位置。
The car was parked in front of the building.                  There is a garden behind the house.
between:在,,两者,,之间:Is there any difference between the two words?
among:在,,两者以上,,之间:They visited the temple among the hills.
amid(st):在…之间,,含有被不同之物包围之意,,,可接复数名词或不可数名词:
The soldiers charged forward amid(st) the enemy bullets.
 3.3表示方向、方位的介词toinfor, at
     in在…面,,包含在其中,,:                  Shanghai lies in the east of China.

to在…部,,不包含在其中,,:                Japan lies to the east of China.

on 两地接壤:                            Vietnam lies on the south of China.

leave, start, depart等词后加for,表示目的地:He will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.

3.4表示空间运动的介词along, across, through, over, up, down, from, to, into, out of
along沿着: They are taking a walk along the street.
  across横过: Dare you swim across the river?
through(从中间穿过): They drove through the city (tunnel)
 over越过: The plane flew over the city.
up向上方: He ran up the stairs.              down向下方: The ship is sailing down the river.
He received a letter from abroad.                     She stood up and walked to the window.
 3.5表示工具、方法和手段的介词with, by, in, through, on

1,,with表示工具,方式,,抽象,,,也可表示材料:

Wood is often cut with a saw.                                We should face the situation with great courage.

2,,by表示途径或手段:

Babies learn to speak by imitation.                                       We can get energy by burning fuel.

3) in表示方式: Can you do the experiment in another way?                   Cloth is often measured in metres.

4) through表示途径,手段,by接近:                                  He became rich through hard work.

 3.6表示原因的介词because of, owing to, due to(一般不位于句首), on account of, at, for, from, with, of

eg. The flight was cancelled due to the fog.                             We rejoiced at their great achievements.

He was punished for stealing.                                   They are suffering from starvation and disease.

She was red with shame.    The man died of lung cancer.直接原因    The soldier died from a bad wound.间接原因

 3.7除了…besides, except, except for, but, apart from(意思较广)

Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry.

He answered all the questions except (but) the last one.

Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.整体中除去一个细节

The enemy had no choice but to surrender.

***but for表示:要不是因为,倘若没有,常用于虚拟语气表示含蓄条件.

 3.8表示让步的介词in spite of, despite, after all, for all, with all

The children continued to play in the garden despite the rain.

With all his achievements, he remains modest and prudent.谦虚谨慎             For all his faults, we still like him.

 五、形容词和副词

5.1系表结构,应用形容词作表语:The dish smells good.  He looks very serious.  She felt bad at the news.

5.2一些形容词与副词同形,:

clean   direct   firm   likely   quick   close   early   hard    long    slow    clear   enough  high

low    straight   dead   far   kindly    much   tight   deep  fast  late  near  wrong   wide

John drives very fast.                                                     He took a fast train to London.

You must go straight to bed.                                              The teacher drew a straight line.

 

5.3常见以-ly结尾的形容词

daily每天的     lonely孤独的    lovely可爱的   lively活泼的    monthly每月一次的   friendly友好的

kindly和蔼的    early早的       silly愚蠢的    timely及时的    likely很可能的       ugly丑陋的

deadly致命的    deathly死一般的     earthly世俗的             其中early, kindly, likely也可用作副词。

5.4某些形容词与副词只差一个词尾,但意义却大不相同:

bad 坏的   badly 非常            practical实际的 practically事实上       hard坚硬   hardly 几乎不             

large 大的  largely主要地         late迟的,晚的  lately近来             like   likely 很可能

scarce 稀少的 scarcely 几乎不      short 短的 shortly 不久,很快          bare 光秃的  barely仅仅

 I、形容词

****This is a tough task.  作定语                                       This task is tough.作表语

1.1常见只作表语的形容词:

asleep睡着的    afraid 害怕的    aware意识到的  awake醒的   alike相似的  alone单独的  alive活着的

ashamed羞愧的  content满意的   glad高兴的     unable不能的  well健康的  fond喜欢的   sorry抱歉的

1.2少数形容词作表语和作定语时意义不同:

                     作表语                    作定语

ill                   生病的                    邪恶的

hard                 严厉的                    努力的

certain               有把握的                  ()

little                 少的                      小的

present               出席的                    当前的

 

2.1几个形容词修饰名词时的常见顺序:

限定词→一般描述性形容词→大小/形状→年龄/新旧→色彩→国籍/地区/出处→物质/材料→用途/类别→名词

eg. our great, socialist mother 我们伟大的社会主义祖国

   that hungry, tired, sleepy, little match girl那个饥饿的、疲倦的、瞌睡的、卖火柴的小女孩

2.2同类形容词排列,较短的放在前面:                    a kind, generous, old man一个和蔼、慷慨的老人

2.3同类的形容词之间也可用and连接:That is a black and white cat.           He was tall, dark and handsome.

 

3、比较:

1) sleepy 瞌睡的                  2) healthy 健康的                    3) industrial 工业的

  asleep 睡着的                    healthful有益于健康的                industrious勤奋的

4) historic 有历史意义的           5) continual 频繁的                   6) economic经济()

  historical 历史的                  continuous 连续不断的                economical节省的

7) distinct 清晰的                 8) respectable 值得尊敬的             9) everyday日常的

  distinctive 有特色的               respectful 有礼貌的                  every day每天(作状语)

10) all ready都准备好的           11) popular流行的                    12) considerable相当的

   already (副词)已经                populous人口稠密的                  considerate考虑周到的

13) disinterested无私的            14) honorary名誉上的                 15) practical实用的

   uninterested不感兴趣的            honorable可尊敬的                   practicable可行的

16) defective有缺点的             17) alone独自的                      18) successful成功的

   deficient缺乏的                   lonely孤独的                        successive连续的

19) principal主要的               20) pleasant令人愉快的                21) desirable中意的

   principle原则n.                  pleased高兴的                        desirous渴望的

22) imminent紧迫的               23) live活的(作定语)                  24) like相象的

   eminent著名的                    lively活泼的                         alike相象的(作表语)

                                    alive活的(作表语)                    likely可能的

25) dead死的                     26) sensitive敏感的                   27) efficient效率高的

   deadly致命的                     sensible明智的                      proficient熟练的

   deathly死一般的                  sensory知觉的                       sufficient足够的

28) imaginable可以想象的      29) invaluable无价的    30) eligible合格的        31) stationary静止的

   imaginary想象中的            valueless无价值的      illegible字迹不清的       stationery文具

   imaginative有想象力的         priceless无价的        illegal非法的

 II、副词

1.1常见差别较大的副词:

high高高地  highly高度地           direct径直地   directly立刻          late晚,迟   lately 最近

pretty相当地  prettily优美地         sharp突然   sharply严厉地           short突然    shortly马上

most   mostly大部分             near   nearly几乎                 just正好   justly公正地

hard努力地  hardly几乎不           free免费地   freely自由地

 

1.2副词在句中的位置                        quickly enough                  do everything carefully  

1.3插入语

Frankly, the students didn’t work hard enough last term.                表态度

The clock is old; it is, however, in good condition.                     表逻辑关系

The rain didn’t last long, as they had expected.                       表解释
That accident, John recalled, occurred on a summer morning.            表主次关系
 III、形容词和副词,,比较,,

1.1肯定式原级比较:……像……那样: as + 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词,,主格,,

Some of the stars may be as large as the sun and as hot as the sun.

1.2否定式原级比较:……不如……那样:not soas+ 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词,,主格,,

The melting point of copper is not so ,,或as,, high as that of iron.

 

1.3有时,否定式原级比较结构不表示比较,而是表示:与其说……不如说……

He is not so (much) unintelligent as uneducated.与其说他不聪明,不如说他未受过教育。

1.4 more (less)……than结构有时表示:与其说……不如说……,用法同上。

He is more diligent than clever. 与其说他聪明,不如说他勤奋。

She was less hurt than frightened. 与其说她受伤了,不如说被吓着了。

He is much more an actor than a musician. 与其说他是音乐家,不如说是演员。

 

2.1特殊比较级和最高级形式

原级         比较级          最高级               原级          比较级            最高级 

good/well     better            best                 many/much     more              most

little         less              least                 far           farther/further       farthest/furthest

bad/badly/ill   worse            worst                old           elder/older         eldest/oldest

late          later/latter        latest/last              near          nearer             nearest/nest

***elder不与than连用

 

2.2常见充当比较级程度状语的词有:

much, many, far, by far, still, even, a lota little, a great dealthree years, one-third20%等。

eg. Air in the country is much (far) cleaner than that in the city.

He is three years older than his sister.           This month, they will produce 20% more coal than last month.

   many / far more opportunities可数                               much / far more money不可数

 

2.3表示倍数的表达方式:

This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间的大小是那个房间的三倍。

Our trade union movement would be a thousand times stronger if it were better organized.

如果组织得好一些, 我们的工会运动将会,,比现在,,强一千倍。

2.4 the + more……, the + more……”表示:“越……,越……”

The earlier you start, the sooner you will be back.   

The more books one reads, the more knowledgeable he becomes.

2.5 有时比较级也用“the +比较级 + of +比较范围,,通常两者,,”结构:

He is the cleverer of the two boys.                                  Of Mary and Jane, who is the smarter?

 

2.6 not more than no more than的区别

not more than:不超过,不及; no more than:转义为只不过,仅仅.= only

There are not more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校的学生不超过五百。

There are no more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校里的学生只有五百。

类似的还有:not less than不少于                             no less than  有……之多

            not better than 不比……好                       no better than   一样的不好

 

3.1有些形容词及其-ly副词由于本身意义的原因,可用于比较级,也能被其他程度副词如very等修饰。

absolute绝对的      sole唯一的      eternal永恒的     total总的     first第一的        ultimate最终的

true真实的      unique独特的       wrong错误的      final 最终的     correct正确的     last最后的

only仅有的      perfect 完美的     primary首要的     unanimous一致的 

3.2少数以-or结尾含有比较意义的形容词,后面要求to来引导比较对象。常见的有:

inferior劣等的               junior年幼的               superior优越的                senior年长的

 六、动词

<>1、动词分类,,一,,:连系动词实义动词助动词情态动词

1.1常用的连系动词有:

appear     be      become      come       fall        feel        get       go       grow     keep  

lie       remain      rest        run        smell      sound      stand     stay      taste     look

1.2实义动词有及物动词和不及物动词之分

1.3助动词无实际意义,只起语法作用:

Do you read newspaper every day?                                   The job will be finished soon.

1.4情态动词不能单独作谓语,增加谓语的情态、语气等色彩。

 

2、动词种类,,二,,

2.1界限性动词,,不能与表示持续一段时间的状语连用,,,:

catch       come       die     find     give      join     kill     lose     leave     marry     realize 

2.2非界限性动词(所表示的动作或状态可以一直进行下去)

动态动词:live, sit, stand, study, talk, work, write

状态动词:be, belong, consist, exist, feel, hate, have, hope, love, want

 

3、常跟双宾语的动词有:

ask     bring    buy    choose    do    deny    fetch     get    give    grant    hand    leave  lend

make   offer    order    pay    pass   promise    sell    send    show    take    teach   tell    write

 <>常见动词搭配:

1、动词 + 介词:

listen to        amount to等于        long for渴望      call on号召      operate on 为……动手术  

consist of 由……组成       resist in坚持       account for解释       look at        care for  照顾

object to反对       send for 派人去请       rely on 依靠       depend on 依靠       stand for代表

laugh at 嘲笑       wait for等待            look into调查      apply for申请         believe in 信仰  

play with         come across碰见        go through通过

 

2、动词 + 副词:

give up放弃        carry out执行        look up查找         point out指出        bring up抚养   

find out查明        hand in上交         make out认出        think over考虑       put on穿

wipe out消灭       pick up拣起         throw away抛弃      set up建立           take off脱掉

turn down拒绝      give away暴露       hand out分发        call off取消          turn off关掉

knock off停工      stand up起立         break down出毛病    look out小心        take off起飞

run out耗尽        catch up赶上         give in让步          grow up长大        hang around逗留

pass away去世      show off炫耀         drop out退出        get up起床          go on 继续

 

3、动词 + 副词 + 介词:

cut down on减少     get along with与…相处     run out of 用光    look up to尊敬    date back to追溯

get through with完成     keep up with 跟上    make up for 补偿    come down with患病   sit in on旁听

do away with 抛弃   look forward to 期望   put up with 忍受   stand up to反对   look down upon瞧不起

 

4、动词 + 名词 + 介词

catch sight of 看见          find fault with挑…毛病        keep an eye on照看       make fun of 取笑 

make friends with与…交友    pay attention to注意    shake hands with与…握手   take advantage of 利用

take part in参加           get rid of摆脱              give rise to引起           lose sight of 看不见

make use of 利用          take care of照料            throw light on阐明           put a stop to结束

 

<>时态

 

体态

一般

 

进行

 

完成

 

完成进行

 

 

 

时间

be +现在分词

have+过去分词

 

have been+

 

现在分词

 

 

现在

works

 

work

is

 

am + working

are

has

 

have+worked

has

 

have+been working

 

 

过去

worked

 

was

 

were + working

had worked

 

had been working

 

 

 

将来

will

 

shall +work

will

 

shall +be working

will

 

shall+have worked

will

 

shall+have been working

 

 

过去将来

would

 

should+work

would

 

should+be working

would

 

should+have worked

would

 

should +have been working

 

1、一般现在时

1.1表习惯性动作;人或事物的特性或状态;客观真理等

Everyone is in high spirits.                                           Light travels more quickly than sound.

1.2用于时间和条件状语从句,代替一般将来时

If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic.                 When you come next time, bring me some magazines.

1.3与具有“出发,到达”含义的动词连用,表示按计划将要发生的动作

The delegation arrives in Beijing this afternoon.                                  There is a new film tonight.

 

2、一般过去时(表示过去某时间的动作或状态)

The children went out just now.              She died ten years ago.              I lost my wallet at the theatre.

3、一般将来时

3.1 will/shall do:   Next month, my sister will be nineteen.            I shall/will return you the book tomorrow.

3.2 be going to do:  The wall is going to be painted green.            It is going to rain.

3.3 be to do表示按计划要发生的事:                             We are to meet at the school gate.

3.4 be about to do即将(正要)做某事:                            Autumn harvest is about to start.

 

4、一般过去将来时

He said that he would get married soon.                           I asked him when he would come here again.

5、现在进行时

5.1表示说话时,或现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的情况。              They are making an experiment now.

5.2 计划即将发生,go, come, leave, arrive:         He is coming here next week and is staying here until August.

6、过去进行时   We were talking about you a moment ago.            I was playing the piano when she came in.

7、将来进行时    What will you be doing this time tomorrow?                  I believe he’ll be coming soon.

 

8、现在完成时

8.1过去发生但对现在有影响的动作,常跟时间状语already, yet, never, before, recently, just, ever, once连用。

I have been to Peking many times.                   They have already published the results of their experiments.

8.2从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在,,可能还要继续下去,,的动作,常跟时间状语since, for two years,

so far, in recent years等,,使用延续性动词,,

He has lived here since 1984.                                           I have studied English for two years.

1)他参军已经有十年了。  He has been an armyman for ten years.

It is (has been) ten years since he joined the army.

He joined the army ten years ago.

2,,It is (has been)since:  It is (has been) a long time since they last met each other.

3) This is the first(second) time that: This is the second time that I have broken a cup this year.

 

9、过去完成时

John had learned some Chinese before he came to China.                    He found the book that he had lost.

By the end of last year, I had worked in this college for ten years.

***no sooner…..than,  hardly(scarcely)……when(before)

We had no sooner reached home than it began to rain.       No sooner had we reached home than it began to rain.

He had hardly entered the office when (before) the phone rang.

 

10、现在完成进行时,,常跟for hours, since this morning等表示一段时间的状语连用,,

They have been watching TV for two hours.              He has been working on this essay since this morning.

11、时态呼应特殊规则

Kepler proved that the sun is the center of the solar system. 客观真理

I didn’t go to the ball because I am not fond of dancing.    意义需要

 

<>被动语态

  一般时态

进行时态

 

完成时态

 

 

 

现在

am

 

is            written

are

am

 

is         being given

are

has

 

been written

have

 

 

过去

was

 

were         written

was      

 

were      being given

had been written

 

 

 

将来

shall

 

will          be written

shall

will     have been written

 

 

过去将来

should

 

would        be written

should

would   have been written

 

***有些动词表示状态或关系,通常不用于被动语态:

cost花费            fit适合              have             hold容纳             lack缺乏     

own占有            possess拥有         resemble          suit适合              last持续

The boy resembles his father.                                           We have friends all over the world.

***少数短语动词通常只用被动语态:

be taken in受骗,上当                                       be supposed to do something应该,被期望

be intended for something(somebody) / to do something旨在,用于

The book is intended for beginners.                               We are supposed to meet at the gate at 7:00.

***转化为系动词的感官动词 + 表语

Good medicine tastes bitter.                                                  This material feels very soft.

***不及物动词和词组无被动语态: How long did the meeting last?

***in case, whether, where, as soon as遵照“主将从现”原则, 主句将来时态,从句现在时态

Whether I win or lose, I will have a good time.                          I will write to you as soon as I get here.

***表示心理活动和存在的动词一般不用进行时态:                       They love and respect each other.

 七、非谓语动词,,不定式、分词、动名词,,
,,一,,不定式

1、一般用法

1,,作主语:               To say something is one thing, to do it is another.说是一码事,干是另一码事。

***形式主语it             It is not fair to blame them for the accident.

2,,作表语:               My suggestion is to carry out the plan immediately.

3,,作宾语:               He offered to go with us.他提出和我们一起去。

***形式宾语it             We found it impossible to get everything ready in advance.

                          I consider it my duty to point out their shortcomings.

4,,作宾语或主语的补足语: Mr. Smith wants his son to become a lawyer.

                          The suspected man was seen to enter the building.

此类动词还有如ask, advise, allow, compel, encourage, hear, intend, lead, inspire, order, persuade等。

***hope, demand, suggest不可接不定式作宾补,但可跟that引出的宾语从句。

He hoped that I would give him more help.              The doctor suggests that my father (should) stop smoking.

***see, hear, look at, listen to, feel, observe, watch, notice等感官动词, 以及let, make, have 等动词后面的不定式要省掉to 。但注意在其被动语态中,作为主补的不定式要加上to

We are made to write a composition every week by the teacher.

 

5)构成复合谓语结构:

① “be said (reported, known) + 不定式”可换成: it is said (reported, known)that
Shanxi Province is known to have rich coal reserves. = It is known that Shanxi ……
seem (happen, appear, prove, tend) + 不定式
  I happened to be out when she called.  碰巧出去了

be likely (certain, sure, willing, anxious, ready, bound, eager, reluctant) + 不定式

  They are likely to succeed.                                            She is always ready to help others.

 

6)作定语,,一般为后置修饰语,,

He used to have a lot of meetings to attend.                                   There is nothing to worry about.

英语中有一些名词常跟不定式作定语ability, agreement, ambition, attempt, claim, decision, hope, intention, failure, need, refusal, plan, promise, tendency, wish, willingness, threat, anxiety

His attempt to solve the problem failed again.                 Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.

the first, second, last, only (thing), best (thing)等后面常跟不定式作定语。

He is always the first to come and the last to leave.                                What is the best thing to do?

 

7)作状语,,表示目的,原因,结果等,,

They will go to the station to meet the guests.                                    We are overjoyed to see you.

常跟不定式作原因状语的形容词有: happy, glad, relieved, astonished, amazed, overjoyed, surprised, sad

不定式也可作结果状语,仅限于learn得知, find发现, see看见, hear听见,to be told被告知, make使得等具有界限含义的动词, only to常表示令人不快的结果。

He returned home to learn his daughter had just been engaged.

I hurried to Professor Wang’s house only to find he was out.

***

不定式与in order to, so as to连用,作目的状语;与so(such) as to连用,作目的状语和结果状语。

In order to catch the train, he hurried through his work.                 He was so angry as to be unable to speak.

②不定式与enoughtooto连用,作程度状语。
all too, only too加不定式不表示否定的意思:         I’m only too pleased to help you.我非常愿意帮助你。

8)插入语:  To be fair, he has worked hard these days.              We don’t like your idea, to tell you the truth.

 

2、注意问题:

1,,不定式的逻辑主语

,,1,,       for + 名词或代词宾语 + 不定式:I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.  

,,2,,       不定式独立结构:He proposed a picnic, he himself to pay the railway tickets, and John to provide the food.

在表示人物性格、特点等的形容词后,用of引出不定式的逻辑主语:

It was wise of him to do that.                                I think it wrong of him not to accept our invitation.

常见的这类形容词有:
absurd荒唐的    bold大胆的    brave勇敢的    clever聪明的    courageous有勇气的    rude无礼的
considerate考虑周到的      foolish愚蠢的     honest诚实的      polite有礼貌的      silly傻的
grateful感激的       wicked邪恶的      thoughtful体贴的       careless粗心的      right正确的
 2)不定式的否定式: not + to do                                 They decided not to give up trying.
3)连接词 + 不定式:                                        He will tell us how to use the library.
 4) to 的不定式             

①口语以 why 开头的简单句:      Why not go out for a walk?                  Why do it that way?

had better, would rather…(than), would…rather than, would sooner…(than), can not but…, can’t help but…, may(might) as well习惯用法

Rather than beg in the street, he would prefer to die of hunger.他宁愿饿死也不上街

I could’t help but wait for the next bus to come.我不得不等下一趟车。
***do nothing/anything/everything but (except)

Last night I did nothing but watch TV.                                John will do anything but work on a farm.

****其他的谓语形式要用to

There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent.             The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.

 

3、不定式的“体”式和语态

体式                         主动语态                          被动语态

一般式                        to write                            to be written

完成式                       to have written                      to have been written

进行式                       to be writing                 

完成进行式                   to have been writing

⑴体式  I am sorry to hear the news.,,不定式动作发生在谓语动作之后,或同时发生,,
They seem to be having a meeting. ,,不定式动作与谓语动作同时发生,,

The enemy was reported to have surrendered two days before.,,不定式先于谓语动作,,

⑵语态  ①出现动作的执行者,用主动式:I have a meeting to attend.
否则用被动语态:Here are the clothes to be washed.
②在“表语,,或宾语补足语,,+ 不定式”结构中,常用不定式的主动式代替被动式:
They found Professor Jones’ lecture hard to understand.        She is nice to talk to.

③习惯用法:None of us was to blame for that.

The dog was nowhere to be found.

 

,,二,,分词(现在分词和过去分词)

比较:  剥削阶级the exploiting class                          被剥削阶级the exploited class  

正在采花的女孩the girl gathering flowers                 今天早晨采集的花the flowers gathered this morning

落叶fallen leaves     凋谢的花faded flowers        开水boiled water       新到的商品newly arrived goods

1、一般用法

1,,作表语,现在分词常表示特性,过去分词常表示状态。

His argument is very convincing. 他的论点很令人信服.                     They were very excited at the news.

2,,作定语

Don’t disturb the sleeping child.        The arrested murderer will be tried soon.那个被逮捕的杀人犯将受到审讯.

分词作定语的位置

You may ask the lady (who is) sitting at the desk.

Those (who have been) elected as committee members will attend the meeting. (当选为委员的人)

3,,作宾语,,或主语,,的补足语

He likes to sit on the beach and watch the sea gulls flying. (海鸥)                The work left everyone exhausted.

4,,作状语

Hearing the knock on the door, they stopped talking. (= When they heard….)

Asked to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. (= As I was asked to….)

They stood there waiting for the bus. (and were waiting….)

The bandits fled into the mountains, pursued by the policemen. (and were pursued….)

5) 分词的独立结构

The rain having stopped, the soldiers continued their march. 

The boys returned, their face covered with sweat.

演变:    The teacher entered the classroom, a bag (being) in his hand.

He stopped and turned about, his eyes (being) brightly proud.                Breakfast over, he went to his office.

She left the room with the candle burning on the table.                 He wandered in without shoes or socks on.

6) 作插入语

Generally speaking, I prefer rice to noodles.                    Judging from his accent, he must be a southerner.

 

2、体式和语态

Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.

Not having made adequate preparations, we postponed the sports meet.

Having studied hard during the term, he passed the exam.

He is said to have studied hard and passed the exam.                      Who is the patient being operated on?

 

,,二,,动名词

1、一般用法

1,,作主语和表语  Seeing is believing.                                      My hobby is collecting stamps.

(1) 形式主语it    It is no use/good quarreling with her.                      Is it worthwhile trying again?

(2) There is no +V-ing    There is no joking about this matter.

2) 作宾语

He enjoys listening to classical music.                              We must avoid making such mistakes again.

(1)常见只跟动名词作宾语的词或词组:

admit承认  avoid避免   consider考虑   delay耽搁   deny否认  endure忍耐  enjoy喜欢  escape逃避  excuse原谅   fancy想象   finish完成    forbid严禁   imagine想象   mind介意    miss错过   dislike厌恶 

permit允许    postpone推迟     practice练习    require需要    risk冒…危险    stop停止    suggest建议

can’t help禁不住    feel like想,欲    give up放弃     keep on继续进行     object to反对     put off推迟

(2)常见既可跟动名词也可跟不定式作宾语的动词有:

attempt试图    begin开始    can’t bear忍不住    cease停止    continue继续    deserve值得   forget忘记 

hate不喜欢    intend打算    learn学习    like喜欢    love喜欢    prefer宁愿    need需要   neglect疏忽

propose建议   remember 记得   regret懊悔   start开始   try尝试   oppose反对

(3)是否用形式宾语it (当宾语补足语是一些带有“有用、明智、值得”等含义的形容词时,用形式宾语it)

She found it useless arguing with him.                                   Do you consider it wise trying again?

3)作介词宾语

Have you got used to working on the night shift?                    Children are fond of reading detective stories.

He insisted on there being no discussion of his private affairs at the meeting.

****(1)某些习惯用法:

He is busy (in) preparing a report.                           They spent a lot of time (in) making preparations.

The students had a good time (in) playing in the park.              We had great difficulty (in) finding his house.

Do you have any problem (in) filling in the form?

(2)介词 + 动名词常用作定语修饰名词,其中“of + 动名词”最多见。

①常见用介词 + 动名词作定语的名词有:

apology (for)    choice (of)     custom (of)    excuse (of)    experience (in)   importance (of)    practice (of)

habit (of)      honor (of)      hope (of)      idea (of)       means (of)     method (of/for)     purpose (of)

necessity (of)   objection (to)   possibility (of)       

②既可用介词 + 动名词也可用不定式作定语的名词有:

intention (of)    opportunity (of)    plan (for)    reason (for)    right (of)     time (for)     way (of)

4)作同位语

His habit, studying at night, remains unchanged.               That was her favorite pastime(娱乐), playing chess.

 

2、注意问题

1,,动名词的逻辑主语 ①人称代词的所有格 + 动名词,②名词’s + 动名词。

比较:Tom insisted on going with them. (He went with them.)

        Tom insisted on my going with them. (I went with them.)

He dislikes working late. (He works late.)        He dislikes his wife’s working late. (His wife works late.)

Is there any hope of John winning the first prize?         This is a clear case of electricity being converted into heat.

2)动名词作定语     a studying plan                drinking water饮用水                 a swimming pool

3)比较remember/forget to do        regret to do     go on to do        try to do 设法做某事

       remember/forget doing          regret doing        go on doing          try doing试着做某事

need/want to do                 used to do过去常常做某事

  need/want doing (被动)            be used to doing习惯于做某事

3、动名词的体式和语态

1,,完成式:having done

He was praised for having made a great contribution to his country.

His having been elected chairman of the club surprised us greatly.

2,,被动式:being done

He did it without being asked.                                           We insisted on being given the task.

 八、情态动词

 

词义

现在式

 

过去式

 

同义短语

 

 

 

能够,可能

can

 

could

 

be able to

 

 

 

许可,也许

may

 

might

 

必须,一定

must

 

had to

 

have to

 

 

 

应当,要

shall

 

should

 

ought to

 

 

 

愿意,要

will

 

would

 

需要

need

 

 

 

 

dare

 

 

 

1can/ could                    be able to可用于各种时态

Jack can (is able to) speak five languages.                  She has been able to play the piano since she was nine.

In the early days, people could not (were not able to) count as we do now.

1)I could catch the 7:30 train.能够做,未必                  I was able to catch 7:30 train.能够做并且做了

2)潜在的可能: Anybody can make mistakes.         Experts said that another storm like this could destroy the crops.

3)表示揣测/怀疑等态度:

①对现在can(could) + 原形动词(状态动词),can(could) + be + 现在分词(行为动词)

This can’t be true.                  They can’t be working now.                    Could this be a misprint?

②对过去can(could) + have + 过去分词

He can’t have gone to Peking. I saw him only a while ago.                Could they have arrived there already?

4)表示“请求”或“允许”

You can go with them if you like.       Could I use your bike?             He asked me if he could use my bike.

 

2may/ might

1)请求或允许: You may borrow any of those books on the shelves.        He asked if he might have a chat with me.

2)表示客观可能性: Take an umbrella with you. It may rain.                   They may not approve of your idea.

3)揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)

现在: He may know Miss Lee’s telephone number.                This might be the key Tom has been looking for.

过去: The train may have left already.                                    They might have been there before.

4)祈祷/愿望: may + 宾语 +动词

May God be with you!                    May you succeed!                      May you be happy!

 

3must

1,,“必须”,,肯定句或疑问句,,或“不许”,,否定句,,

---Must we hand in the papers this week?    ---No, you needn’t.                    Cars mustn’t be parked here.

2)“必然性”,即:自然规律,或必然结果

All men must die.                                                       Bad seed must produce bad corn.

3) 揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)

现在: He must be sick for he looks so pale.                                        It must be raining outside.

过去: It must have rained last night. The ground is wet.              I think my letter must have been miscarried.

 

4shall/ will

1,,shall 用于主语为第一人称第三人称疑问句中,表示提出建议或征求对方的允诺

Shall I fetch a doctor for you?                               Shall he attend the meeting?要他来参加会议吗?

用在主语是第二人称第三人称陈述句,表示允诺或警告(可以或不可以,不得)

You shall be sorry for what you have done.    He shall get what he wants.       You shall not leave your post later.

2)will   表示意志,意愿 We will do our best to get the job done in time.            She can stay home if she will.

请求    Will you please be quiet?                          Don’t be late for the meeting, will you?

5should/ ought to

1,,应该,义务 ,,should更侧重主观看法,ought to更着重客观情况,,       We should (ought to) work harder.

Safety precautions should (ought to) be observed at all times.在任何时候都应遵守安全规定。

2,,对已发生的情况表示“责备”

You should (ought to) have waited for us.             She shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have let the baby play with fire.

3)惊奇(虚拟语气)                  I did not expect that you should have finished the work so soon.竟会如此快地

4)推测,推论, 用法结构同can, may等词                         They should have arrived in Shanghai by now.

The report is written after careful investigation, so it should be reliable.

6would  近似于will的用法,

***表示过去习惯性动作,与used to do同义。

In those days, he would (used to) visit me on Sundays.        Whenever I was in difficulty, he would gladly help me.

7need/ dare两者都可作情态动词,也可作实义动词。

1) You needn’t work so late. = You don’t need to work so late.                Need he go? = Does he need to go?

间接引语中表过去The manager said that I need not go.

You needn’t have bought that dictionary. I have a spare one. (But you have already bought one.)

You needn’t see him, but I must.

2) She dare not (daren’t) say what she thinks.            If the enemy dare come, they will certainly be wiped out.

间接引语中表过去She said that she daren’t tell them the truth.

dare作实义动词用在否定句和疑问句中时,其后所接不定式有时可以省略“to”:

I have never dared (to) speak to him.                              Did he dare (to) criticize my arrangement?

习语I dare say:我认为,我猜想          You must be tired, I dare say.            I dare say you are right.

 

8had better/best

You had better not go.      We had best take a short cut.抄近路      Hadn’t you better take an umbrella?

9would/had rather……than……

I am sure they would rather stay than go.       I would rather not lend you the book now. I’m using it now.

10cannot but/ cannot help

cannot but do = have to                                              I cannot but tell her the truth.

cannot help doing = cannot help but do                        Hearing that, they could not help laughing.

 九、虚拟语气

 

现在的假设

were,,+表语,,              should

 

If 主语+  V-ed…            ,  主语+  would …   +动词原形

              should do                   could

 

 

过去的假设

                                   should

 

If 主语had + 过去分词,   主语+  would    have    +过去分词

                                   could

 

 

将来的假设

             should   动词原形              should

 

If 主语+  were to  动词原形   主语+   would    +动词原形

             动词过去式                     could

 

1、现在:The platform would collapse if all of you stood on it.

过去:If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.

If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam.

将来:If he should change his mind, what would we do? 

If you missed the film tonight, you would feel sorry for it.

2、注意问题

1,,should一旦……                           If it should rain tomorrow, we would have to change our plan.

2) if onlysuppose (supposing)引导的虚拟条件句: 要是,假如

If only I had more money, I could buy a car.       Supposing it were fine tomorrow, would you go fishing with us?

3) if it (be) not for…      要不是相当于but for, without

If it were not for the leadership of the Party, we could not be living a happy life today.

If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work.

4)连词if的省略 (were, had, should等提到主语前面)

Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved.      Shall it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.

Were I to go to the moon some day, I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes.

5)含蓄条件(without, but for, but that, but, otherwise以及比较级)

Without electricity, there would be no modern industry.

But that she was afraid, she would have said no.要不是害怕的话,她就会拒绝了。

****错综时间I would be most glad to help you, but I’m busy now.

If I were you, I would have taken his advice.         If he had listened to me, he would not be in such trouble now.

 

3、虚拟语气在表示要求、建议、命令等的从句中的应用

1,,宾语从句: He insisted that John (should) do the job.

We suggested that the meeting (should) not be postponed.

此类还有:ask要求  move提议   demand 要求  decide决定  insist坚持   command命令  prefer宁愿   propose提议    order下令    urge主张     require要求     request请求    suggest建议    advise劝告

2) 主语从句: It is necessary that you should be present at the discussion.

It was ordered that the medicines be sent here by plane.  (should可以省略)

此类形容词或分词: essential必要的   urgent紧迫的    necessary必要的     important重要的     advisable合理的  asked要求   desired希望的   natural自然的  desirable理想的   demanded要求的    preferable更好的    imperative迫切的    required要求的    ordered命令的    suggested建议的

3)同位语或表语从句: The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.

                  Their demand is that their wages be increased by 20%.

此类名词: advice忠告     command命令     demand要求    desire要求     idea意见     motion提议  
order 命令     plan 计划     proposal提议     preference偏爱     insistence主张     suggestion建议
recommendation劝告      request 要求      requirement 要求
 

4wish从句

①同时,即与谓语动词同时存在的情况,形式为:that主语 + 动词过去式,,be动词用were,,
②先时,即在谓语动词时间之前就发生了的情况,形式为:that主语 + 动词过去分词

③后时,即在谓语动词时间之后出现的情况,形式为:that主语 + would,,could…,, + 动词原形

同时I wish I were as young as you.                                How they wished it were not raining then!

先时I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.

后时It was wished that they would make greater progress.       Isn’t it your wish that you could buy a car like that?

5as if/ though

She loves the children in the kindergarten as if they were her own. 同时

Alan talked about Rome as if he were a Roman. 同时

Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. 先时                       She looks as if she would cry. 后时

 

6would / had rather, would (just) as soon, would sooner, would prefer等结构表示:希望或婉转的责备,其谓语动词形式与wish类从句大体相同。

I’d rather you posted the letter right away.                          I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.

***主语是对自己行为表示某种愿望或感叹,则谓语形式有:

现在情况:would rather + do                           过去情况:would rather + have done

I would rather buy a house with a garden.                          She would rather not have gone to the party.

7it is ,,about high…,, time + 从句 + 动词过去式

It is high time (that) we began to work.                           Isn’t (about) time that children went to school?

 

8in case/ lest/ for fear that表示:一旦、以防、以免,谓语形式:should(不可省) + 动词原形

He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.   

She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.

***可不用虚拟语气,用动词的陈述语气形式:The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him.

 十、主谓一致

1名词做主语与谓语的一致

1,,集合名词作主语,如表示整体概念用单数谓语形式;如表示具体成员用复数形式:

The football team consists of 20 players.                              The football team are having a bath now.

常见此类名词有:army, audience, class, club, committee, company, crowd, couple, family, group, government, jury, party, personnel, staff, union, team, public

2) 有些集合名词cattlefolkpeoplepolicepoultryyouth等,总是跟复数动词形式:

The police have caught the murderer.

3)单复数形式相同的名词,如aircraft, deer, fish, means, sheep, species, series, works, crossroads, headquarters谓语根据意义来决定单复数。

The species of fish are numerous.                                           This species of rose is very rare.

4,,复数名词作专有名词时,用单数谓语。                            The United States was founded in 1776.

5,,其他情况

,,1,,“the + 形容词”作主语,表示一类可数的人或事物时,用复数谓语;如表示一类不可数的事物时,用单数

The old are well looked after by the government.      The agreeable is not always the useful.好看的未必实用。

,,2,,表示成双成对的东西的名词,若被a pair of修饰,要求接单数谓语;否则用复数谓语。

These trousers are made in Shanghai.                                 This pair of trousers is made in Shanghai.

 

2、由连接词连接的主语与谓语的一致

1,,and连接,如果指的是同一人或事物,用单数谓语形式;若指不同人或事物,用复数。

The secretary and manager was present at the meeting.那位书记兼经理出席了会议

The secretary and the manager were present at the meeting.书记和经理都出席了会议

Early to bed and early to rise is a good habit.(作一件事)

The tenth (chapter) and the last chapter are translated by him.

2) both…and连接两个名词, 谓语用复数形式

  Both the secretary and manager have agreed to be present.

3) 主语是and连接的两个单数名词,前面如有eacheverymany ano等修饰,谓语用单数

During the holidays, every train and steamboat was crowded.

No teacher and no student is admitted.师生一律不得入内    Many a boy and many a girl has seen this painting.

4) 单数名词+ along with, together with, combined with, as well as, rather thanwith等词作主语,谓语用单数                                 Tom as well as two of his classmates was invited to the party.

5,,由or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接的名词或代词作主语时, 谓语要符合就近原则,与邻近的主语一致。        Neither I nor he is to blame.           One or two friends are coming this evening.

 

3代词、“限定词+名词”作主语与谓语的一致

1,,all, half, most, none, some, the remainder (of), the rest (of), plenty (of) 等作主语时,谓语根据意义决定。

Most of his spare time was spent in reading.                             Most of the houses in this town are new.

Half of the oranges are bad.                                                  Half of the food is unfit to eat.

2) both, (a) few, many, several等修饰主语,谓语用复数形式.

Few (of the) guests were familiar to us.                                         Both of these films are boring.

3) 由合成词some (any, no, every) + thing (body, one)作主语, 由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither, another, the other作主语, 以及由限定词either, neither, each, every, many a, more than one+ 名词作主语时, 都跟单数谓语动词。

Nothing but trees was to be seen.                           No one except my parents knows anything about it.

More than one defendant is involved in the case.被告                        Either of the rooms is big enough.

***neither of, either of 的否定式中, 也可用复数动词.

Neither of them want(s) to come.                                 I don’t think either of them is (are) at home.

 

4)在“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”结构中, 定语从句一般看作修饰复数名词, 因此该从句谓语用复数.

This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year.

***the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句,谓语则用单数He was the only one of the boys who was given a prize.

5)在“代词 + 定语从句”的结构中,从句谓语的人称、性别、数目要与被修饰的代词保持一致。

I, who am your friend, will try my best to help you.

6,,由what引导的主语从句,一般要用单数谓语。如从句谓语或从句后的表语复数时,要求用复数谓语。

What you said is quite to the point. 你所说的非常中肯。     What we need are qualified teachers.……是合格教师。

 

4、数词、量词等作主语与谓语的一致

1,,用作运算的数词作主语时,常用单数谓语。

Ten plus ten makes (equals, gives, is) twenty.                Three multiplied by four is twelve.三乘以四等于十二

2)数词和表示时间、度量衡、温度和金钱等名词作主语表示一定的量或总和时,谓语一般用单数形式。

Twenty years in prison was the penalty he had to pay.                   Ten thousand dollars is quite a large sum.

***Twenty years have passed since his father died.       ,,years作为时间单位,用复数动词,,

   ,,Thousands of,,Millions of dollars have gone into the building of the factory.

3,,分数和百分数修饰时,谓语由其表示的意义决定:

About one third of the books are worth reading.                   Only 20 percent of the work was done yesterday.

4) kind (form, type, sort, species, portion, series, quantity) of等修饰主语,谓语取决于这些词的单、复数。

A new type of bus is now on show.       Some new forms of art were discussed

There is only a small quantity of paper (books) left.       Large quantities of water are needed for cooling purposes.

5) a number of,,许多,,,a variety of,,各种各样的,,和a group of,,一群/组,,修饰主语,用复数谓语动词;但the number of,,数目,,和the variety of,,种类,,修饰时,用单数谓语。

A number of students are from the south.                        The number of students from the north is small.

There are a variety of toys in that shop.                           The variety of goods in that shop is surprising.

 

十一、反意疑问句,,详见书p44和习题,,

十二、倒装

1there bethere + 其他连系动词                         There stands a weather station at the top of the hill.

E.g. there may be, there can be, there must be, there seems to be, there appears to be, there happened to be, there exist, there stand, there remain……

2、省略if的虚拟条件句中的倒装:,,详见“虚拟语气”,,         Were it fine tomorrow, we would go on a picnic.

3、在以here, there, now, then等引导的句中,谓语是be, come, go等动词:

打铃了There goes the bell.   现在轮到你啦Now comes your turn.     ***There he comes.      Here they are.

4、在so, nor, neither开头的句中:

If you won’t go, neither will I.                          I went to a movie last night. So did my sister and brother.        

5、“only + 状语”用于句首表示强调,要用倒装:                 Only in this way can you solve this problem.

 

6、含有否定意义的副词或词组用于句首,充当状语时,用倒装:

neverseldomrarelylittlehardlyscarcelynot untilby no meansin no timeunder no circumstances,
not only…,,but also,,,neither…,,nor,,,no sooner…,,than,,,hardly…,,when,,

Never shall I forget this lesson.                                      In no case will he give up the experiment.

7as, be引导的让步状语从句(尽管…),用倒装句:

Tired as he was, he continued to work.                        Try as he might, he could not fulfil the task alone.

8、当so,,such,,…that结构中的sosuch用于句首加强语气时,用倒装:

So angry was he (=he was so angry) that he couldn’t speak.

To such an extent do the parents love their son that they have tried to satisfy every demand of his.

9、有时,在in, out, away, up, down, off等副词开头的句中用倒装:      Away they went.       In she came.

Following a roar, out rushed a tiger from among the bushes.

10比较状语从句和其他比较结构中,常用倒装:

He traveled a great deal as did most of his friends.他到过很多地方旅行,他的多数朋友也是这样。

 十三、从句

,,一,,主语从句

1、主语从句的位置

That light travels in straight lines is known to all.  /  It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.

When the plane is to take off has not been announced.  /  It has not been announced when the plane is to take off.

What he wants is a book.                              Has it been settled who will be sent to carry out the task?

2it作形式主语的主语从句结构:

It is + 名词词组 + 从句

It is a fact/question that…               It is good news that…              It is common knowledge that…(常识)

It is + 形容词 + 从句

It is necessary/ clear/ (un)likely/ important that….
It is + 过去分词 + 从句
It is said/ reported that…                It has been proved that…            It must be pointed out that…

It is + 不及物动词 + 从句

It seems that…好象是     It happened that…碰巧    It follows that…由此可见    It has turned out that… 结果是

 

***it引导的强调句,分析如:    John bought a toy plane for his son yesterday.

                                          

It was John that (who) bought a toy plane for his son yesterday.  强调主语

It was a toy plane that John bought for his son yesterday.       强调宾语

It was for his son that John bought a toy plane yesterday.       强调目的状语

It was yesterday that John bought a toy plane for his son.       强调时间状语

 

,,二,,宾语从句

1、作动词的宾语:       He wondered how the pyramids were built.                She told me where she lived.

2、作介词的宾语:      This depends on how hard you work.             Is there anything wrong in what I said?

3、作形容词的宾语: They are confident that they can do it well.  I’m not certain whether(if) they will arrive on time.

4、宾语从句注意点:

形式宾语it             He has made it clear that the meeting will not be postponed.

否定前移:  I don’t think he has time to play chess with you.              I don’t suppose it is the rush hour yet.

插入语语序:When (do you think) John will arrive?              Who (do you believe) will be given the prize?

***肯定: I think so.     I hope so.               否定: I don’t think so.       I hope not.       I’m afraid not.

 

,,三,,表语从句

My idea is that this plan should be carried out immediately.                  It looks that (as if) it is going to rain.

That is why we called off the meeting.                                    This is how we did it.

The reason (why) he was late was that he missed the bus.他迟到的原因是误了车。

,,四,,同位语从句,,功能:加以阐明、解释,,

I have no idea when he will return.          They are faced with the problem whether they should continue the work.

 

,,五,,定语从句,,功能:进行修饰和限定,,

The man whom (that) you saw just now is our manager.             Is there anyone here whose name is Wang Lin?

The building whose roof we can see from here is a supermarket.

 

****当先行词是all, everything, something, nothing等不定代词, 或被first, last, only, few, much, some, any, no以及形容词最高级等词修饰时, 应该用关系代词that,不用 which

I am interested in all that you have told me.    He asked for the best book that there was on the subject.

****当并列的两个先行词分别表示人和物时,要用关系代词that引导定语从句。

We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited there.

 

The reason that (=why) you were absent is groundless.              I don’t like the way (that) (=in which) he talks.

This was the second time that I had seen the film.                      This is the same watch as (that) I have lost.

No one will believe such stories as he told.                             He works in the same shop as (that) I do.

限定性: I want to buy the house which (=that) has a garden.  

非限定性: I want to buy the house, which (that) has a garden.

 

This is the place where (=in which) I spent my childhood.             This is the place which I visited last summer.

The first person who opens that door will get a shock.          

Those who will go to tomorrow’s show will have to come this afternoon to get their tickets.

posted on 2008-01-23 21:22 Mainz 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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