John, London, the United Nations
map, box, story
①map----------------maps ②box----------------boxes ③story---------------stories
hero----heroes 英雄 cargo----cargoes货物 potato----potatoes 土豆 tomato----tomatoes西红柿
auto----autos 汽车 piano----pianos钢琴 photo----photos 照片 kilo----kilos公里
zoo----zoos动物园 radio----radios收音机 bamboo----bamboos竹子 studio----studios照相馆
thief----thieves小偷 knife----knives刀 wife----wives妻子
life----lives生命 shelf----shelves架子 half----halves半
**但有些只加-s: belief----beliefs信念 roof----roofs屋顶
child-----children孩子 foot-----feet脚,英尺 goose-----geese鹅 ox-----oxen牛
tooth-----teeth牙齿 mouse-----mice老鼠 basis-----bases基础 medium----media媒介
man-----men 男人 woman-----women女人 chairman-----chairmen主席 datum-----data数据
sheep绵羊 deer鹿 fish鱼 fruit水果
yuan 元 shark鲨鱼 Chinese 中国人 Swiss瑞士人
works工厂 species种类 crossroads十字路口 means手段
goods货物 clothes衣服 shoes鞋 thanks感谢 surroundings环境
politics政治学 physics物理学 glasses眼镜 outskirts郊区 wages工资
***另外一些集合名词如:cattle, mankind, police, people, staff等总是用作复数。2、不可数名词
a piece of bread 一片面包 a bag of sand 一袋沙 a bottle of beer一瓶啤酒 a game of chess一盘棋
2.2度量词修饰不可数名词：a kilo of rice 一千克大米 a meter of string 一米带子
advice 忠告 bread 面包 chalk 粉笔 furniture 家具 meat 肉 damage 损失 progress 进步
paper 纸 news新闻 rice 大米 money 钱 grass草 luggage行李 knowledge知识
sugar糖 work工作 food 食物 information信息 equipment设备 baggage行李3、名词的所有格
1,,名词 + ’s： Mary’s book
2) 名词s (复数) + ’: the workers’ library
特殊如: the children’s palace 少年宫 Women’s day 妇女节
3) 如某物为两人所共有,只需在两个名词后加’s: Mary and Jane’s car 共有
否则为:Mary’s and Jane’s cars 各自
a friend of my father’s /mine 我(父亲)的一位朋友(部分概念)
a photo of Tom’s 汤姆所拥有的一张照片,但照片上的未必是他本人
一个为期三天的假期① a three-week holiday ② a three weeks’holiday ③ a holiday of three weeks
Dr. Jones has a five-year-old daughter.二、冠词
a university a European a book an umbrella an hour an error
***不可数名词用作可数名词时,可用a/an,如: She was inspired with a new courage.
have a cold 患感冒 as a result因此，结果 as a rule 通常 have a good time
have a word with与…谈话 have a rest休息一会 in a hurry匆忙地 in a word 总之
once in a while偶尔 take a walk 散步 come to an end 结束 all of a sudden 突然
make a living谋生 make a fire生火 make a fortune发财
a couple of 一对 a great deal of大量的 a lot of 许多2、定冠词the：表特指，意为这,,些,,、那,,些,,。
There is some water in the cup. The water is hot. Close the door, please.(已知)
The telephone was invented by Bell. The early bird catches the worms.捷足先登
the earth the Bible圣经 the Universe 宇宙 the Yangtze River长江
the sun the Lord 上帝 the Pacific Ocean太平洋 the Sahara Desert撒哈拉沙漠
4,,限定意味较强的定语: the book you bought yesterday the history of China
5)用于具有鉴别意义的普通名词前,如: the planet Mercury水星 the play “King Lear”剧本《李尔王》
6,,其他用法：①西洋乐器前，表示演奏某种乐器：play the violin (piano)
②某些形容词前，使其名词化，表示这一类人或事物：the poor, the true
③姓氏的复数形式和民族名称前，表示全家和整个民族：the Turners, the Chinese
④逢十的年份前，表示几十年代：in the 1980s
⑤形容词最高级和序数词前：the biggest, the second
⑥某些计量单位的名词前：Apples are sold by the pound.
by the way 顺便说一句 in the future 未来 in the morning在上午 in the end 最终
in the meanwhile同时 in the sun在阳光下 on the average平均 on the alert警惕
on the contrary相反 on the right在右边 on the increase增长 on the spot 当场
play the fool 做傻事 keep the house居家不外出 in the dark 在暗处 at the cost of 以…为代价3、零冠词
1,,不可数名词表示泛指时：Without water man cannot live.
2,,复数可数名词表示泛指时：Teachers generally like diligent students.
3,,专有名词前一般用零冠词：China, Asia, Beijing University, Hyde Park(海德公园)4,,其他用法： ①季节名称前：Summer is coming.
②法定节日前: National Day New Year’s Day
③球类运动和棋类游戏前：play football, play chess(bridge)下棋(打桥牌)
④餐名前：When will lunch be ready?
at first at desk(table) 在办公(吃饭) at last on purpose故意 on foot徒步 in debt负债
in trouble陷入困境 at night at sea在海上 at home by accident偶然 in bed 卧床
by chance碰巧 in order of 以…的次序 go to school go to bed in common 相同的
in detail详细地 in hospital住院 in/ after class take place 发生 in return作为回敬
in sight of 看见 on fire在燃烧 make friends with keep in mind记在心里三、代词
1.1排序一般为：第二人称，第三人称，第一人称：you，he and I；you，John and I
1.2 it 的用法①代事物、动物、婴儿以及未知的人或事：Who is that？ It’s my friend.
②用于引出非人称句，表示天气、时间和距离等：It’s cloudy today.
③形式代词：It is quite right that you did that.
④引导强调句：It was his father that made him a lawyer.
2.2名词性物主代词可作主语、宾语和表语。Ours is a socialist country. This dictionary is mine. a friend of mine no fault of yours
Take care of yourself. He was teaching himself English.
The man in the photo is myself. She herself was a doctor.4、指示代词：this、that、these、those
4.1关于that的固定用法：,,1,,Jack helped finish my work and that was kind of him.杰克帮助我完成了任务，他,,那样做,,真是太好了。
,,2,,He told me only part of the story and that was that. 他只跟我讲了这个故事的一部分，就那些。
,,1,,It’s a different kind of car from that (kind of car) (which) I’m used to.这种汽车和我所习惯的那种不同。
,,2,,The president and his wife were among those (who were) present at the ceremony.
出席那个典礼有总统和他的夫人。5、相互代词：each other(两者)和one another(两者以上)
,,1,,The two parties, the Democratic Party and the Republic Party often attack each other.
,,2,,The boys in this class like to bully one another. 这个班上的男孩子喜欢互相打斗。6、不定代词
They all (both) agreed with me. They are all (both) quite wealthy.
6.2 no one和 none
,,1,,no one只用于指人，none可指人也可指物。None of后接的谓语可用复数也可用单数。
No one told us that he was there. I want some milk but there was none in the house.
----How many elephants did you see at the zoo? ----None.
None of them have (has) arrived yet. None of this money is mine.7、some / any/ no/ every+,,thing， one ，body…,,
7.1 everyone和 every one
everyone in the village 村子里所有的人,,泛指,, every one of the children 这些孩子中的每一个,,特指,,
正式英语 Anybody can do it if he or she tries. 日常英语 if they try
Everybody started waving his flag. their flags
Everybody has arrived, hasn’t he? haven’t they
***Everything is all right，isn’s it？
7.3 something, anything, nothing等被形容词修饰时,该形容词后置: nothing wrong8、否定
All of the students did not turn up.不是所有的学生都出席。 现代英语常用作：Not all of the students turned up.
2,,全部否定：none, no one, neither，nobody，nothing 等对整体意义具有否定作用的代词或副词。
None of the students turned up.没有一个学生出席。9、其他限定词
1,, 常见修饰可数名词的限定词：(a) few, a couple of, both, many, many a, a great many, several, a number of
2,, 常见修饰不可数名词的限定词：,,a,,little, much, a (large) amount of, a great deal of, a bit of3,,some/any/no any：非肯定句,,否定、疑问、条件句,, no：否定句
Can I have some coffee？请求或希望得到肯定回答时.
Some idiot parked his car outside my garage. 表示某一个= a certain
4,, many/much many接可数名词复数，much接不可数名词，在肯定句中常和so和too连用
I have met ,,so,,many people who share your view. (So) Much time has been wasted.**many a +单数可数名词相当于many+复数名词
She has been to Beijing many a time. (many times) Many an accident has happened here.5,,each/every
“我们中的每个人”应为every one of us或each of us。
Truth may lie on both sides，on either side，or on neither,,side,,.
Come on Tuesday or Wednesday. Either day is OK. You will find me at my desk at any hour of the day.
***either后接end，side等词有时可指两个都： There are trees on either side of the street. = both sides
Neither接单数可数名词，none of 接复数名词。
Neither book is mine.
None of the books on the shelves belong to me. ,,用复数动词，强调“都不是”,,
**Of all the books on the shelves, none belongs to me. ,,用单数动词,强调“没有一本是”。,,
He ate all the vegetables. He ate the whole pie.
The whole book is interesting. All the chapters are interesting.
This book is too difficult. Show me another one.
Of the three books on the desk, two are written by Dickens, the other one is written by Mark Twain.
***other前面可带some, any, every, many, one, his等其他限定词。
Will you come some other time? 改日 Please write on every other line.隔行
***the rest of the money 不可数名词 the rest of the workers可数名词
11,,a number of/ the number of
A number of comrades were absent from the meeting.
The number of comrades absent from the meeting was surprising.
12) few/ a few few表否定, a few表数量不大,表肯定。
quite a few 表相当多,为肯定。 only a few表否定，同few。
13,,little/ a little用法同上四、介词
according to ahead of apart from by means of but for because of due to except for for the sake of in addition to instead of in front of
in spite of in the name of on behalf of prior to with regard to owing to由于
2、分词介词 concerning including past regarding3、介词用法比较
3.1 表示时间的介词at, on, in, after, for, since, by, till, until, during①at表示确切时间点或较短的一段时间；in表示一天中的各部分时间或较长的时间；
at 4:30 (noon, dawn, midnight……) on Sunday (Oct.1……)
on Saturday afternoon (an autumn evening……) ***in the afternoon on Sunday
at Christmas in (during) 1987 (December, the 19th century……)
during my military service (the trip) The job was done in a week.
②He will be back in two hours. He will be back after two o’clock.
③I stayed in London (for) two days on my way to New York. since 1950 (then)
④By noon, everybody had (will have) arrived there. 到中午的时候，大家都(将)到那儿了。from 1985 to 1996
⑤He waited till,,until,,5 o’clock. They stayed until (till) after the meeting. (肯定句中表示：直到…时候)
Until now I knew nothing about it. Jack didn’t come home until / till about 11. (否定句中表示:直到…才)3.2表示地点、位置的介词in, at, round, around, beyond, on, beneath, over, under, above, below, up, down, before, behind, between, among, amid(st)
①The car pulled up at the gate.车停在大门口 She lives at No. 52 Hazel Avenue.
They have arrived in Peking. What is in the box?
②He put a necklace (a)round her neck. He is making a trip round the world.③beyond表示在…以外： There is a village beyond the hill.
There is a book on the desk. The submarine can run very fast beneath the sea.
There is a lamp over the table. The peasants are having a rest under the tree.
The plane is flying above the clouds. The sun sank below the horizon.⑦before：在…前面；after：在…后面 ,,两者具有动态意义,,
Don’t put the cart before the horse.莫本末倒置。 The object should be placed after the verb.
***in front of和behind表示静态意义的位置。
The car was parked in front of the building. There is a garden behind the house.
⑧between：在,,两者,,之间：Is there any difference between the two words?
among：在,,两者以上,,之间：They visited the temple among the hills.
The soldiers charged forward amid(st) the enemy bullets.
① in在…面,,包含在其中,,: Shanghai lies in the east of China.
to在…部,,不包含在其中,,: Japan lies to the east of China.on 两地接壤: Vietnam lies on the south of China.
②leave, start, depart等词后加for,表示目的地:He will leave for Shanghai tomorrow.3.4表示空间运动的介词along, across, through, over, up, down, from, to, into, out of
①along沿着: They are taking a walk along the street.
across横过: Dare you swim across the river?
②through(从中间穿过): They drove through the city (tunnel)
over越过: The plane flew over the city.
③up向上方: He ran up the stairs. down向下方: The ship is sailing down the river.
④He received a letter from abroad. She stood up and walked to the window.
3.5表示工具、方法和手段的介词with, by, in, through, on
Wood is often cut with a saw. We should face the situation with great courage.
Babies learn to speak by imitation. We can get energy by burning fuel.
3) in表示方式: Can you do the experiment in another way? Cloth is often measured in metres.
4) through表示途径,手段,与by接近: He became rich through hard work.3.6表示原因的介词because of, owing to, due to(一般不位于句首), on account of, at, for, from, with, of
eg. The flight was cancelled due to the fog. We rejoiced at their great achievements.
He was punished for stealing. They are suffering from starvation and disease.
She was red with shame. The man died of lung cancer.直接原因 The soldier died from a bad wound.间接原因3.7除了…：besides, except, except for, but, apart from(意思较广)
Besides English, they also study math, physics and chemistry.
He answered all the questions except (but) the last one.
Your composition is good except for a few spelling mistakes.整体中除去一个细节
The enemy had no choice but to surrender.
***but for表示:要不是因为，倘若没有,常用于虚拟语气表示含蓄条件.3.8表示让步的介词in spite of, despite, after all, for all, with all
The children continued to play in the garden despite the rain.
With all his achievements, he remains modest and prudent.谦虚谨慎 For all his faults, we still like him.五、形容词和副词
5.1系表结构，应用形容词作表语：The dish smells good. He looks very serious. She felt bad at the news.
clean direct firm likely quick close early hard long slow clear enough high
low straight dead far kindly much tight deep fast late near wrong wide
John drives very fast. He took a fast train to London.
You must go straight to bed. The teacher drew a straight line.
daily每天的 lonely孤独的 lovely可爱的 lively活泼的 monthly每月一次的 friendly友好的
kindly和蔼的 early早的 silly愚蠢的 timely及时的 likely很可能的 ugly丑陋的
deadly致命的 deathly死一般的 earthly世俗的 其中early, kindly, likely也可用作副词。
bad 坏的 badly 非常 practical实际的 practically事实上 hard坚硬 hardly 几乎不
large 大的 largely主要地 late迟的，晚的 lately近来 like像 likely 很可能
scarce 稀少的 scarcely 几乎不 short 短的 shortly 不久，很快 bare 光秃的 barely仅仅I、形容词
****This is a tough task. 作定语 This task is tough.作表语
asleep睡着的 afraid 害怕的 aware意识到的 awake醒的 alike相似的 alone单独的 alive活着的
ashamed羞愧的 content满意的 glad高兴的 unable不能的 well健康的 fond喜欢的 sorry抱歉的
ill 生病的 邪恶的
hard 严厉的 努力的
certain 有把握的 某(一)个
little 少的 小的
present 出席的 当前的
eg. our great, socialist mother 我们伟大的社会主义祖国
that hungry, tired, sleepy, little match girl那个饥饿的、疲倦的、瞌睡的、卖火柴的小女孩
2.2同类形容词排列，较短的放在前面： a kind, generous, old man一个和蔼、慷慨的老人
2.3同类的形容词之间也可用and连接：That is a black and white cat. He was tall, dark and handsome.
1) sleepy 瞌睡的 2) healthy 健康的 3) industrial 工业的
asleep 睡着的 healthful有益于健康的 industrious勤奋的
4) historic 有历史意义的 5) continual 频繁的 6) economic经济(上)的
historical 历史的 continuous 连续不断的 economical节省的
7) distinct 清晰的 8) respectable 值得尊敬的 9) everyday日常的
distinctive 有特色的 respectful 有礼貌的 every day每天(作状语)
10) all ready都准备好的 11) popular流行的 12) considerable相当的
already (副词)已经 populous人口稠密的 considerate考虑周到的
13) disinterested无私的 14) honorary名誉上的 15) practical实用的
uninterested不感兴趣的 honorable可尊敬的 practicable可行的
16) defective有缺点的 17) alone独自的 18) successful成功的
deficient缺乏的 lonely孤独的 successive连续的
19) principal主要的 20) pleasant令人愉快的 21) desirable中意的
principle原则n. pleased高兴的 desirous渴望的
22) imminent紧迫的 23) live活的(作定语) 24) like相象的
eminent著名的 lively活泼的 alike相象的(作表语)
25) dead死的 26) sensitive敏感的 27) efficient效率高的
deadly致命的 sensible明智的 proficient熟练的
deathly死一般的 sensory知觉的 sufficient足够的
28) imaginable可以想象的 29) invaluable无价的 30) eligible合格的 31) stationary静止的
imaginary想象中的 valueless无价值的 illegible字迹不清的 stationery文具
imaginative有想象力的 priceless无价的 illegal非法的II、副词
high高高地 highly高度地 direct径直地 directly立刻 late晚，迟 lately 最近
pretty相当地 prettily优美地 sharp突然 sharply严厉地 short突然 shortly马上
most最 mostly大部分 near近 nearly几乎 just正好 justly公正地
hard努力地 hardly几乎不 free免费地 freely自由地
1.2副词在句中的位置 quickly enough do everything carefully
①Frankly, the students didn’t work hard enough last term. 表态度
②The clock is old; it is, however, in good condition. 表逻辑关系③The rain didn’t last long, as they had expected. 表解释
④That accident, John recalled, occurred on a summer morning. 表主次关系
1.1肯定式原级比较：……像……那样： as + 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词,,主格,,
Some of the stars may be as large as the sun and as hot as the sun.
1.2否定式原级比较：……不如……那样：not so或as+ 形容词或副词原级+ as名词或代词,,主格,,
The melting point of copper is not so ,,或as,, high as that of iron.
He is not so (much) unintelligent as uneducated.与其说他不聪明，不如说他未受过教育。
1.4 more (less)……than结构有时表示：与其说……不如说……，用法同上。
He is more diligent than clever. 与其说他聪明，不如说他勤奋。
She was less hurt than frightened. 与其说她受伤了，不如说被吓着了。
He is much more an actor than a musician. 与其说他是音乐家，不如说是演员。
原级 比较级 最高级 原级 比较级 最高级good/well better best many/much more most
little less least far farther/further farthest/furthest
bad/badly/ill worse worst old elder/older eldest/oldest
late later/latter latest/last near nearer nearest/nest
much, many, far, by far, still, even, a lot，a little, a great deal，three years, one-third，20%等。
eg. Air in the country is much (far…) cleaner than that in the city.
He is three years older than his sister. This month, they will produce 20% more coal than last month.
many / far more opportunities可数 much / far more money不可数
This room is three times as large as that one. 这个房间的大小是那个房间的三倍。
Our trade union movement would be a thousand times stronger if it were better organized.
2.4 “the + more……， the + more……”表示：“越……，越……”
The earlier you start, the sooner you will be back.
The more books one reads, the more knowledgeable he becomes.
2.5 有时比较级也用“the +比较级 + of +比较范围,,通常两者,,”结构：
He is the cleverer of the two boys. Of Mary and Jane, who is the smarter?
2.6 not more than和 no more than的区别
not more than:不超过,不及; no more than:转义为只不过,仅仅.= only
There are not more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校的学生不超过五百。
There are no more than 500 students in this school. 这个学校里的学生只有五百。
类似的还有：not less than不少于 no less than 有……之多
not better than 不比……好 no better than 一样的不好
absolute绝对的 sole唯一的 eternal永恒的 total总的 first第一的 ultimate最终的
true真实的 unique独特的 wrong错误的 final 最终的 correct正确的 last最后的
only仅有的 perfect 完美的 primary首要的 unanimous一致的
inferior劣等的 junior年幼的 superior优越的 senior年长的六、动词
appear be become come fall feel get go grow keep
lie remain rest run smell sound stand stay taste look
Do you read newspaper every day? The job will be finished soon.
catch come die find give join kill lose leave marry realize
①动态动词:live, sit, stand, study, talk, work, write等
②状态动词:be, belong, consist, exist, feel, hate, have, hope, love, want等
ask bring buy choose do deny fetch get give grant hand leave lend
make offer order pay pass promise sell send show take teach tell write<二>常见动词搭配:
1、动词 + 介词：
listen to听 amount to等于 long for渴望 call on号召 operate on 为……动手术
consist of 由……组成 resist in坚持 account for解释 look at 看 care for 照顾
object to反对 send for 派人去请 rely on 依靠 depend on 依靠 stand for代表
laugh at 嘲笑 wait for等待 look into调查 apply for申请 believe in 信仰
play with玩 come across碰见 go through通过
2、动词 + 副词：
give up放弃 carry out执行 look up查找 point out指出 bring up抚养
find out查明 hand in上交 make out认出 think over考虑 put on穿
wipe out消灭 pick up拣起 throw away抛弃 set up建立 take off脱掉
turn down拒绝 give away暴露 hand out分发 call off取消 turn off关掉
knock off停工 stand up起立 break down出毛病 look out小心 take off起飞
run out耗尽 catch up赶上 give in让步 grow up长大 hang around逗留
pass away去世 show off炫耀 drop out退出 get up起床 go on 继续
3、动词 + 副词 + 介词：
cut down on减少 get along with与…相处 run out of 用光 look up to尊敬 date back to追溯
get through with完成 keep up with 跟上 make up for 补偿 come down with患病 sit in on旁听
do away with 抛弃 look forward to 期望 put up with 忍受 stand up to反对 look down upon瞧不起
4、动词 + 名词 + 介词
catch sight of 看见 find fault with挑…毛病 keep an eye on照看 make fun of 取笑
make friends with与…交友 pay attention to注意 shake hands with与…握手 take advantage of 利用
take part in参加 get rid of摆脱 give rise to引起 lose sight of 看不见
make use of 利用 take care of照料 throw light on阐明 put a stop to结束
am + working
were + workinghad worked
had been working
shall +be workingwill
shall+have been working
should +have been working
Everyone is in high spirits. Light travels more quickly than sound.
If it is fine tomorrow, we will go on a picnic. When you come next time, bring me some magazines.
The delegation arrives in Beijing this afternoon. There is a new film tonight.
The children went out just now. She died ten years ago. I lost my wallet at the theatre.
3.1 will/shall do: Next month, my sister will be nineteen. I shall/will return you the book tomorrow.
3.2 be going to do: The wall is going to be painted green. It is going to rain.
3.3 be to do表示按计划要发生的事: We are to meet at the school gate.
3.4 be about to do即将(正要)做某事: Autumn harvest is about to start.
He said that he would get married soon. I asked him when he would come here again.
5.1表示说话时，或现阶段正在进行的动作或发生的情况。 They are making an experiment now.
5.2 计划即将发生,如go, come, leave, arrive: He is coming here next week and is staying here until August.
6、过去进行时 We were talking about you a moment ago. I was playing the piano when she came in.
7、将来进行时 What will you be doing this time tomorrow? I believe he’ll be coming soon.
8.1过去发生但对现在有影响的动作，常跟时间状语already, yet, never, before, recently, just, ever, once连用。
I have been to Peking many times. They have already published the results of their experiments.8.2从过去某时间开始一直延续到现在,,可能还要继续下去,,的动作，常跟时间状语since, for two years,
so far, in recent years等,,使用延续性动词,,
He has lived here since 1984. I have studied English for two years.
1)他参军已经有十年了。 ①He has been an armyman for ten years.
②It is (has been) ten years since he joined the army.
③He joined the army ten years ago.
2,,It is (has been)…since: It is (has been) a long time since they last met each other.
3) This is the first(second) time that…: This is the second time that I have broken a cup this year.
John had learned some Chinese before he came to China. He found the book that he had lost.
By the end of last year, I had worked in this college for ten years.
***no sooner…..than, hardly(scarcely)……when(before)We had no sooner reached home than it began to rain. No sooner had we reached home than it began to rain.
He had hardly entered the office when (before) the phone rang.
10、现在完成进行时,,常跟for hours, since this morning等表示一段时间的状语连用,,
They have been watching TV for two hours. He has been working on this essay since this morning.
Kepler proved that the sun is the center of the solar system. 客观真理
I didn’t go to the ball because I am not fond of dancing. 意义需要
is being given
were being givenhad been written
will be written
will have been written
would be written
would have been written
cost花费 fit适合 have有 hold容纳 lack缺乏
own占有 possess拥有 resemble像 suit适合 last持续
The boy resembles his father. We have friends all over the world.
①be taken in受骗,上当 ②be supposed to do something应该,被期望
③be intended for something(somebody) / to do something旨在,用于
The book is intended for beginners. We are supposed to meet at the gate at 7:00.
***转化为系动词的感官动词 + 表语
Good medicine tastes bitter. This material feels very soft.
***不及物动词和词组无被动语态: How long did the meeting last?
***in case, whether, where, as soon as遵照“主将从现”原则， 主句用将来时态，从句用现在时态
Whether I win or lose, I will have a good time. I will write to you as soon as I get here.
***表示心理活动和存在的动词一般不用进行时态： They love and respect each other.七、非谓语动词,,不定式、分词、动名词,,
1,,作主语： To say something is one thing, to do it is another.说是一码事，干是另一码事。
***形式主语it It is not fair to blame them for the accident.
2,,作表语： My suggestion is to carry out the plan immediately.
3,,作宾语： He offered to go with us.他提出和我们一起去。
***形式宾语it We found it impossible to get everything ready in advance.
I consider it my duty to point out their shortcomings.
4,,作宾语或主语的补足语： Mr. Smith wants his son to become a lawyer.
The suspected man was seen to enter the building.
此类动词还有如ask, advise, allow, compel, encourage, hear, intend, lead, inspire, order, persuade等。
***hope, demand, suggest不可接不定式作宾补，但可跟that引出的宾语从句。
He hoped that I would give him more help. The doctor suggests that my father (should) stop smoking.
***在see, hear, look at, listen to, feel, observe, watch, notice等感官动词, 以及let, make, have 等动词后面的不定式要省掉to 。但注意在其被动语态中，作为主补的不定式要加上to。
We are made to write a composition every week by the teacher.
5)构成复合谓语结构:① “be said (reported, known…) + 不定式”可换成： it is said (reported, known…)that…
Shanxi Province is known to have rich coal reserves. = It is known that Shanxi ……
② seem (happen, appear, prove, tend) + 不定式
I happened to be out when she called. 碰巧出去了
③ be likely (certain, sure, willing, anxious, ready, bound, eager, reluctant) + 不定式
They are likely to succeed. She is always ready to help others.
He used to have a lot of meetings to attend. There is nothing to worry about.
①英语中有一些名词常跟不定式作定语：ability, agreement, ambition, attempt, claim, decision, hope, intention, failure, need, refusal, plan, promise, tendency, wish, willingness, threat, anxiety
His attempt to solve the problem failed again. Their decision to give up the experiment surprised us.
② the first, second, last, only (thing), best (thing)等后面常跟不定式作定语。
He is always the first to come and the last to leave. What is the best thing to do?
They will go to the station to meet the guests. We are overjoyed to see you.
常跟不定式作原因状语的形容词有: happy, glad, relieved, astonished, amazed, overjoyed, surprised, sad
不定式也可作结果状语,仅限于learn得知, find发现, see看见, hear听见，to be told被告知, make使得等具有界限含义的动词, only to常表示令人不快的结果。
He returned home to learn his daughter had just been engaged.
I hurried to Professor Wang’s house only to find he was out.***
①不定式与in order to, so as to连用，作目的状语；与so(such)… as to连用，作目的状语和结果状语。
In order to catch the train, he hurried through his work. He was so angry as to be unable to speak.②不定式与enough和too…to连用，作程度状语。
③all too, only too…加不定式不表示否定的意思： I’m only too pleased to help you.我非常愿意帮助你。
8)插入语： To be fair, he has worked hard these days. We don’t like your idea, to tell you the truth.
,,1,, for + 名词或代词宾语 + 不定式：I found it impossible for him to do the job alone.
,,2,, 不定式独立结构:He proposed a picnic, he himself to pay the railway tickets, and John to provide the food.
It was wise of him to do that. I think it wrong of him not to accept our invitation.常见的这类形容词有:
absurd荒唐的 bold大胆的 brave勇敢的 clever聪明的 courageous有勇气的 rude无礼的
considerate考虑周到的 foolish愚蠢的 honest诚实的 polite有礼貌的 silly傻的
grateful感激的 wicked邪恶的 thoughtful体贴的 careless粗心的 right正确的
2)不定式的否定式: not + to do They decided not to give up trying.
3)连接词 + 不定式: He will tell us how to use the library.
4)省 to 的不定式
①口语以 why 开头的简单句： Why not go out for a walk? Why do it that way?②had better, would rather…(than), would…rather than, would sooner…(than), can not but…, can’t help but…, may(might) as well习惯用法
Rather than beg in the street, he would prefer to die of hunger.他宁愿饿死也不上街。I could’t help but wait for the next bus to come.我不得不等下一趟车。
***③do nothing/anything/everything but (except)
Last night I did nothing but watch TV. John will do anything but work on a farm.
There was nothing for them to do but to remain silent. The doctor told him nothing but to stop smoking.
体式 主动语态 被动语态
一般式 to write to be written
完成式 to have written to have been written
进行式 to be writing
完成进行式 to have been writing⑴体式 ①I am sorry to hear the news.,,不定式动作发生在谓语动作之后，或同时发生,,
②They seem to be having a meeting. ,,不定式动作与谓语动作同时发生,,
③The enemy was reported to have surrendered two days before.,,不定式先于谓语动作,,⑵语态 ①出现动作的执行者，用主动式：I have a meeting to attend.
否则用被动语态：Here are the clothes to be washed.
They found Professor Jones’ lecture hard to understand. She is nice to talk to.
③习惯用法：None of us was to blame for that.
The dog was nowhere to be found.
比较: 剥削阶级the exploiting class 被剥削阶级the exploited class
正在采花的女孩the girl gathering flowers 今天早晨采集的花the flowers gathered this morning
落叶fallen leaves 凋谢的花faded flowers 开水boiled water 新到的商品newly arrived goods
His argument is very convincing. 他的论点很令人信服. They were very excited at the news.
Don’t disturb the sleeping child. The arrested murderer will be tried soon.那个被逮捕的杀人犯将受到审讯.
You may ask the lady (who is) sitting at the desk.
Those (who have been) elected as committee members will attend the meeting. (当选为委员的人)
He likes to sit on the beach and watch the sea gulls flying. (海鸥) The work left everyone exhausted.
Hearing the knock on the door, they stopped talking. (= When they heard….)
Asked to work overtime that evening, I missed a wonderful film. (= As I was asked to….)
They stood there waiting for the bus. (and were waiting….)
The bandits fled into the mountains, pursued by the policemen. (and were pursued….)
The rain having stopped, the soldiers continued their march.
The boys returned, their face covered with sweat.
演变: The teacher entered the classroom, a bag (being) in his hand.
He stopped and turned about, his eyes (being) brightly proud. Breakfast over, he went to his office.
She left the room with the candle burning on the table. He wandered in without shoes or socks on.
Generally speaking, I prefer rice to noodles. Judging from his accent, he must be a southerner.
Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide.
Not having made adequate preparations, we postponed the sports meet.
Having studied hard during the term, he passed the exam.
He is said to have studied hard and passed the exam. Who is the patient being operated on?
1,,作主语和表语 Seeing is believing. My hobby is collecting stamps.
(1) 形式主语it It is no use/good quarreling with her. Is it worthwhile trying again?
(2) There is no +V-ing There is no joking about this matter.
He enjoys listening to classical music. We must avoid making such mistakes again.
admit承认 avoid避免 consider考虑 delay耽搁 deny否认 endure忍耐 enjoy喜欢 escape逃避 excuse原谅 fancy想象 finish完成 forbid严禁 imagine想象 mind介意 miss错过 dislike厌恶
permit允许 postpone推迟 practice练习 require需要 risk冒…危险 stop停止 suggest建议
can’t help禁不住 feel like想，欲 give up放弃 keep on继续进行 object to反对 put off推迟
attempt试图 begin开始 can’t bear忍不住 cease停止 continue继续 deserve值得 forget忘记
hate不喜欢 intend打算 learn学习 like喜欢 love喜欢 prefer宁愿 need需要 neglect疏忽
propose建议 remember 记得 regret懊悔 start开始 try尝试 oppose反对
She found it useless arguing with him. Do you consider it wise trying again?
Have you got used to working on the night shift? Children are fond of reading detective stories.
He insisted on there being no discussion of his private affairs at the meeting.
He is busy (in) preparing a report. They spent a lot of time (in) making preparations.
The students had a good time (in) playing in the park. We had great difficulty (in) finding his house.
Do you have any problem (in) filling in the form?
(2)介词 + 动名词常用作定语修饰名词,其中“of + 动名词”最多见。
①常见用介词 + 动名词作定语的名词有：
apology (for) choice (of) custom (of) excuse (of) experience (in) importance (of) practice (of)
habit (of) honor (of) hope (of) idea (of) means (of) method (of/for) purpose (of)
necessity (of) objection (to) possibility (of)
②既可用介词 + 动名词也可用不定式作定语的名词有:
intention (of) opportunity (of) plan (for) reason (for) right (of) time (for) way (of)
His habit, studying at night, remains unchanged. That was her favorite pastime(娱乐), playing chess.
1,,动名词的逻辑主语 ①人称代词的所有格 + 动名词，②名词’s + 动名词。
比较：⑴Tom insisted on going with them. (He went with them.)
Tom insisted on my going with them. (I went with them.)
⑵He dislikes working late. (He works late.) He dislikes his wife’s working late. (His wife works late.)
Is there any hope of John winning the first prize? This is a clear case of electricity being converted into heat.
2)动名词作定语 a studying plan drinking water饮用水 a swimming pool
3)比较①remember/forget to do ②regret to do ③go on to do ④try to do 设法做某事
remember/forget doing regret doing go on doing try doing试着做某事
⑤need/want to do ⑥used to do过去常常做某事
need/want doing (被动) be used to doing习惯于做某事
He was praised for having made a great contribution to his country.
His having been elected chairman of the club surprised us greatly.
He did it without being asked. We insisted on being given the task.八、情态动词
be able to
1、can/ could be able to可用于各种时态
Jack can (is able to) speak five languages. She has been able to play the piano since she was nine.
In the early days, people could not (were not able to) count as we do now.
1)I could catch the 7:30 train.能够做,但未必做 I was able to catch 7:30 train.能够做并且已做了
2)潜在的可能: Anybody can make mistakes. Experts said that another storm like this could destroy the crops.
3)表示揣测/怀疑等态度:①对现在用can(could) + 原形动词(状态动词),或can(could) + be + 现在分词(行为动词)
This can’t be true. They can’t be working now. Could this be a misprint?
②对过去用can(could) + have + 过去分词
He can’t have gone to Peking. I saw him only a while ago. Could they have arrived there already?
You can go with them if you like. Could I use your bike? He asked me if he could use my bike.
1)请求或允许: You may borrow any of those books on the shelves. He asked if he might have a chat with me.
2)表示客观可能性: Take an umbrella with you. It may rain. They may not approve of your idea.3)揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)
现在: He may know Miss Lee’s telephone number. This might be the key Tom has been looking for.
过去: The train may have left already. They might have been there before.
4)祈祷/愿望: may + 宾语 +动词
May God be with you! May you succeed! May you be happy!
---Must we hand in the papers this week? ---No, you needn’t. Cars mustn’t be parked here.
All men must die. Bad seed must produce bad corn.
3) 揣测 (一般只用于肯定句)
现在: He must be sick for he looks so pale. It must be raining outside.
过去: It must have rained last night. The ground is wet. I think my letter must have been miscarried.
Shall I fetch a doctor for you? Shall he attend the meeting?要他来参加会议吗?
You shall be sorry for what you have done. He shall get what he wants. You shall not leave your post later.
2)will ①表示意志,意愿 We will do our best to get the job done in time. She can stay home if she will.
②请求 Will you please be quiet? Don’t be late for the meeting, will you?
5、should/ ought to
1,,应该，义务 ,,should更侧重主观看法，ought to更着重客观情况,, We should (ought to) work harder.
Safety precautions should (ought to) be observed at all times.在任何时候都应遵守安全规定。
You should (ought to) have waited for us. She shouldn’t (oughtn’t to) have let the baby play with fire.
3)惊奇(虚拟语气) I did not expect that you should have finished the work so soon.竟会如此快地
4)推测,推论, 用法结构同can, may等词 They should have arrived in Shanghai by now.
The report is written after careful investigation, so it should be reliable.
***表示过去习惯性动作，与used to do同义。
In those days, he would (used to) visit me on Sundays. Whenever I was in difficulty, he would gladly help me.
1) You needn’t work so late. = You don’t need to work so late. Need he go? = Does he need to go?
间接引语中表过去The manager said that I need not go.
You needn’t have bought that dictionary. I have a spare one. (But you have already bought one.)
You needn’t see him, but I must.
2) She dare not (daren’t) say what she thinks. If the enemy dare come, they will certainly be wiped out.
间接引语中表过去She said that she daren’t tell them the truth.
I have never dared (to) speak to him. Did he dare (to) criticize my arrangement?
②习语I dare say：我认为，我猜想 You must be tired, I dare say. I dare say you are right.
You had better not go. We had best take a short cut.抄近路 Hadn’t you better take an umbrella?
I am sure they would rather stay than go. I would rather not lend you the book now. I’m using it now.
10、cannot but/ cannot help
cannot but do = have to I cannot but tell her the truth.
cannot help doing = cannot help but do Hearing that, they could not help laughing.九、虚拟语气
If 主语+ V-ed… , 主语+ would … +动词原形
should do could
If 主语had + 过去分词, 主语+ would have +过去分词
对将来的假设should 动词原形 should
If 主语+ were to 动词原形 ， 主语+ would +动词原形
1、现在：The platform would collapse if all of you stood on it.
过去：If the doctor had been available, the child would have been saved.
If I had not studied hard, I would have failed in the exam.
将来：If he should change his mind, what would we do?
If you missed the film tonight, you would feel sorry for it.
1,,should：一旦…… If it should rain tomorrow, we would have to change our plan.
2) if only和suppose (supposing)引导的虚拟条件句: 要是,假如
If only I had more money, I could buy a car. Supposing it were fine tomorrow, would you go fishing with us?
3) if it (be) not for… 要不是…相当于but for, without
If it were not for the leadership of the Party, we could not be living a happy life today.
If it had not been for your help, we would not have achieved so much in our work.
4)连词if的省略 (将were, had, should等提到主语前面)
Had the doctor been available, the child would have been saved. Shall it rain tomorrow, we would stay at home.
Were I to go to the moon some day, I could see the surface of the moon with my own eyes.
5)含蓄条件(without, but for, but that, but, otherwise以及比较级)
Without electricity, there would be no modern industry.
But that she was afraid, she would have said no.要不是害怕的话,她就会拒绝了。
****错综时间I would be most glad to help you, but I’m busy now.
If I were you, I would have taken his advice. If he had listened to me, he would not be in such trouble now.
1,,宾语从句: He insisted that John (should) do the job.
We suggested that the meeting (should) not be postponed.
此类还有:ask要求 move提议 demand 要求 decide决定 insist坚持 command命令 prefer宁愿 propose提议 order下令 urge主张 require要求 request请求 suggest建议 advise劝告
2) 主语从句: It is necessary that you should be present at the discussion.
It was ordered that the medicines be sent here by plane. (should可以省略)此类形容词或分词: essential必要的 urgent紧迫的 necessary必要的 important重要的 advisable合理的 asked要求 desired希望的 natural自然的 desirable理想的 demanded要求的 preferable更好的 imperative迫切的 required要求的 ordered命令的 suggested建议的
3)同位语或表语从句: The suggestion that he be invited was rejected.
Their demand is that their wages be increased by 20%.此类名词: advice忠告 command命令 demand要求 desire要求 idea意见 motion提议
order 命令 plan 计划 proposal提议 preference偏爱 insistence主张 suggestion建议
recommendation劝告 request 要求 requirement 要求
4、wish从句①同时，即与谓语动词同时存在的情况，形式为：that主语 + 动词过去式,,be动词用were,,
②先时，即在谓语动词时间之前就发生了的情况，形式为：that主语 + 动词过去分词
③后时，即在谓语动词时间之后出现的情况，形式为：that主语 + would,,could…,, + 动词原形
同时I wish I were as young as you. How they wished it were not raining then!
先时I wish that he had not made so much fuss about it.
后时It was wished that they would make greater progress. Isn’t it your wish that you could buy a car like that?
5、as if/ though
She loves the children in the kindergarten as if they were her own. 同时Alan talked about Rome as if he were a Roman. 同时
Alan talked about Rome as if he had been there. 先时 She looks as if she would cry. 后时
6、would / had rather, would (just) as soon, would sooner, would prefer等结构表示：希望或婉转的责备，其谓语动词形式与wish类从句大体相同。
I’d rather you posted the letter right away. I would prefer he didn’t stay there too long.
⑴现在情况：would rather + do； ⑵过去情况：would rather + have done
I would rather buy a house with a garden. She would rather not have gone to the party.
7、it is ,,about， high…,, time + 从句 + 动词过去式
It is high time (that) we began to work. Isn’t (about) time that children went to school?
8、in case/ lest/ for fear that表示：一旦、以防、以免，谓语形式：should(不可省) + 动词原形
He took his raincoat with him in case it should rain.
She put a blanket over the baby for fear that he should catch cold.
***可不用虚拟语气,用动词的陈述语气形式:The foreign teacher spoke slowly in case we misunderstood him.十、主谓一致
The football team consists of 20 players. The football team are having a bath now.常见此类名词有：army, audience, class, club, committee, company, crowd, couple, family, group, government, jury, party, personnel, staff, union, team, public
The police have caught the murderer.
3)单复数形式相同的名词，如aircraft, deer, fish, means, sheep, species, series, works, crossroads, headquarters谓语根据意义来决定单复数。
The species of fish are numerous. This species of rose is very rare.
4,,复数名词作专有名词时，用单数谓语。 The United States was founded in 1776.
,,1,,“the + 形容词”作主语，表示一类可数的人或事物时，用复数谓语；如表示一类不可数的事物时，用单数。
The old are well looked after by the government. The agreeable is not always the useful.好看的未必实用。
,,2,,表示成双成对的东西的名词，若被a pair of修饰，要求接单数谓语；否则用复数谓语。
These trousers are made in Shanghai. This pair of trousers is made in Shanghai.
The secretary and manager was present at the meeting.那位书记兼经理出席了会议
The secretary and the manager were present at the meeting.书记和经理都出席了会议
Early to bed and early to rise is a good habit.(作一件事)
The tenth (chapter) and the last chapter are translated by him.
2) both…and连接两个名词, 谓语用复数形式
Both the secretary and manager have agreed to be present.
3) 主语是and连接的两个单数名词，前面如有each，every，many a，no等修饰，谓语用单数。
During the holidays, every train and steamboat was crowded.
No teacher and no student is admitted.师生一律不得入内 Many a boy and many a girl has seen this painting.
4) 单数名词+ along with, together with, combined with, as well as, rather than，with等词作主语，谓语用单数。 Tom as well as two of his classmates was invited to the party.
5,,由or, either…or, neither…nor, not only…but also等连接的名词或代词作主语时， 谓语要符合就近原则，与邻近的主语一致。 Neither I nor he is to blame. One or two friends are coming this evening.
1,,all, half, most, none, some, the remainder (of), the rest (of), plenty (of) 等作主语时，谓语根据意义决定。
Most of his spare time was spent in reading. Most of the houses in this town are new.
Half of the oranges are bad. Half of the food is unfit to eat.
2) both, (a) few, many, several等修饰主语,谓语用复数形式.
Few (of the) guests were familiar to us. Both of these films are boring.
3) 由合成词some (any, no, every) + thing (body, one)作主语, 由代词each, every one, no one, either, neither, another, the other作主语, 以及由限定词either, neither, each, every, many a, more than one等+ 名词作主语时， 都跟单数谓语动词。
Nothing but trees was to be seen. No one except my parents knows anything about it.
More than one defendant is involved in the case.被告 Either of the rooms is big enough.
***在neither of, either of 的否定式中, 也可用复数动词.
Neither of them want(s) to come. I don’t think either of them is (are) at home.
4)在“one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句”结构中, 定语从句一般看作修饰复数名词, 因此该从句谓语用复数.
This is one of the best novels that have appeared this year.
***the only one of + 复数名词 + 定语从句,谓语则用单数。He was the only one of the boys who was given a prize.
5)在“代词 + 定语从句”的结构中，从句谓语的人称、性别、数目要与被修饰的代词保持一致。
I, who am your friend, will try my best to help you.
What you said is quite to the point. 你所说的非常中肯。 What we need are qualified teachers.……是合格教师。
Ten plus ten makes (equals, gives, is) twenty. Three multiplied by four is twelve.三乘以四等于十二
Twenty years in prison was the penalty he had to pay. Ten thousand dollars is quite a large sum.
***Twenty years have passed since his father died. ,,years作为时间单位，用复数动词,,
,,Thousands of,,Millions of dollars have gone into the building of the factory.
About one third of the books are worth reading. Only 20 percent of the work was done yesterday.
4) 由kind (form, type, sort, species, portion, series, quantity) of等修饰主语，谓语取决于这些词的单、复数。
A new type of bus is now on show. Some new forms of art were discussed
There is only a small quantity of paper (books) left. Large quantities of water are needed for cooling purposes.
5) a number of,,许多,,，a variety of,,各种各样的,,和a group of,,一群/组,,修饰主语，用复数谓语动词；但the number of,,数目,,和the variety of,,种类,,修饰时，用单数谓语。
A number of students are from the south. The number of students from the north is small.
There are a variety of toys in that shop. The variety of goods in that shop is surprising.
1、there be或there + 其他连系动词 There stands a weather station at the top of the hill.E.g. there may be, there can be, there must be, there seems to be, there appears to be, there happened to be, there exist, there stand, there remain……
2、省略if的虚拟条件句中的倒装：,,详见“虚拟语气”,, Were it fine tomorrow, we would go on a picnic.
3、在以here, there, now, then等引导的句中，谓语是be, come, go等动词：打铃了There goes the bell. 现在轮到你啦Now comes your turn. ***There he comes. Here they are.
4、在so, nor, neither开头的句中：
If you won’t go, neither will I. I went to a movie last night. So did my sister and brother.
5、“only + 状语”用于句首表示强调，要用倒装： Only in this way can you solve this problem.
6、含有否定意义的副词或词组用于句首，充当状语时，用倒装：never，seldom，rarely，little，hardly，scarcely，not until，by no means，in no time，under no circumstances,
not only…,,but also,,，neither…,,nor,,，no sooner…,,than,,，hardly…,,when,,
Never shall I forget this lesson. In no case will he give up the experiment.
Tired as he was, he continued to work. Try as he might, he could not fulfil the task alone.
So angry was he (=he was so angry) that he couldn’t speak.
To such an extent do the parents love their son that they have tried to satisfy every demand of his.
9、有时，在in, out, away, up, down, off等副词开头的句中用倒装： Away they went. In she came.
Following a roar, out rushed a tiger from among the bushes.
He traveled a great deal as did most of his friends.他到过很多地方旅行，他的多数朋友也是这样。十三、从句
That light travels in straight lines is known to all. / It is known to all that light travels in straight lines.
When the plane is to take off has not been announced. / It has not been announced when the plane is to take off.
What he wants is a book. Has it been settled who will be sent to carry out the task?
①It is + 名词词组 + 从句It is a fact/question that… It is good news that… It is common knowledge that…(常识)
②It is + 形容词 + 从句It is necessary/ clear/ (un)likely/ important that….
③It is + 过去分词 + 从句
It is said/ reported that… It has been proved that… It must be pointed out that…
④It is + 不及物动词 + 从句
It seems that…好象是 It happened that…碰巧 It follows that…由此可见 It has turned out that… 结果是
***it引导的强调句,分析如: John bought a toy plane for his son yesterday.
主 语 宾 语 状 语 状 语
It was John that (who) bought a toy plane for his son yesterday. 强调主语
It was a toy plane that John bought for his son yesterday. 强调宾语
It was for his son that John bought a toy plane yesterday. 强调目的状语
It was yesterday that John bought a toy plane for his son. 强调时间状语
1、作动词的宾语： He wondered how the pyramids were built. She told me where she lived.
2、作介词的宾语： This depends on how hard you work. Is there anything wrong in what I said?
3、作形容词的宾语： They are confident that they can do it well. I’m not certain whether(if) they will arrive on time.
形式宾语it： He has made it clear that the meeting will not be postponed.
否定前移： I don’t think he has time to play chess with you. I don’t suppose it is the rush hour yet.
插入语语序：When (do you think) John will arrive? Who (do you believe) will be given the prize?
***肯定: I think so. I hope so. 否定: I don’t think so. I hope not. I’m afraid not.
My idea is that this plan should be carried out immediately. It looks that (as if) it is going to rain.
That is why we called off the meeting. This is how we did it.
The reason (why) he was late was that he missed the bus.他迟到的原因是误了车。
I have no idea when he will return. They are faced with the problem whether they should continue the work.
The man whom (that) you saw just now is our manager. Is there anyone here whose name is Wang Lin?
The building whose roof we can see from here is a supermarket.
****当先行词是all, everything, something, nothing等不定代词, 或被first, last, only, few, much, some, any, no以及形容词最高级等词修饰时, 应该用关系代词that，不用 which。
I am interested in all that you have told me. He asked for the best book that there was on the subject.
We were deeply impressed by the teachers and schools that we had visited there.
The reason that (=why) you were absent is groundless. I don’t like the way (that) (=in which) he talks.
This was the second time that I had seen the film. This is the same watch as (that) I have lost.
No one will believe such stories as he told. He works in the same shop as (that) I do.
限定性: I want to buy the house which (=that) has a garden.
非限定性: I want to buy the house, which (≠that) has a garden.
This is the place where (=in which) I spent my childhood. This is the place which I visited last summer.
The first person who opens that door will get a shock.
Those who will go to tomorrow’s show will have to come this afternoon to get their tickets.