English--动词语态

English|动词语态

动词的语态在理解长难句中很重要。了解被动语态与主动语态,掌握语态的变化方式。

前言

目前所有的文章思想格式都是:知识+情感。
知识:对于所有的知识点的描述。力求不含任何的自我感情色彩。
情感:用我自己的方式,解读知识点。力求通俗易懂,完美透析知识。

正文

英语的语态分为主动语态和被动语态。在学习语态之前,需要回顾动词的时态知识,区分及物动词与不及物动词。注意:按照五大句型写出来的句子是主动语态形式,所以需要进行变化成为被动语态形式。

1.区分及物动词与不及物动词

基本概念

不及物动词:vi.
    intransitive verb.
    不及物动词后面不可加宾语。回顾五大句型中的主谓结构。
    没有被动语态。

及物动词:vt.
    transitive verb.        
    及物动词后面可以加宾语。回顾五大句型中的主谓宾结构。
    有被动语态。

注意:及物动词与不及物动词最好的区分方式是去查字典。

2主动语态变成被动语态的方式

基本概念

1.被动语态:是一种特殊的主系表句型,过去分词作表语。
    主系表结构:
        主语 + be动词 + 名词/形容词/副词
        eg: I am a teacher.
    被动语态:
        主语 + be动词 + 动词的过去分词
        eg:主动语态: Somebody beat me.(主谓宾结构)
           被动语态: I was beaten by somebody.
                    或者: I was beaten.

2.be动词(根据16中时态变化,与原句时态一致) + 过去分词
    原句的宾语做主语。
    原句的主语,在被动语态中省略。或者前面加上介词By作状语。

3.被动语态的时态变化

一般态

一般现在时:
    eg:Our clavichord is kept in the living-room.
        主语:clavichord
        系动词:is
        表语:kept

一般过去时:
    eg:The instrument was bought by my grandfather many years ago.
        主语:instrument
        系动词:was
        表语:bought

一般将来时:
    eg:The Olympic Games will be held in our country in four years' time.
        主语:Games
        系动词: will be
        表语:held

被动语态出现情态动词(用于等同于will):
    eg: The  work must be finished in one way or another.
        主语:work
        系动词: must be
        表语:finished

进行态

进行态:
    be动词+being + 过去分词
    be动词时态和原句保持一致

现在进行时:
    主动语态:
        A friend of my father's is repairing it.
    被动语态:
        It is being repaired by a friend of my father's.

过去进行时:
    主动语态:
        Somebody was testing me for a driving licence for the third time.
    被动语态:
        I was being tested for a driving licence for the third time.
        主语:I
        系动词: was being
        表语:tested

将来进行时:
    主动语态:
        Somebody will be examming him when we get there.
    被动语态:
        He will be being examined when we get there.
        主语:he
        系动词: will be being
        表语:examined

完成态

完成态:
  have/has/had been + 动词过去分词

现在完成时:
    主动语态:
        Kate has designed the fantastic modern buildings.
    被动语态:
        The fantastic odern buildings have been designed by Kate.
        主语:buildings
        系动词: have been
        表语:designed

过去完成时:
    主动语态:
        Somebody had asked me to drive in heavy traffic.
    被动语态:
        I had been asked to drive in heavy traffic and had done so successfully.
        主语:I
        系动词: had been
        表语:asked

    主动语态:
        Somebody had specially built Bluebird, the car he was driving for him.
    被动语态:
        Blubird, the car he was driving, had been specially built for him.
        主语:Blubird
        系动词: had been
        表语:built

将来完成时:
    被动语态:
        Your character will have been completed by the time your life comes to an end.
        主语:character
        系动词: will have been 
        表语:completed

完成进行态

完成进行态很少用于被动语态。

4.被动语态的使用情况

1.为了突出受动者(主动语态的宾语)
    eg: A liar is not believed when he tells the truth.

2.施动者(主动语态的主语)不明确,或者不必指明时
    eg:Once a year, a race is held for old cars.(谁举办不知道)

结束语

恭喜各位,看完了语态部分,被动语态的学习相对比较简单,熟悉对应的时态下的表示,在场景中灵活使用。英语是一个整体,学习单一的内容,并不会灵活的使用,所以继续努力吧。
下一篇将小结五大句型,七大句子成分,动词时态,动词语态,并且进行相应内容的补充。语态的区分不要使用汉语的区分方法,即把子句与被子句。主需要记住:英语的被动语态是特殊的主系表结构,在不同的时态中进行灵活的英语即可。

 

 

 

posted @ 2019-07-24 13:36 Kate_liu 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏