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MVC数据验证原理及自定义ModelValidatorProvider实现无编译修改验证规则和错误信息

2013-10-15 08:00  JustRun  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏

Asp.net MVC中的提供非常简单易用的数据验证解决方案. 通过System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations提供的很多的验证规则(Required, StringLength等)。但是常常有这样的需求,我们希望能够把model的验证规则,保存到数据或者xml文件中,而不是代码里, 这样的好处是,我们可以很方便的修改验证规则和错误消息,避免需要重新发布网站。

这篇文章,一起来看看是如何通过自定义ModelValidatorProvider来通过XML文件配置对于Model的验证。

阅读目录:

一、简单回顾内置MVC验证的使用

二、分析MVC验证的内部过程

三、一个例子,针对ContactInfo的验证

四、具体实现和应用XmlModelValidatorProvider

一,简单回顾内置MVC验证的使用

下面是典型的MVC验证规则的代码和页面展示效果。

customizing-aspnet-mvc-2--metadata-and-validation-6 mvc-validation-code

二,分析MVC验证的内部过程

1. 实际做验证的是ModelValidator

当我们如上图,在为Person类添加了各种验证规则的dataannotation attributes后,实际操刀来做验证的是DataAnnotationsModelValidator类.
DataAnnotationsModelValidator继承自抽象类ModelValidator,实现了抽象方法Validate, 在该方法中根据Person类中定义的验证规则,对于所有Person的实例进行验证,同时返回一个ModelValidationResult的集合。

2. ModelValidator是由ModelValidatorProviders提供的

MVC在验证过程中使用到的ModelValidator又是由ModelValidatorProviders类提供的, ModelValidatorProviders是一个抽象类,有个抽象方法GetValidators.

该类的定义是这样的

namespace System.Web.Mvc
{
    public abstract class ModelValidatorProvider
    {
        public abstract IEnumerable<ModelValidator> GetValidators(ModelMetadata metadata, ControllerContext context);
    }
}

实际运行中,MVC使用的是继承于ModelValidatorProvider, 实现了GetValidators方法的DataAnnotationsModelValidatorProvider类.

 

3. MVC的验证过程中可以存在多个ModelValidatorProvider

MVC中可以多个ModelValidatorProvider同时起作用, 他们的效果可以叠加。我们可以使用默认的根据Attribute来定义验证规则的DataAnnotationsModelValidatorProvider,也还可以同时使用我们下面的XmlModelValidatorProvider从xml文件中获取验证规则来做验证。

 

三,一个例子,针对ContactInfo的验证

下面这个ContactInfo类是我们用来做实际验证的,包含了一些常用的典型的验证,Required, Email, Url等

public class ContactInfo
{
    public string FirstName { get; set; }
    public string LastName{get;set;}
    public string Email{get;set;}
    public string Url{get;set;}
} 

下面的这个xml文件,定义的是关于ContactInfo类的验证规则,以前我们是写在ContactInfo类中的,现在把它分离出来,放到Content\Validation\Rules\ContactInfo.xml文件中.

这里的message中的值只是一个message的key, message的具体内容放在另外一个xml文件中。

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<model>
  <validator property="FirstName" type="Required"  message="FirstName_Required" />
  <validator property="FirstName" type="StringLength" arg-int="50" message="FirstName_Length" />
  <validator property="LastName" type="Required"  message="LastName_Required" />
  <validator property="LastName" type="StringLength" arg-int="255" message="LastName_Length" />
  <validator property="Email" type="Required"  message="Email_Required" />
  <validator property="Email" type="StringLength" arg-int="255" message="Email_Length" />
  <validator property="Email" type="RegularExpression" arg="^[\w-]+(\.[\w-]+)*@[\w-]+(\.[\w-]+)+$" message="Email_RegularExpression" />
  <validator property="Url" type="StringLength" arg-int="255" message="Url_Length" />
  <validator property="Url" type="RegularExpression" arg="(http://)?(www\.)?\w+\.(com|net|edu|org)" message="Url_RegularExpression" />
</model> 

存放message的是Content\Validation\Messages\ContactInfo.xml文件

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>
<messages>
  <!-- filed error message -->
  <message key="FirstName_Required" text="The Frist Name field is required."></message>
  <message key="FirstName_Length" text="The field maximum length is 50"></message>
  <message key="LastName_Required" text="The Last Name field is required."></message>
  <message key="LastName_Length" text="The field maximum length is 255"></message>
  <message key="Email_Required" text="The Email field is required."></message>
  <message key="Email_Length" text="The field maximum length is 255"></message>
  <message key="Email_RegularExpression" text="Invalid email."></message>
  <message key="Url_Length" text="The field maximum length is 255"></message>
  <message key="Url_RegularExpression" text="Invalid URL."></message>
</messages> 

四,具体实现和应用XmlModelValidatorProvider

下面是我们最重要的XmlModelValidatorProvider的实现代码

public class XmlModelValidatorProvider : ModelValidatorProvider
{
       // 用来保存System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations中已经存在的验证规则,也就是MVC自带的Required等验证规则, 因为我们只是验证规则的"源"不一样,一个是代码中,一个是xml,但是验证过程是一样的,所以要重用MVC中的已经写好的验证。
       private readonly Dictionary<string, Type> _validatorTypes;

       private readonly string _xmlFolderPath = HttpContext.Current.Server.MapPath("~//Content//Validation//Rules");

       public XmlModelValidatorProvider()
       {
_validatorTypes
= Assembly.Load("System.ComponentModel.DataAnnotations").GetTypes() .Where(t => t.IsSubclassOf(typeof (ValidationAttribute))) .ToDictionary(t => t.Name, t => t); } #region Stolen from DataAnnotationsModelValidatorProvider // delegate that converts ValidationAttribute into DataAnnotationsModelValidator internal static DataAnnotationsModelValidationFactory DefaultAttributeFactory = (metadata, context, attribute) => new DataAnnotationsModelValidator(metadata, context, attribute); internal static Dictionary<Type, DataAnnotationsModelValidationFactory> AttributeFactories = new Dictionary <Type, DataAnnotationsModelValidationFactory> { { typeof (RangeAttribute), ( metadata, context, attribute) => new RangeAttributeAdapter (metadata, context, ( RangeAttribute ) attribute) }, { typeof (RegularExpressionAttribute), ( metadata, context, attribute) => new RegularExpressionAttributeAdapter (metadata, context, ( RegularExpressionAttribute ) attribute) }, { typeof (RequiredAttribute), ( metadata, context, attribute) => new RequiredAttributeAdapter (metadata, context, ( RequiredAttribute ) attribute) }, { typeof (StringLengthAttribute), ( metadata, context, attribute) => new StringLengthAttributeAdapter (metadata, context, ( StringLengthAttribute ) attribute) } }; #endregion // 重写GetValidators方法,该从xml文件中获取。根据xml的配置,返回对应的Validator集合 public override IEnumerable<ModelValidator> GetValidators(ModelMetadata metadata, ControllerContext context) { var results = new List<ModelValidator>(); // whether the validation is for a property or model // (remember we can apply validation attributes to a property or model and same applies here as well) var isPropertyValidation = metadata.ContainerType != null && !String.IsNullOrEmpty(metadata.PropertyName); var rulesPath = String.Format("{0}\\{1}.xml", _xmlFolderPath, isPropertyValidation ? metadata.ContainerType.Name : metadata.ModelType.Name); var rules = File.Exists(rulesPath) ? XElement.Load(rulesPath).XPathSelectElements(String.Format( "./validator[@property='{0}']", isPropertyValidation ? metadata.PropertyName : metadata.ModelType.Name)).ToList() : new List<XElement>(); // Produce a validator for each validation attribute we find foreach (var rule in rules) { DataAnnotationsModelValidationFactory factory; var validatorType = _validatorTypes[String.Concat(rule.Attribute("type").Value, "Attribute")]; if (!AttributeFactories.TryGetValue(validatorType, out factory)) { factory = DefaultAttributeFactory; } var validator = (ValidationAttribute) Activator.CreateInstance(validatorType, GetValidationArgs(rule)); validator.ErrorMessage = rule.Attribute("message") != null && !String.IsNullOrEmpty(rule.Attribute("message").Value) ? GetValidationMessage(isPropertyValidation ? metadata.ContainerType.Name : metadata.ModelType.Name, rule.Attribute("message").Value) : null; results.Add(factory(metadata, context, validator)); } return results; } private string GetValidationMessage(string model, string key) { return MessageProvider.GetViewModelValidationMessage(model, key); } // read the arguments passed to the validation attribute and cast it their respective type. private object[] GetValidationArgs(XElement rule) { var validatorArgs = rule.Attributes().Where(a => a.Name.ToString().StartsWith("arg")); var args = new object[validatorArgs.Count()]; var i = 0; foreach (var arg in validatorArgs) { var argName = arg.Name.ToString(); var argValue = arg.Value; if (!argName.Contains("-")) { args[i] = argValue; } else { var argType = argName.Split('-')[1]; switch (argType) { case "int": args[i] = int.Parse(argValue); break; case "datetime": args[i] = DateTime.Parse(argValue); break; case "char": args[i] = Char.Parse(argValue); break; case "double": args[i] = Double.Parse(argValue); break; case "decimal": args[i] = Decimal.Parse(argValue); break; case "bool": args[i] = Boolean.Parse(argValue); break; default: args[i] = argValue; break; } } } return args; } }

 最后,在Global.cs文件中,把XmlModelValidatorProvider添加到MVC的ModelValidatorProvidersCollection中

ModelValidatorProviders.Providers.Add(new XmlModelValidatorProvider());