小白都会超详细--ELK日志管理平台搭建教程

目录

一、介绍

二、安装JDK

三、安装Elasticsearch

四、安装Logstash

五、安装Kibana

六、Kibana简单使用

系统环境:CentOS Linux release 7.4.1708 (Core)

当前问题状况

  1. 开发人员不能登录线上服务器查看详细日志。
  2. 各个系统都有日志,日志数据分散难以查找。
  3. 日志数据量大,查询速度慢,或者数据不够实时。

一、介绍

1、组成

ELK由Elasticsearch、Logstash和Kibana三部分组件组成;
Elasticsearch是个开源分布式搜索引擎,它的特点有:分布式,零配置,自动发现,索引自动分片,索引副本机制,restful风格接口,多数据源,自动搜索负载等。
Logstash是一个完全开源的工具,它可以对你的日志进行收集、分析,并将其存储供以后使用
kibana 是一个开源和免费的工具,它可以为 Logstash 和 ElasticSearch 提供的日志分析友好的 Web 界面,可以帮助您汇总、分析和搜索重要数据日志。


2、四大组件
Logstash: logstash server端用来搜集日志;
Elasticsearch: 存储各类日志;
Kibana: web化接口用作查寻和可视化日志;
Logstash Forwarder: logstash client端用来通过lumberjack 网络协议发送日志到logstash server;

3、工作流程

在需要收集日志的所有服务上部署logstash,作为logstash agent(logstash shipper)用于监控并过滤收集日志,将过滤后的内容发送到Redis,然后logstash indexer将日志收集在一起交给全文搜索服务ElasticSearch,可以用ElasticSearch进行自定义搜索通过Kibana 来结合自定义搜索进行页面展示。

下面是在两台节点上都安装一下环境。

二、安装JDK

配置阿里源:wget -O /etc/yum.repos.d/CentOS-Base.repo http://mirrors.aliyun.com/repo/Centos-7.repo 
yum clean all
yum makecache
Logstash的运行依赖于Java运行环境,Elasticsearch 要求至少 Java 7。
[root@controller ~]# yum install java-1.8.0-openjdk -y
[root@controller ~]# java -version
openjdk version "1.8.0_151"
OpenJDK Runtime Environment (build 1.8.0_151-b12)
OpenJDK 64-Bit Server VM (build 25.151-b12, mixed mode)
1、关闭防火墙
systemctl stop firewalld.service #停止firewall
systemctl disable firewalld.service #禁止firewall开机启动
2、关闭selinux
sed -i 's/SELINUX=enforcing/SELINUX=disabled/g' /etc/selinux/config
setenforce 0

 三、安装Elasticsearch

基础环境安装(elk-node1和elk-node2同时操作)

1)下载并安装GPG Key
[root@elk-node1 ~]# rpm --import https://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch

2)添加yum仓库
[root@elk-node1 ~]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/elasticsearch.repo
[elasticsearch-2.x]
name=Elasticsearch repository for 2.x packages
baseurl=http://packages.elastic.co/elasticsearch/2.x/centos
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
enabled=1

3)安装elasticsearch
[root@elk-node1 ~]# yum install -y elasticsearch
4)添加自启动
chkconfig --add elasticsearch
5)启动命令
systemctl daemon-reload
systemctl enable elasticsearch.service
6)修改配置
[root@elk-node1 ~]# cd /etc/elasticsearch/
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# ls
elasticsearch.yml  logging.yml  scripts
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# cp elasticsearch.yml{,.bak}
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# mkdir -p /data/es-data
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# vim elasticsearch.yml
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# grep '^[a-z]' elasticsearch.yml
cluster.name: hejianlai               //集群名称
node.name: elk-node1                  //节点名称
path.data: /data/es-data              //数据存放目录
path.logs: /var/log/elasticsearch/    //日志存放目录
bootstrap.memory_lock: true           //打开内存
network.host: 0.0.0.0                 //监听网络
http.port: 9200                       //端口
discovery.zen.ping.multicast.enabled: false                    //改为单播
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["192.168.247.135", "192.168.247.133"]
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# systemctl start elasticsearch
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# systemctl status elasticsearch
● elasticsearch.service - Elasticsearch
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: failed (Result: exit-code) since Thu 2018-07-12 22:00:47 CST; 9s ago
     Docs: http://www.elastic.co
  Process: 22333 ExecStart=/usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/elasticsearch -Des.pidfile=${PID_DIR}/elasticsearch.pid -Des.default.path.home=${ES_HOME} -Des.default.path.logs=${LOG_DIR} -Des.default.path.data=${DATA_DIR} -Des.default.path.conf=${CONF_DIR} (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)
  Process: 22331 ExecStartPre=/usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/elasticsearch-systemd-pre-exec (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 22333 (code=exited, status=1/FAILURE)

Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at sun.nio.fs.UnixException.rethrowAsIOException(UnixException.java:102)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at sun.nio.fs.UnixException.rethrowAsIOException(UnixException.java:107)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at sun.nio.fs.UnixFileSystemProvider.createDirectory(UnixFileSystemProvider.java:384)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at java.nio.file.Files.createDirectory(Files.java:674)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at java.nio.file.Files.createAndCheckIsDirectory(Files.java:781)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at java.nio.file.Files.createDirectories(Files.java:767)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22333]: at org.elasticsearch.bootstrap.Security.ensureDirectoryExists(Security.java:337)
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 systemd[1]: elasticsearch.service: main process exited, code=exited, status=1/FAILURE
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 systemd[1]: Unit elasticsearch.service entered failed state.
Jul 12 22:00:47 elk-node1 systemd[1]: elasticsearch.service failed.
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# cd /var/log/elasticsearch/
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# ll
total 4
-rw-r--r-- 1 elasticsearch elasticsearch    0 Jul 12 22:00 hejianlai_deprecation.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 elasticsearch elasticsearch    0 Jul 12 22:00 hejianlai_index_indexing_slowlog.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 elasticsearch elasticsearch    0 Jul 12 22:00 hejianlai_index_search_slowlog.log
-rw-r--r-- 1 elasticsearch elasticsearch 2232 Jul 12 22:00 hejianlai.log
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# tail hejianlai.log 
	at sun.nio.fs.UnixException.translateToIOException(UnixException.java:84)
	at sun.nio.fs.UnixException.rethrowAsIOException(UnixException.java:102)
	at sun.nio.fs.UnixException.rethrowAsIOException(UnixException.java:107)
	at sun.nio.fs.UnixFileSystemProvider.createDirectory(UnixFileSystemProvider.java:384)
	at java.nio.file.Files.createDirectory(Files.java:674)
	at java.nio.file.Files.createAndCheckIsDirectory(Files.java:781)
	at java.nio.file.Files.createDirectories(Files.java:767)
	at org.elasticsearch.bootstrap.Security.ensureDirectoryExists(Security.java:337)
	at org.elasticsearch.bootstrap.Security.addPath(Security.java:314)
	... 7 more
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# less hejianlai.log 
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# grep elas /etc/passwd
elasticsearch:x:991:988:elasticsearch user:/home/elasticsearch:/sbin/nologin
#报错/data/es-data没权限,赋权限即可
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# chown -R elasticsearch:elasticsearch /data/es-data/
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# systemctl start elasticsearch
[root@elk-node1 elasticsearch]# systemctl status elasticsearch
● elasticsearch.service - Elasticsearch
   Loaded: loaded (/usr/lib/systemd/system/elasticsearch.service; disabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (running) since Thu 2018-07-12 22:03:28 CST; 4s ago
     Docs: http://www.elastic.co
  Process: 22398 ExecStartPre=/usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/elasticsearch-systemd-pre-exec (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
 Main PID: 22400 (java)
   CGroup: /system.slice/elasticsearch.service
           └─22400 /bin/java -Xms256m -Xmx1g -Djava.awt.headless=true -XX:+UseParNewGC -XX:+UseConcMarkSweepGC -XX:CMSInitiatingOccupancyFraction=75 -XX:+UseCMSInitiatingOccupancyOnly -XX:+HeapDumpOnOutOfMe...

Jul 12 22:03:29 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:29,739][WARN ][bootstrap                ] If you are logged in interactively, you will have to re-login for the new limits to take effect.
Jul 12 22:03:29 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:29,899][INFO ][node                     ] [elk-node1] version[2.4.6], pid[22400], build[5376dca/2017-07-18T12:17:44Z]
Jul 12 22:03:29 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:29,899][INFO ][node                     ] [elk-node1] initializing ...
Jul 12 22:03:30 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:30,644][INFO ][plugins                  ] [elk-node1] modules [reindex, lang-expression, lang-groovy], plugins [], sites []
Jul 12 22:03:30 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:30,845][INFO ][env                      ] [elk-node1] using [1] data paths, mounts [[/ (rootfs)]], net usable_space [1.7gb], n...types [rootfs]
Jul 12 22:03:30 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:30,845][INFO ][env                      ] [elk-node1] heap size [1007.3mb], compressed ordinary object pointers [true]
Jul 12 22:03:33 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:33,149][INFO ][node                     ] [elk-node1] initialized
Jul 12 22:03:33 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:33,149][INFO ][node                     ] [elk-node1] starting ...
Jul 12 22:03:33 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:33,333][INFO ][transport                ] [elk-node1] publish_address {192.168.247.135:9300}, bound_addresses {[::]:9300}
Jul 12 22:03:33 elk-node1 elasticsearch[22400]: [2018-07-12 22:03:33,345][INFO ][discovery                ] [elk-node1] hejianlai/iUUTEKhyTxyL78aGtrrBOw
Hint: Some lines were ellipsized, use -l to show in full.

 访问地址:http://192.168.247.135:9200/

安装ES插件

#统计索引数
[root@elk-node1 ~]# curl -i -XGET 'http://192.168.247.135:9200/_count?pretty' -d '
> "query": {
>      "match_all":{}
> }'
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 95

{
  "count" : 0,
  "_shards" : {
    "total" : 0,
    "successful" : 0,
    "failed" : 0
  }
}
#es插件,收费的不建议使用(这个不安装)
[root@elk-node1 bin]# /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/plugin install marvel-agent

#安装开源的elasticsearch-head插件
[root@elk-node1 bin]# /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/plugin install mobz/elasticsearch-head
-> Installing mobz/elasticsearch-head...
Trying https://github.com/mobz/elasticsearch-head/archive/master.zip ...
Downloading ...........................................................................................................................................DONE
Verifying https://github.com/mobz/elasticsearch-head/archive/master.zip checksums if available ...
NOTE: Unable to verify checksum for downloaded plugin (unable to find .sha1 or .md5 file to verify)

 访问地址:http://192.168.247.135:9200/_plugin/head/

使用POST方法创建查询

使用GET方法查询数据

基本查询

elk-node2配置

[root@elk-node2 elasticsearch]# grep '^[a-z]' /etc/elasticsearch/elasticsearch.yml 
cluster.name: hejianlai
node.name: elk-node2
path.data: /data/es-data
path.logs: /var/log/elasticsearch/
bootstrap.memory_lock: true
network.host: 0.0.0.0
http.port: 9200
discovery.zen.ping.multicast.enabled: false
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["192.168.247.135", "192.168.247.133"]

 在构建Elasticsearch(ES)多节点集群的时候,通常情况下只需要将elasticsearch.yml中的cluster.name设置成相同即可,ES会自动匹配并构成集群。但是很多时候可能由于不同的节点在不同的网段下,导致无法自动获取集群。此时可以将启用单播,显式指定节点的发现。具体做法是在elasticsearch.yml文件中设置如下两个参数:

discovery.zen.ping.multicast.enabled: false
discovery.zen.ping.unicast.hosts: ["192.168.247.135", "192.168.247.133"]

重启elk-node1,并开启elk-node2,访问:192.168.247.135:9200/_plugin/head/

 安装监控kopf

[root@elk-node1 ~]# /usr/share/elasticsearch/bin/plugin install lmenezes/elasticsearch-kopf
-> Installing lmenezes/elasticsearch-kopf...
Trying https://github.com/lmenezes/elasticsearch-kopf/archive/master.zip ...
Downloading .........................................................................................................................DONE
Verifying https://github.com/lmenezes/elasticsearch-kopf/archive/master.zip checksums if available ...
NOTE: Unable to verify checksum for downloaded plugin (unable to find .sha1 or .md5 file to verify)
Installed kopf into /usr/share/elasticsearch/plugins/kopf

 访问地址:http://192.168.247.135:9200/_plugin/kopf/#!/cluster

四、安装Logstash(客户端即需要收集日志的机子,ES节点上都要安装)

官方文档地址:https://www.elastic.co/guide/en/logstash/current/index.html

1)下载并安装GPG Key
[root@elk-node1 ~]# rpm --import https://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch

2)添加yum仓库
[root@elk-node1 ~]# vim /etc/yum.repos.d/logstash.repo
[logstash-2.1]
name=Logstash repository for 2.1.x packages
baseurl=http://packages.elastic.co/logstash/2.1/centos
gpgcheck=1
gpgkey=http://packages.elastic.co/GPG-KEY-elasticsearch
enabled=1

3)安装logstash
[root@elk-node1 ~]# yum install -y logstash

4)测试数据
#简单的输入输出
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin{} } output { stdout{} }'
Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed
hello world
2018-07-13T00:54:34.497Z elk-node1 hello world
hi hejianlai
2018-07-13T00:54:44.453Z elk-node1 hi hejianlai
来宾张家辉
2018-07-13T00:55:35.278Z elk-node1 来宾张家辉
^CSIGINT received. Shutting down the pipeline. {:level=>:warn}

Logstash shutdown completed
#可以使用rubydebug详细输出
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin{} } output { stdout{ codec => rubydebug } }'
Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed
mimi
{
       "message" => "mimi",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2018-07-13T00:58:59.980Z",
          "host" => "elk-node1"
}
#内容写进elasticsearch中
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin{} } output { elasticsearch{hosts=>["192.168.247.135"]} }'
Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed
I love you
1232
hejianlai
渣渣辉
^CSIGINT received. Shutting down the pipeline. {:level=>:warn}
Logstash shutdown completed
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -e 'input { stdin{} } output { elasticsearch { hosts => ["192.168.247.135:9200"]} stdout{ codec => rubydebug}}'
Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed
广州
{
       "message" => "广州",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2018-07-13T02:17:40.800Z",
          "host" => "elk-node1"
}
hehehehehehehe
{
       "message" => "hehehehehehehe",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2018-07-13T02:17:49.400Z",
          "host" => "elk-node1"
}

 

logstash日志收集配置文件编写

#交换式输入信息
[root@elk-node1 ~]# cat /etc/logstash/conf.d/logstash-01.conf
input { stdin { } }
output {
        elasticsearch { hosts => ["192.168.247.135:9200"]}
        stdout { codec => rubydebug }
}
执行命令
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /etc/logstash/conf.d/logstash-01.conf 
Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed
l o v e
{
       "message" => "l o v e",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2018-07-13T02:37:42.670Z",
          "host" => "elk-node1"
}
地久梁朝伟
{
       "message" => "地久梁朝伟",
      "@version" => "1",
    "@timestamp" => "2018-07-13T02:38:20.049Z",
          "host" => "elk-node1"
}
#收集系统日志
[root@elk-node1 conf.d]# cat /etc/logstash/conf.d/systemlog.conf 
input{
    file {
	path => "/var/log/messages"
	type => "sysstem"
	start_position => "beginning"
	}
}
output{
	elasticsearch{
	hosts => ["192.168.247.135:9200"]
	index => "systemlog-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
	}
}
#放在后台执行
[root@elk-node1 conf.d]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /etc/logstash/conf.d/systemlog.conf &

 

收集elk错误日志配置文件编写

[root@elk-node1 ~]# cat /etc/logstash/conf.d/elk_log.conf 
input {
    file {
      path => "/var/log/messages"
      type => "system"
      start_position => "beginning"
    }
}
input {
    file {
       path => "/var/log/elasticsearch/hejianlai.log"
       type => "es-error"
       start_position => "beginning"
       codec => multiline {
          pattern => "^\["                                 //正则匹配[开头的为一个事件
          negate => true
          what => "previous"
        }
    }
}
output {
 
    if [type] == "system"{
        elasticsearch {
           hosts => ["192.168.247.135:9200"]
           index => "systemlog-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
        }
    }
 
    if [type] == "es-error"{
        elasticsearch {
           hosts => ["192.168.247.135:9200"]
           index => "es-error-%{+YYYY.MM.dd}"
        }
    }
}
#放入后台运行
[root@elk-node1 ~]# /opt/logstash/bin/logstash -f /etc/logstash/conf.d/elk_log.conf &
[1] 28574
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@elk-node1 ~]# Settings: Default filter workers: 1
Logstash startup completed

 

 五、安装Kibana

官方下载地址:https://www.elastic.co/downloads/kibana

官方最新的版本出来了6.3.1太新了,下载后出现很多坑后来就下了4.3.1的·先用着吧~~~

1)kibana的安装:
[root@elk-node1 local]# cd /usr/local/
[root@elk-node1 local]# wget https://artifacts.elastic.co/downloads/kibana/kibana-4.3.1-linux-x64.tar.gz
[root@elk-node1 local]# tar -xf kibana-4.3.1-linux-x64.tar.gz
[root@elk-node1 local]# ln -s /usr/local/kibana-4.3.1-linux-x64 /usr/local/kibana
[root@elk-node1 local]# cd kibana
[root@elk-node1 kibana]# ls
bin  config  installedPlugins  LICENSE.txt  node  node_modules  optimize  package.json  README.txt  src  webpackShims
2)修改配置文件:
[root@elk-node1 kibana]# cd config/
[root@elk-node1 config]# pwd
/usr/local/kibana/config
[root@elk-node1 config]# vim kibana.yml
You have new mail in /var/spool/mail/root
[root@elk-node1 config]# grep -Ev "^#|^$" kibana.yml
server.port: 5601
server.host: "0.0.0.0"
elasticsearch.url: "http://192.168.247.135:9200"
kibana.index: ".kibana"
3)screen是一个全屏窗口管理器,它在几个进程(通常是交互式shell)之间复用物理终端。每个虚拟终端提供DEC VT100的功能。
[root@elk-node1 local]# yum install -y screen
4)启动screen命令后运行kibana最后按ctrl+a+d组合键让其在单独的窗口里运行。
[root@elk-node1 config]# screen
[root@elk-node1 config]# /usr/local/kibana/bin/kibana
  log   [02:23:34.148] [info][status][plugin:kibana@6.3.1] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [02:23:34.213] [info][status][plugin:elasticsearch@6.3.1] Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch
  log   [02:23:34.216] [info][status][plugin:xpack_main@6.3.1] Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch
  log   [02:23:34.221] [info][status][plugin:searchprofiler@6.3.1] Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch
  log   [02:23:34.224] [info][status][plugin:ml@6.3.1] Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch
[root@elk-node1 config]# screen -ls
There are screens on:
    29696.pts-0.elk-node1    (Detached)
[root@elk-node1 kibana]# /usr/local/kibana/bin/kibana
  log   [11:25:37.557] [info][status][plugin:kibana] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.585] [info][status][plugin:elasticsearch] Status changed from uninitialized to yellow - Waiting for Elasticsearch
  log   [11:25:37.600] [info][status][plugin:kbn_vislib_vis_types] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.602] [info][status][plugin:markdown_vis] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.604] [info][status][plugin:metric_vis] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.606] [info][status][plugin:spyModes] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.608] [info][status][plugin:statusPage] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.612] [info][status][plugin:table_vis] Status changed from uninitialized to green - Ready
  log   [11:25:37.647] [info][listening] Server running at http://0.0.0.0:5601

 六、kibana简单使用

访问kibana地址:http://192.168.247.135:5601

 第一次登录我们创建一个elk的es-error索引

 

 添加message和path字段

运用搜索栏功能,我们搜soft关键字

我们在添加之前写的systemlog索引

*为正则匹配

好啦~~到此为止ELK日志平台搭建基本搞掂,,,,累得一笔,,后续可以根据需求编写好需要监控的应用文件添加到kibana上即可。

posted @ 2018-07-15 12:10 渣渣辉 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏