linux非root用户下安装软件,搭建生产环境

之前的用实验室的服务器,因为某些原因,使用的用户没有root权限。linux的非root用户很多软件无法安装,非常的不方便。我的方法是使用brew来代替系统的包管理工具。brew是最先用在mac上的包管理工具,可以将所有的包托管在user本地的环境内。下面的文档中运行的时候记得将用户名改成自己的。

1. 安装anaconda

下载官方anaconda python安装包(minicondo也行),将conda加入~/.bashrc的系统变量中(在安装中会提示你运行 conda init,点yes就会直接复制到~/.bashrc中了)。这一步的目的是去安装curl, curl是下载安装brew必备的工具,此时curl会安装在/home/username/anaconda3/bin中

conda install curl --use-local

建议这里装完再装一个vim,方便文本编辑

2. 安装brew

使用curl命令下载安装brew,中间有一些错误不用管他,结束后输入brew有返回就说明安装成功

sh -c "$(curl -fsSL https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Linuxbrew/install/master/install.sh)"

之后将一下brew加入~/.bashrc中

export HOMEBREW_PREFIX="/home/username/.linuxbrew";
export HOMEBREW_CELLAR="/home/username/.linuxbrew/Cellar";
export HOMEBREW_REPOSITORY="/home/username/.linuxbrew/Homebrew";
export PATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/bin:/home/username/.linuxbrew/sbin:$PATH";
export MANPATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/share/man:$MANPATH";
export INFOPATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/share/info:$INFOPATH";

此时保证brew已经是一个可以在终端被调用, 接下来是关键的一步

在/home/username/.linuxbrew/Homebrew/Library/Homebrew/brew.sh#L200上进行加上一行

if [[ -n "$HOMEBREW_FORCE_BREWED_CURL" &&
      -x "$HOMEBREW_PREFIX/opt/curl/bin/curl" ]] &&
         "$HOMEBREW_PREFIX/opt/curl/bin/curl" --version >/dev/null
then
  HOMEBREW_CURL="$HOMEBREW_PREFIX/opt/curl/bin/curl"
elif [[ -n "$HOMEBREW_DEVELOPER" && -x "$HOMEBREW_CURL_PATH" ]]
then
  HOMEBREW_CURL="$HOMEBREW_CURL_PATH"
else
  HOMEBREW_CURL="curl"
fi
HOMEBREW_CURL="/home/username/anaconda/bin/curl" # 加上这一行!

然后输入 brew install curl

装完之后brew.sh会自动抹去自己之前的修改 : ),然后brew就正式能用了

比如 brew install tmux, brew install htop,只有brew有的包都可以装(参考包列表https://formulae.brew.sh/formula/)

3. 手动编译安装软件包

如果brew里面没有某个包,需要自己编译的话,一般的linux软件包都是make编译的,一般修改下configure然后再make && make install 就好了,如下三行命令:

./configure --prefix=/home/username/.local
make
make install
# 如果要卸载 运行 make uninstall

最后分享下我的~/.bashrc ,其中 ~/.local/bin~/.local/lib加到PATH里面是为了自己编译安装用的。

export PATH=~/.local/bin:$PATH
export C_INCLUDE_PATH=$C_INCLUDE_PATH:~/.local/include
export CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH=$CPLUS_INCLUDE_PATH:~/.local/include
export LD_LIBRARY_PATH=~/.local/lib:$LD_LIBRARY_PATH


# >>> conda initialize >>>
# !! Contents within this block are managed by 'conda init' !!
__conda_setup="$('/home/username/anaconda3/bin/conda' 'shell.bash' 'hook' 2> /dev/null)"
if [ $? -eq 0 ]; then
    eval "$__conda_setup"
else
    if [ -f "/home/username/anaconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh" ]; then
        . "/home/username/anaconda3/etc/profile.d/conda.sh"
    else
        export PATH="/home/username/anaconda3/bin:$PATH"
    fi
fi
unset __conda_setup
# <<< conda initialize <<<

export HOMEBREW_PREFIX="/home/username/.linuxbrew";
export HOMEBREW_CELLAR="/home/username/.linuxbrew/Cellar";
export HOMEBREW_REPOSITORY="/home/username/.linuxbrew/Homebrew";
export PATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/bin:/home/username/.linuxbrew/sbin:$PATH";
export MANPATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/share/man:$MANPATH";
export INFOPATH="/home/username/.linuxbrew/share/info:$INFOPATH";
posted @ 2019-09-17 16:40  basasuya  阅读(1252)  评论(0编辑  收藏  举报