思路话语

。Arlen:思想有多远你就能走多远...

巧用MySQL InnoDB引擎锁机制解决死锁问题

该文会通过一个实际例子中的死锁问题的解决过程,进一步解释innodb的行锁机制

 

最近,在项目开发过程中,碰到了数据库死锁问题,在解决问题的过程中,笔者对MySQL InnoDB引擎锁机制的理解逐步加深。

案例如下:

在使用Show innodb status检查引擎状态时,发现了死锁问题:

*** (1) TRANSACTION:

TRANSACTION 0 677833455, ACTIVE 0 sec, process no 11393, OS thread id 278546 starting index read

mysql tables in use 1, locked 1

LOCK WAIT 3 lock struct(s), heap size 320

MySQL thread id 83, query id 162348740 dcnet03 dcnet Searching rows for update

update TSK_TASK set STATUS_ID=1064,UPDATE_TIME=now () where STATUS_ID=1061 and MON_TIME*** (1) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:

RECORD LOCKS space id 0 page no 849384 n bits 208 index `PRIMARY` of table `dcnet_db/TSK_TASK` trx id 0 677833455 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap waiting

Record lock, heap no 92 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 11; compact format; info bits 0

0: len 8; hex 800000000097629c; asc b ;; 1: len 6; hex 00002866eaee; asc (f ;; 2: len 7; hex 00000d40040110; asc @ ;; 3: len 8; hex 80000000000050b2; asc P ;; 4: len 8; hex 800000000000502a; asc P*;; 5: len 8; hex 8000000000005426; asc T&;; 6: len 8; hex 800012412c66d29c; asc A,f ;; 7: len 23; hex 75706c6f6164666972652e636f6d2f6 8616e642e706870; asc xxx.com/;; 8: len 8; hex 800000000000042b; asc +;; 9: len 4; hex 474bfa2b; asc GK +;; 10: len 8; hex 8000000000004e24; asc N$;;

*** (2) TRANSACTION:

TRANSACTION 0 677833454, ACTIVE 0 sec, process no 11397, OS thread id 344086 updating or deleting, thread declared inside InnoDB 499

mysql tables in use 1, locked 1

3 lock struct(s), heap size 320, undo log entries 1

MySQL thread id 84, query id 162348739 dcnet03 dcnet Updating

update TSK_TASK set STATUS_ID=1067,UPDATE_TIME=now () where ID in (9921180)

*** (2) HOLDS THE LOCK(S):

RECORD LOCKS space id 0 page no 849384 n bits 208 index `PRIMARY` of table `dcnet_db/TSK_TASK` trx id 0 677833454 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap

Record lock, heap no 92 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 11; compact format; info bits 0

0: len 8; hex 800000000097629c; asc b ;; 1: len 6; hex 00002866eaee; asc (f ;; 2: len 7; hex 00000d40040110; asc @ ;; 3: len 8; hex 80000000000050b2; asc P ;; 4: len 8; hex 800000000000502a; asc P*;; 5: len 8; hex 8000000000005426; asc T&;; 6: len 8; hex 800012412c66d29c; asc A,f ;; 7: len 23; hex 75706c6f6164666972652e636f6d2f6 8616e642e706870; asc uploadfire.com/hand.php;; 8: len 8; hex 800000000000042b; asc +;; 9: len 4; hex 474bfa2b; asc GK +;; 10: len 8; hex 8000000000004e24; asc N$;;

*** (2) WAITING FOR THIS LOCK TO BE GRANTED:

RECORD LOCKS space id 0 page no 843102 n bits 600 index `KEY_TSKTASK_MONTIME2` of table `dcnet_db/TSK_TASK` trx id 0 677833454 lock_mode X locks rec but not gap waiting

Record lock, heap no 395 PHYSICAL RECORD: n_fields 3; compact format; info bits 0

0: len 8; hex 8000000000000425; asc %;; 1: len 8; hex 800012412c66d29c; asc A,f ;; 2: len 8; hex 800000000097629c; asc b ;;

*** WE ROLL BACK TRANSACTION (1)

此死锁问题涉及TSK_TASK表,该表用于保存系统监测任务,以下是相关字段及索引:

ID:主键;

MON_TIME:监测时间;

STATUS_ID:任务状态;

索引:KEY_TSKTASK_MONTIME2 (STATUS_ID, MON_TIME)。

 

 

 

分析,涉及的两条语句应该不会涉及相同的TSK_TASK记录,那为什么会造成死锁呢?

查询MySQL官网文档,发现这跟MySQL的索引机制有关。MySQL的InnoDB引擎是行级锁,我原来的理解是直接对记录进行锁定,实际上并 不是这样的。

要点如下:

不是对记录进行锁定,而是对索引进行锁定;

在UPDATE、DELETE操作时,MySQL不仅锁定WHERE条件扫描过的所有索引记录,而且会锁定相邻的键值,即所谓的next-key locking;

如语句UPDATE TSK_TASK SET UPDATE_TIME = NOW() WHERE ID > 10000会锁定所有主键大于等于1000的所有记录,在该语句完成之前,你就不能对主键等于10000的记录进行操作;

当非簇索引(non-cluster index)记录被锁定时,相关的簇索引(cluster index)记录也需要被锁定才能完成相应的操作。

再分析一下发生问题的两条SQL语句,就不难找到问题所在了:

当“update TSK_TASK set STATUS_ID=1064,UPDATE_TIME=now () where STATUS_ID=1061 and MON_TIME

假设“update TSK_TASK set STATUS_ID=1067,UPDATE_TIME=now () where ID in (9921180)”几乎同时执行时,本语句首先锁定簇索引(主键),由于需要更新STATUS_ID的值,所以还需要锁定 KEY_TSKTASK_MONTIME2的某些索引记录。

这样第一条语句锁定了KEY_TSKTASK_MONTIME2的记录,等待主键索引,而第二条语句则锁定了主键索引记录,而等待 KEY_TSKTASK_MONTIME2的记录,在此情况下,死锁就产生了。

笔者通过拆分第一条语句解决死锁问题:

先查出符合条件的ID:select ID from TSK_TASK where STATUS_ID=1061 and MON_TIME < date_sub(now(), INTERVAL 30 minute);然后再更新状态:update TSK_TASK set STATUS_ID=1064 where ID in (….)

至此,死锁问题彻底解决。 

 

posted on 2010-06-12 11:35 Arlen 阅读(...) 评论(...)  编辑 收藏

导航

统计信息

News