Flask中的单例模式

1,基于文件的单例模式:

import pymysql
import threading
from DBUtils.PooledDB import PooledDB

class SingletonDBPool(object):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()

    def __init__(self):
        self.pool = PooledDB(
            creator=pymysql,  # 使用链接数据库的模块
            maxconnections=6,  # 连接池允许的最大连接数,0和None表示不限制连接数
            mincached=2,  # 初始化时,链接池中至少创建的空闲的链接,0表示不创建

            maxcached=5,  # 链接池中最多闲置的链接,0和None不限制
            maxshared=3,
            # 链接池中最多共享的链接数量,0和None表示全部共享。PS: 无用,因为pymysql和MySQLdb等模块的 threadsafety都为1,所有值无论设置为多少,_maxcached永远为0,所以永远是所有链接都共享。
            blocking=True,  # 连接池中如果没有可用连接后,是否阻塞等待。True,等待;False,不等待然后报错
            maxusage=None,  # 一个链接最多被重复使用的次数,None表示无限制
            setsession=[],  # 开始会话前执行的命令列表。如:["set datestyle to ...", "set time zone ..."]
            ping=0,
            # ping MySQL服务端,检查是否服务可用。# 如:0 = None = never, 1 = default = whenever it is requested, 2 = when a cursor is created, 4 = when a query is executed, 7 = always
            host='127.0.0.1',
            port=3306,
            user='root',
            password='123456',
            database='pooldb',
            charset='utf8'
        )

    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(SingletonDBPool, "_instance"):
            with SingletonDBPool._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(SingletonDBPool, "_instance"):
                    SingletonDBPool._instance = object.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return SingletonDBPool._instance

    def connect(self):
        return self.pool.connection()
from pool import SingletonDBPool

def run():
    pool = SingletonDBPool()
    con = pool.connect()
    # xxxxxx

    con.close()

if __name__ == '__main__':
    run()

  


 

  

# 单例模式:无法支持多线程情况
"""
class Singleton(object):

    def __init__(self):
        import time
        time.sleep(1)

    @classmethod
    def instance(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
            Singleton._instance = Singleton(*args, **kwargs)
        return Singleton._instance

import threading

def task(arg):
    obj = Singleton.instance()
    print(obj)

for i in range(10):
    t = threading.Thread(target=task,args=[i,])
    t.start()
"""

# # 单例模式:支持多线程情况
"""
import time
import threading
class Singleton(object):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()

    def __init__(self):
        time.sleep(1)

    @classmethod
    def instance(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
            with Singleton._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
                    Singleton._instance = Singleton(*args, **kwargs)
        return Singleton._instance


def task(arg):
    obj = Singleton.instance()
    print(obj)
for i in range(10):
    t = threading.Thread(target=task,args=[i,])
    t.start()
time.sleep(20)
obj = Singleton.instance()
print(obj)
"""

 


基于__new__方法实现单例模式
# class Singleton(object):
#     def __init__(self):
#         print('init',self)
#
#
#     def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
#         o = object.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
#         print('new',o)
#         return o
#
# obj = Singleton()
#
# print('xxx',obj)

import time
import threading
class Singleton(object):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()

    def __init__(self):
        pass


    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
            with Singleton._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
                    Singleton._instance = object.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return Singleton._instance

obj1 = Singleton()
obj2 = Singleton()
print(obj1,obj2)


# def task(arg):
#     obj = Singleton()
#     print(obj)
#
# for i in range(10):
#     t = threading.Thread(target=task,args=[i,])
#     t.start()

  


基于metaclass
"""
1.对象是类创建,创建对象时候类的__init__方法自动执行,对象()执行类的 __call__ 方法
2.类是type创建,创建类时候type的__init__方法自动执行,类() 执行type的 __call__方法(类的__new__方法,类的__init__方法)

# 第0步: 执行type的 __init__ 方法【类是type的对象】
class Foo:
    def __init__(self):
        pass

    def __call__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        pass

# 第1步: 执行type的 __call__ 方法
#        1.1  调用 Foo类(是type的对象)的 __new__方法,用于创建对象。
#        1.2  调用 Foo类(是type的对象)的 __init__方法,用于对对象初始化。
obj = Foo()
# 第2步:执行Foodef __call__ 方法
obj()
"""


"""
class SingletonType(type):
    def __init__(self,*args,**kwargs):
        super(SingletonType,self).__init__(*args,**kwargs)

    def __call__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        obj = cls.__new__(cls,*args, **kwargs)
        cls.__init__(obj,*args, **kwargs) # Foo.__init__(obj)
        return obj

class Foo(metaclass=SingletonType):
    def __init__(self,name):
        self.name = name
    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        return object.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)

obj = Foo('name')
"""
import threading

class SingletonType(type):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()
    def __call__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(cls, "_instance"):
            with SingletonType._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(cls, "_instance"):
                    cls._instance = super(SingletonType,cls).__call__(*args, **kwargs)
        return cls._instance

class Foo(metaclass=SingletonType):
    def __init__(self,name):
        self.name = name


obj1 = Foo('name')
obj2 = Foo('name')
print(obj1,obj2)

 

# ######################## 基于 类方法实现 #########################
"""
import time
import threading
class Singleton(object):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()

    def __init__(self):
        time.sleep(1)

    @classmethod
    def instance(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
            with Singleton._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
                    Singleton._instance = Singleton(*args, **kwargs)
        return Singleton._instance

# 使用先说明,以后用单例模式,obj = Singleton.instance()
# 示例:
# obj1 = Singleton.instance()
# obj2 = Singleton.instance()
# print(obj1,obj2)
# 错误示例
# obj1 = Singleton()
# obj2 = Singleton()
# print(obj1,obj2)
"""
# ######################### 基于__new__方式实现 #########################
"""
import time
import threading
class Singleton(object):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()

    def __init__(self):
        pass


    def __new__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
            with Singleton._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(Singleton, "_instance"):
                    Singleton._instance = object.__new__(cls, *args, **kwargs)
        return Singleton._instance


# 使用先说明,以后用单例模式,obj = Singleton()
# 示例
# obj1 = Singleton()
# obj2 = Singleton()
# print(obj1,obj2)
"""

# ######################### 基于metaclass方式实现 ###################
"""
import threading

class SingletonType(type):
    _instance_lock = threading.Lock()
    def __call__(cls, *args, **kwargs):
        if not hasattr(cls, "_instance"):
            with SingletonType._instance_lock:
                if not hasattr(cls, "_instance"):
                    cls._instance = super(SingletonType,cls).__call__(*args, **kwargs)
        return cls._instance

class Foo(metaclass=SingletonType):
    def __init__(self,name):
        self.name = name


obj1 = Foo('name')
obj2 = Foo('name')
print(obj1,obj2)
"""


# PS: 为了保证线程安全在内部加入锁

 

# 装饰器实现的单例模式
#
def wrapper(cls):
    instance = {}
    def inner(*args,**kwargs):
        if cls not in  instance:
            instance[cls] = cls(*args,**kwargs)
        return instance[cls]
    return inner

@wrapper
class Singleton(object):
    def __init__(self,name,age):
        self.name = name
        self.age = age

obj1 = Singleton('haiyan',22)
obj2 = Singleton('xx',22)
print(obj1)
print(obj2)

 

posted @ 2018-01-08 19:55 前方、有光 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏