【Hadoop代码笔记】Hadoop作业提交之Child启动reduce任务

一、概要描述

上篇博文描述了TaskTracker启动一个独立的java进程来执行Map任务。接上上篇文章,TaskRunner线程执行中,会构造一个java –D** Child address port tasked这样第一个java命令,单独启动一个java进程。在Child的main函数中通过TaskUmbilicalProtocol协议,从TaskTracker获得需要执行的Task,并调用Task的run方法来执行。在ReduceTask而Task的run方法会通过java反射机制构造Reducer,Reducer.Context,然后调用构造的Reducer的run方法执行reduce操作。不同于map任务,在执行reduce任务前,需要把map的输出从map运行的tasktracker上拷贝到reducer运行的tasktracker上。

Reduce需要集群上若干个map任务的输出作为其特殊的分区文件。每个map任务完成的时间可能不同,因此只要有一个任务完成,reduce任务就开始复制其输出。这就是reduce任务的复制阶段。其实是启动若干个MapOutputCopier线程来复制完所有map输出。在复制完成后reduce任务进入排序阶段。这个阶段将由LocalFSMerger或InMemFSMergeThread合并map输出,维持其顺序排序。【即对有序的几个文件进行归并,采用归并排序】在reduce阶段,对已排序输出的每个键都要调用reduce函数,此阶段的输出直接写到文件系统,一般为HDFS上。(如果采用HDFS,由于tasktracker节点也是DataNoe,所以第一个块副本将被写到本地磁盘。 即数据本地化) 

Map 任务完成后,会通知其父tasktracker状态更新,然后tasktracker通知jobtracker。通过心跳机制来完成。因此jobtracker知道map输出和tasktracker之间的映射关系。Reducer的一个getMapCompletionEvents线程定期询问jobtracker以便获取map输出位置。

二、 流程描述  

1.在ReduceTak中 构建ReduceCopier对象,调用其fetchOutputs方法。

2. 在ReduceCopier的fetchOutputs方法中分别构造几个独立的线程。相互配合,并分别独立的完成任务。

2.1 GetMapEventsThread线程通过RPC询问TaskTracker,对每个完成的Event,获取maptask所在的服务器地址,即MapTask输出的地址,构造URL,加入到mapLocations,供copier线程获取。

2.2构造并启动若干个MapOutputCopier线程,通过http协议,把map的输出从远端服务器拷贝的本地,如果可以放在内存中,则存储在内存中调用,否则保存在本地文件。

2.3LocalFSMerger对磁盘上的map 输出进行归并。

2.4nMemFSMergeThread对内存中的map输出进行归并。

3.根据拷贝到的map输出构造一个raw keyvalue的迭代器,作为reduce的输入。

4. 调用runNewReducer方法中根据配置的Reducer类构造一个Reducer实例和运行的上下文。并调用reducer的run方法来执行到用户定义的reduce操作。。

5.在Reducer的run方法中从上下文中取出一个key和该key对应的Value集合(Iterable<VALUEIN>类型),调用reducer的reduce方法进行处理。

6. Recuer的reduce方法是用户定义的处理数据的方法,也是用户唯一需要定义的方法。

三、代码详细

1. Child的main方法每个task进程都会被在单独的进程中执行,这个方法就是这些进程的入口方法。Reduce和map一样都是由该main函数调用。所以此处不做描述,详细见上节Child启动map任务

2. ReduceTask的run方法。在Child子进程中被调用,执行用户定义的Reduce操作。前面代码逻辑和MapTask类似。通过TaskUmbilicalProtocol向tasktracker上报执行进度。开启线程向TaskTracker上报进度,根据task的不同动作要求执行不同的方法,如jobClean,jobsetup,taskCleanup。对于部分的了解可以产看taskTracker获取Task文章中的 JobTracker的 heartbeat方法处的详细解释。不同于map任务,在执行reduce任务前,需要把map的输出从map运行的tasktracker上拷贝到reducer运行的tasktracker上。

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    public void run(JobConf job, final TaskUmbilicalProtocol umbilical)
            throws IOException, InterruptedException, ClassNotFoundException {
        job.setBoolean("mapred.skip.on", isSkipping());

        if (isMapOrReduce()) {
            copyPhase = getProgress().addPhase("copy");
            sortPhase  = getProgress().addPhase("sort");
            reducePhase = getProgress().addPhase("reduce");
        }
        // start thread that will handle communication with parent
        TaskReporter reporter = new TaskReporter(getProgress(), umbilical);
        reporter.startCommunicationThread();
        boolean useNewApi = job.getUseNewReducer();
        initialize(job, getJobID(), reporter, useNewApi);

        // check if it is a cleanupJobTask
        if (jobCleanup) {
            runJobCleanupTask(umbilical, reporter);
            return;
        }
        if (jobSetup) {
            runJobSetupTask(umbilical, reporter);
            return;
        }
        if (taskCleanup) {
            runTaskCleanupTask(umbilical, reporter);
            return;
        }

        // Initialize the codec
        codec = initCodec();

        boolean isLocal = "local".equals(job.get("mapred.job.tracker", "local"));

        //如果不是一个本地执行额模式(就是配置中不是分布式的),则要启动一个ReduceCopier来拷贝Map的输出,即Reduce的输入。
        if (!isLocal) {
            reduceCopier = new ReduceCopier(umbilical, job, reporter);
            if (!reduceCopier.fetchOutputs()) {
                if(reduceCopier.mergeThrowable instanceof FSError) {
                    LOG.error("Task: " + getTaskID() + " - FSError: " + 
                            StringUtils.stringifyException(reduceCopier.mergeThrowable));
                    umbilical.fsError(getTaskID(), 
                            reduceCopier.mergeThrowable.getMessage());
                }
                throw new IOException("Task: " + getTaskID() + 
                        " - The reduce copier failed", reduceCopier.mergeThrowable);
            }
        }
        copyPhase.complete();                       
        //拷贝完成后,进入sort阶段。
        setPhase(TaskStatus.Phase.SORT);
        statusUpdate(umbilical);

        final FileSystem rfs = FileSystem.getLocal(job).getRaw();
        RawKeyValueIterator rIter = isLocal
                ? Merger.merge(job, rfs, job.getMapOutputKeyClass(),
                        job.getMapOutputValueClass(), codec, getMapFiles(rfs, true),
                        !conf.getKeepFailedTaskFiles(), job.getInt("io.sort.factor", 100),
                        new Path(getTaskID().toString()), job.getOutputKeyComparator(),
                        reporter, spilledRecordsCounter, null)
                        : reduceCopier.createKVIterator(job, rfs, reporter);

                // free up the data structures
                mapOutputFilesOnDisk.clear();

                sortPhase.complete();                         // sort is complete
                setPhase(TaskStatus.Phase.REDUCE); 
                statusUpdate(umbilical);
                Class keyClass = job.getMapOutputKeyClass();
                Class valueClass = job.getMapOutputValueClass();
                RawComparator comparator = job.getOutputValueGroupingComparator();

                if (useNewApi) {
                    runNewReducer(job, umbilical, reporter, rIter, comparator, 
                            keyClass, valueClass);
                } else {
                    runOldReducer(job, umbilical, reporter, rIter, comparator, 
                            keyClass, valueClass);
                }
                done(umbilical, reporter);
    }

 3. ReduceCopier类的fetchOutputs方法。该方法负责将map的输出拷贝的reduce端进程处理。从代码上看,启动了一个LocalFSMerger、InMemFSMergeThread、  GetMapEventsThread 和若干个MapOutputCopier线程。几个独立的线程。相互配合,并分别独立的完成任务。

public boolean fetchOutputs() throws IOException {
      int totalFailures = 0;
      int            numInFlight = 0, numCopied = 0;
      DecimalFormat  mbpsFormat = new DecimalFormat("0.00");
      final Progress copyPhase = 
        reduceTask.getProgress().phase();
      LocalFSMerger localFSMergerThread = null;
      InMemFSMergeThread inMemFSMergeThread = null;
      GetMapEventsThread getMapEventsThread = null;
      
   
      for (int i = 0; i < numMaps; i++) {
        copyPhase.addPhase();       // add sub-phase per file
      }
      
      //1)根据配置的numCopiers数量构造若干个MapOutputCopier拷贝线程,默认是5个,正是这些MapOutputCopier来实施的拷贝任务。
      copiers = new ArrayList<MapOutputCopier>(numCopiers);
      
      // start all the copying threads
      for (int i=0; i < numCopiers; i++) {
        MapOutputCopier copier = new MapOutputCopier(conf, reporter);
        copiers.add(copier);
        
        copier.start();
      }
      
      //start the on-disk-merge thread 2)启动磁盘merge线程(参照后面方法)
      localFSMergerThread = new LocalFSMerger((LocalFileSystem)localFileSys);
      //start the in memory merger thread 3)启动内存merge线程(参照后面方法)
      inMemFSMergeThread = new InMemFSMergeThread();
      localFSMergerThread.start();
      inMemFSMergeThread.start();
      
      // start the map events thread 4)启动merge事件获取线程
      getMapEventsThread = new GetMapEventsThread();
      getMapEventsThread.start();
      
      // start the clock for bandwidth measurement
      long startTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
      long currentTime = startTime;
      long lastProgressTime = startTime;
      long lastOutputTime = 0;
      
        // loop until we get all required outputs
      //5)当获取到的copiedMapOutputs数量小于map数时,说明还没有拷贝完成,则一直执行。在执行中会根据时间进度一直打印输出,表示已经拷贝了多少个map的输出,还有多万未完成。
        while (copiedMapOutputs.size() < numMaps && mergeThrowable == null) {
          
          currentTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
          boolean logNow = false;
          if (currentTime - lastOutputTime > MIN_LOG_TIME) {
            lastOutputTime = currentTime;
            logNow = true;
          }
          if (logNow) {
            LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " Need another " 
                   + (numMaps - copiedMapOutputs.size()) + " map output(s) "
                   + "where " + numInFlight + " is already in progress");
          }

          // Put the hash entries for the failed fetches.
          Iterator<MapOutputLocation> locItr = retryFetches.iterator();

          while (locItr.hasNext()) {
            MapOutputLocation loc = locItr.next(); 
            List<MapOutputLocation> locList = 
              mapLocations.get(loc.getHost());
            
            // Check if the list exists. Map output location mapping is cleared 
            // once the jobtracker restarts and is rebuilt from scratch.
            // Note that map-output-location mapping will be recreated and hence
            // we continue with the hope that we might find some locations
            // from the rebuild map.
            if (locList != null) {
              // Add to the beginning of the list so that this map is 
              //tried again before the others and we can hasten the 
              //re-execution of this map should there be a problem
              locList.add(0, loc);
            }
          }

          if (retryFetches.size() > 0) {
            LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + ": " +  
                  "Got " + retryFetches.size() +
                  " map-outputs from previous failures");
          }
          // clear the "failed" fetches hashmap
          retryFetches.clear();

          // now walk through the cache and schedule what we can
          int numScheduled = 0;
          int numDups = 0;
          
          synchronized (scheduledCopies) {
  
            // Randomize the map output locations to prevent 
            // all reduce-tasks swamping the same tasktracker
            List<String> hostList = new ArrayList<String>();
            hostList.addAll(mapLocations.keySet()); 
            
            Collections.shuffle(hostList, this.random);
              
            Iterator<String> hostsItr = hostList.iterator();

            while (hostsItr.hasNext()) {
            
              String host = hostsItr.next();

              List<MapOutputLocation> knownOutputsByLoc = 
                mapLocations.get(host);

              // Check if the list exists. Map output location mapping is 
              // cleared once the jobtracker restarts and is rebuilt from 
              // scratch.
              // Note that map-output-location mapping will be recreated and 
              // hence we continue with the hope that we might find some 
              // locations from the rebuild map and add then for fetching.
              if (knownOutputsByLoc == null || knownOutputsByLoc.size() == 0) {
                continue;
              }
              
              //Identify duplicate hosts here
              if (uniqueHosts.contains(host)) {
                 numDups += knownOutputsByLoc.size(); 
                 continue;
              }

              Long penaltyEnd = penaltyBox.get(host);
              boolean penalized = false;
            
              if (penaltyEnd != null) {
                if (currentTime < penaltyEnd.longValue()) {
                  penalized = true;
                } else {
                  penaltyBox.remove(host);
                }
              }
              
              if (penalized)
                continue;

              synchronized (knownOutputsByLoc) {
              
                locItr = knownOutputsByLoc.iterator();
            
                while (locItr.hasNext()) {
              
                  MapOutputLocation loc = locItr.next();
              
                  // Do not schedule fetches from OBSOLETE maps
                  if (obsoleteMapIds.contains(loc.getTaskAttemptId())) {
                    locItr.remove();
                    continue;
                  }

                  uniqueHosts.add(host);
                  scheduledCopies.add(loc);
                  locItr.remove();  // remove from knownOutputs
                  numInFlight++; numScheduled++;

                  break; //we have a map from this host
                }
              }
            }
            scheduledCopies.notifyAll();
          }

          if (numScheduled > 0 || logNow) {
            LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " Scheduled " + numScheduled +
                   " outputs (" + penaltyBox.size() +
                   " slow hosts and" + numDups + " dup hosts)");
          }

          if (penaltyBox.size() > 0 && logNow) {
            LOG.info("Penalized(slow) Hosts: ");
            for (String host : penaltyBox.keySet()) {
              LOG.info(host + " Will be considered after: " + 
                  ((penaltyBox.get(host) - currentTime)/1000) + " seconds.");
            }
          }

          // if we have no copies in flight and we can't schedule anything
          // new, just wait for a bit
          try {
            if (numInFlight == 0 && numScheduled == 0) {
              // we should indicate progress as we don't want TT to think
              // we're stuck and kill us
              reporter.progress();
              Thread.sleep(5000);
            }
          } catch (InterruptedException e) { } // IGNORE
          
          while (numInFlight > 0 && mergeThrowable == null) {
            LOG.debug(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " numInFlight = " + 
                      numInFlight);
            //the call to getCopyResult will either 
            //1) return immediately with a null or a valid CopyResult object,
            //                 or
            //2) if the numInFlight is above maxInFlight, return with a 
            //   CopyResult object after getting a notification from a 
            //   fetcher thread, 
            //So, when getCopyResult returns null, we can be sure that
            //we aren't busy enough and we should go and get more mapcompletion
            //events from the tasktracker
            CopyResult cr = getCopyResult(numInFlight);

            if (cr == null) {
              break;
            }
            
            if (cr.getSuccess()) {  // a successful copy
              numCopied++;
              lastProgressTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
              reduceShuffleBytes.increment(cr.getSize());
                
              long secsSinceStart = 
                (System.currentTimeMillis()-startTime)/1000+1;
              float mbs = ((float)reduceShuffleBytes.getCounter())/(1024*1024);
              float transferRate = mbs/secsSinceStart;
                
              copyPhase.startNextPhase();
              copyPhase.setStatus("copy (" + numCopied + " of " + numMaps 
                                  + " at " +
                                  mbpsFormat.format(transferRate) +  " MB/s)");
                
              // Note successful fetch for this mapId to invalidate
              // (possibly) old fetch-failures
              fetchFailedMaps.remove(cr.getLocation().getTaskId());
            } else if (cr.isObsolete()) {
              //ignore
              LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + 
                       " Ignoring obsolete copy result for Map Task: " + 
                       cr.getLocation().getTaskAttemptId() + " from host: " + 
                       cr.getHost());
            } else {
              retryFetches.add(cr.getLocation());
              
              // note the failed-fetch
              TaskAttemptID mapTaskId = cr.getLocation().getTaskAttemptId();
              TaskID mapId = cr.getLocation().getTaskId();
              
              totalFailures++;
              Integer noFailedFetches = 
                mapTaskToFailedFetchesMap.get(mapTaskId);
              noFailedFetches = 
                (noFailedFetches == null) ? 1 : (noFailedFetches + 1);
              mapTaskToFailedFetchesMap.put(mapTaskId, noFailedFetches);
              LOG.info("Task " + getTaskID() + ": Failed fetch #" + 
                       noFailedFetches + " from " + mapTaskId);
              
              // did the fetch fail too many times?
              // using a hybrid technique for notifying the jobtracker.
              //   a. the first notification is sent after max-retries 
              //   b. subsequent notifications are sent after 2 retries.   
              if ((noFailedFetches >= maxFetchRetriesPerMap) 
                  && ((noFailedFetches - maxFetchRetriesPerMap) % 2) == 0) {
                synchronized (ReduceTask.this) {
                  taskStatus.addFetchFailedMap(mapTaskId);
                  LOG.info("Failed to fetch map-output from " + mapTaskId + 
                           " even after MAX_FETCH_RETRIES_PER_MAP retries... "
                           + " reporting to the JobTracker");
                }
              }
              // note unique failed-fetch maps
              if (noFailedFetches == maxFetchRetriesPerMap) {
                fetchFailedMaps.add(mapId);
                  
                // did we have too many unique failed-fetch maps?
                // and did we fail on too many fetch attempts?
                // and did we progress enough
                //     or did we wait for too long without any progress?
               
                // check if the reducer is healthy
                boolean reducerHealthy = 
                    (((float)totalFailures / (totalFailures + numCopied)) 
                     < MAX_ALLOWED_FAILED_FETCH_ATTEMPT_PERCENT);
                
                // check if the reducer has progressed enough
                boolean reducerProgressedEnough = 
                    (((float)numCopied / numMaps) 
                     >= MIN_REQUIRED_PROGRESS_PERCENT);
                
                // check if the reducer is stalled for a long time
                // duration for which the reducer is stalled
                int stallDuration = 
                    (int)(System.currentTimeMillis() - lastProgressTime);
                // duration for which the reducer ran with progress
                int shuffleProgressDuration = 
                    (int)(lastProgressTime - startTime);
                // min time the reducer should run without getting killed
                int minShuffleRunDuration = 
                    (shuffleProgressDuration > maxMapRuntime) 
                    ? shuffleProgressDuration 
                    : maxMapRuntime;
                boolean reducerStalled = 
                    (((float)stallDuration / minShuffleRunDuration) 
                     >= MAX_ALLOWED_STALL_TIME_PERCENT);
                
                // kill if not healthy and has insufficient progress
                if ((fetchFailedMaps.size() >= maxFailedUniqueFetches ||
                     fetchFailedMaps.size() == (numMaps - copiedMapOutputs.size()))
                    && !reducerHealthy 
                    && (!reducerProgressedEnough || reducerStalled)) { 
                  LOG.fatal("Shuffle failed with too many fetch failures " + 
                            "and insufficient progress!" +
                            "Killing task " + getTaskID() + ".");
                  umbilical.shuffleError(getTaskID(), 
                                         "Exceeded MAX_FAILED_UNIQUE_FETCHES;"
                                         + " bailing-out.");
                }
              }
                
              // back off exponentially until num_retries <= max_retries
              // back off by max_backoff/2 on subsequent failed attempts
              currentTime = System.currentTimeMillis();
              int currentBackOff = noFailedFetches <= maxFetchRetriesPerMap 
                                   ? BACKOFF_INIT 
                                     * (1 << (noFailedFetches - 1)) 
                                   : (this.maxBackoff * 1000 / 2);
              penaltyBox.put(cr.getHost(), currentTime + currentBackOff);
              LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " adding host " +
                       cr.getHost() + " to penalty box, next contact in " +
                       (currentBackOff/1000) + " seconds");
            }
            uniqueHosts.remove(cr.getHost());
            numInFlight--;
          }
        }
        
        // all done, inform the copiers to exit
        exitGetMapEvents= true;
        try {
          getMapEventsThread.join();
          LOG.info("getMapsEventsThread joined.");
        } catch (Throwable t) {
          LOG.info("getMapsEventsThread threw an exception: " +
              StringUtils.stringifyException(t));
        }

        synchronized (copiers) {
          synchronized (scheduledCopies) {
            for (MapOutputCopier copier : copiers) {
              copier.interrupt();
            }
            copiers.clear();
          }
        }
        
        // copiers are done, exit and notify the waiting merge threads
        synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {
          exitLocalFSMerge = true;
          mapOutputFilesOnDisk.notify();
        }
        
        ramManager.close();
        
        //Do a merge of in-memory files (if there are any)
        if (mergeThrowable == null) {
          try {
            // Wait for the on-disk merge to complete
            localFSMergerThread.join();
            LOG.info("Interleaved on-disk merge complete: " + 
                     mapOutputFilesOnDisk.size() + " files left.");
            
            //wait for an ongoing merge (if it is in flight) to complete
            inMemFSMergeThread.join();
            LOG.info("In-memory merge complete: " + 
                     mapOutputsFilesInMemory.size() + " files left.");
            } catch (Throwable t) {
            LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID() +
                     " Final merge of the inmemory files threw an exception: " + 
                     StringUtils.stringifyException(t));
            // check if the last merge generated an error
            if (mergeThrowable != null) {
              mergeThrowable = t;
            }
            return false;
          }
        }
        return mergeThrowable == null && copiedMapOutputs.size() == numMaps;
    }
fetchOutputs

4. MapOutputCopier线程的run方法。从scheduledCopies(List<MapOutputLocation>)中取出对象来调用copyOutput方法执行拷贝。通过http协议,把map的输出从远端服务器拷贝的本地,如果可以放在内存中,则存储在内存中调用,否则保存在本地文件。

public void run() {
        while (true) {        
            MapOutputLocation loc = null;
            long size = -1;
              synchronized (scheduledCopies) {
              while (scheduledCopies.isEmpty()) {
                scheduledCopies.wait();
              }
              loc = scheduledCopies.remove(0);
            }            
                     
              start(loc);
              size = copyOutput(loc);
             
        
        if (decompressor != null) {
          CodecPool.returnDecompressor(decompressor);
        }
          
      }

5.MapOutputCopier线程的copyOutput方法。map的输出从远端map所在的tasktracker拷贝到reducer任务所在的tasktracker。

private long copyOutput(MapOutputLocation loc
            ) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
        // 从拷贝的记录中检查是否已经拷贝完成。
        if (copiedMapOutputs.contains(loc.getTaskId()) || 
                obsoleteMapIds.contains(loc.getTaskAttemptId())) {
            return CopyResult.OBSOLETE;
        } 
        TaskAttemptID reduceId = reduceTask.getTaskID();
        Path filename = new Path("/" + TaskTracker.getIntermediateOutputDir(
                reduceId.getJobID().toString(),
                reduceId.toString()) 
                + "/map_" +
                loc.getTaskId().getId() + ".out");

        //一个拷贝map输出的临时文件。
        Path tmpMapOutput = new Path(filename+"-"+id);

        //拷贝map输出。
        MapOutput mapOutput = getMapOutput(loc, tmpMapOutput);
        if (mapOutput == null) {
            throw new IOException("Failed to fetch map-output for " + 
                    loc.getTaskAttemptId() + " from " + 
                    loc.getHost());
        }
        // The size of the map-output
        long bytes = mapOutput.compressedSize;

        synchronized (ReduceTask.this) {
            if (copiedMapOutputs.contains(loc.getTaskId())) {
                mapOutput.discard();
                return CopyResult.OBSOLETE;
            }
            // Note that we successfully copied the map-output
            noteCopiedMapOutput(loc.getTaskId());
            return bytes;
        }

        // 处理map的输出,如果是存储在内存中则添加到(Collections.synchronizedList(new LinkedList<MapOutput>)类型的结合mapOutputsFilesInMemory中,否则如果存储在临时文件中,则冲明明临时文件为正式的输出文件。
        if (mapOutput.inMemory) {
            // Save it in the synchronized list of map-outputs
            mapOutputsFilesInMemory.add(mapOutput);
        } else {

            tmpMapOutput = mapOutput.file;
            filename = new Path(tmpMapOutput.getParent(), filename.getName());
            if (!localFileSys.rename(tmpMapOutput, filename)) {
                localFileSys.delete(tmpMapOutput, true);
                bytes = -1;
                throw new IOException("Failed to rename map output " + 
                        tmpMapOutput + " to " + filename);
            }

            synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {        
                addToMapOutputFilesOnDisk(localFileSys.getFileStatus(filename));
            }
        }

        // Note that we successfully copied the map-output
        noteCopiedMapOutput(loc.getTaskId());
    }

    return bytes;
}

5.ReduceCopier.MapOutputCopier的getMapOutput方法,真正执行拷贝动作的方法,通过http把远端服务器上map的输出拷贝到本地。

private MapOutput getMapOutput(MapOutputLocation mapOutputLoc, 
            Path filename, int reduce)
                    throws IOException, InterruptedException {
        // 根据远端服务器地址构建连接。
        URLConnection connection = 
                mapOutputLoc.getOutputLocation().openConnection();
        InputStream input = getInputStream(connection, STALLED_COPY_TIMEOUT,
                DEFAULT_READ_TIMEOUT); 

        // 从输出的http header中得到mapid
        TaskAttemptID mapId = null;
        mapId =           TaskAttemptID.forName(connection.getHeaderField(FROM_MAP_TASK));

        TaskAttemptID expectedMapId = mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId();
        if (!mapId.equals(expectedMapId)) {
            LOG.warn("data from wrong map:" + mapId +
                    " arrived to reduce task " + reduce +
                    ", where as expected map output should be from " + expectedMapId);
            return null;
        }

        long decompressedLength = 
                Long.parseLong(connection.getHeaderField(RAW_MAP_OUTPUT_LENGTH));  
        long compressedLength = 
                Long.parseLong(connection.getHeaderField(MAP_OUTPUT_LENGTH));

        if (compressedLength < 0 || decompressedLength < 0) {
            LOG.warn(getName() + " invalid lengths in map output header: id: " +
                    mapId + " compressed len: " + compressedLength +
                    ", decompressed len: " + decompressedLength);
            return null;
        }
        int forReduce =
                (int)Integer.parseInt(connection.getHeaderField(FOR_REDUCE_TASK));

        if (forReduce != reduce) {
            LOG.warn("data for the wrong reduce: " + forReduce +
                    " with compressed len: " + compressedLength +
                    ", decompressed len: " + decompressedLength +
                    " arrived to reduce task " + reduce);
            return null;
        }
        LOG.info("header: " + mapId + ", compressed len: " + compressedLength +
                ", decompressed len: " + decompressedLength);


        // 检查map的输出大小是否能在memory里存储下,已决定是在内存中shuffle还是在磁盘上shuffle。并决定最终生成的MapOutput对象调用不同的构造函数,其inMemory属性页不同。
        boolean shuffleInMemory = ramManager.canFitInMemory(decompressedLength); 

        // Shuffle
        MapOutput mapOutput = null;
        if (shuffleInMemory) { 
            LOG.info("Shuffling " + decompressedLength + " bytes (" + 
                    compressedLength + " raw bytes) " + 
                    "into RAM from " + mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId());

            mapOutput = shuffleInMemory(mapOutputLoc, connection, input,
                    (int)decompressedLength,
                    (int)compressedLength);
        } else {
            LOG.info("Shuffling " + decompressedLength + " bytes (" + 
                    compressedLength + " raw bytes) " + 
                    "into Local-FS from " + mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId());

            mapOutput = shuffleToDisk(mapOutputLoc, input, filename, 
                    compressedLength);
        }

        return mapOutput;
    }

6.ReduceTask.ReduceCopier.MapOutputCopier的shuffleInMemory方法。根据上一方法当map的输出可以在内存中存储时会调用该方法。

private MapOutput shuffleInMemory(MapOutputLocation mapOutputLoc,
            URLConnection connection, 
            InputStream input,
            int mapOutputLength,
            int compressedLength)
                    throws IOException, InterruptedException {

        //checksum 输入流,读Mpareduce中间文件IFile.
        IFileInputStream checksumIn = 
                new IFileInputStream(input,compressedLength);

        input = checksumIn;       

        // 如果加密,则根据codec来构建一个解密的输入流。
        if (codec != null) {
            decompressor.reset();
            input = codec.createInputStream(input, decompressor);
        }

        //把map的输出拷贝到内存的buffer中。
        byte[] shuffleData = new byte[mapOutputLength];
        MapOutput mapOutput = 
                new MapOutput(mapOutputLoc.getTaskId(), 
                        mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), shuffleData, compressedLength);

        int bytesRead = 0;
        try {
            int n = input.read(shuffleData, 0, shuffleData.length);
            while (n > 0) {
                bytesRead += n;
                shuffleClientMetrics.inputBytes(n);

                // indicate we're making progress
                reporter.progress();
                n = input.read(shuffleData, bytesRead, 
                        (shuffleData.length-bytesRead));
            }

            LOG.info("Read " + bytesRead + " bytes from map-output for " +
                    mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId());

            input.close();
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
            LOG.info("Failed to shuffle from " + mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), 
                    ioe);

            // Inform the ram-manager
            ramManager.closeInMemoryFile(mapOutputLength);
            ramManager.unreserve(mapOutputLength);

            // Discard the map-output
            try {
                mapOutput.discard();
            } catch (IOException ignored) {
                LOG.info("Failed to discard map-output from " + 
                        mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), ignored);
            }
            mapOutput = null;

            // Close the streams
            IOUtils.cleanup(LOG, input);

            // Re-throw
            throw ioe;
        }

        // Close the in-memory file
        ramManager.closeInMemoryFile(mapOutputLength);

        // Sanity check
        if (bytesRead != mapOutputLength) {
            // Inform the ram-manager
            ramManager.unreserve(mapOutputLength);

            // Discard the map-output
            try {
                mapOutput.discard();
            } catch (IOException ignored) {
                // IGNORED because we are cleaning up
                LOG.info("Failed to discard map-output from " + 
                        mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), ignored);
            }
            mapOutput = null;

            throw new IOException("Incomplete map output received for " +
                    mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId() + " from " +
                    mapOutputLoc.getOutputLocation() + " (" + 
                    bytesRead + " instead of " + 
                    mapOutputLength + ")"
                    );
        }

        // TODO: Remove this after a 'fix' for HADOOP-3647
        if (mapOutputLength > 0) {
            DataInputBuffer dib = new DataInputBuffer();
            dib.reset(shuffleData, 0, shuffleData.length);
            LOG.info("Rec #1 from " + mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId() + " -> (" + 
                    WritableUtils.readVInt(dib) + ", " + 
                    WritableUtils.readVInt(dib) + ") from " + 
                    mapOutputLoc.getHost());
        }

        return mapOutput;
    }

7.ReduceTask.ReduceCopier.MapOutputCopier的shuffleToDisk 方法把map输出拷贝到本地磁盘。当map的输出不能再内存中存储时,调用该方法。

private MapOutput shuffleToDisk(MapOutputLocation mapOutputLoc,
                                      InputStream input,
                                      Path filename,
                                      long mapOutputLength) 
      throws IOException {
        // Find out a suitable location for the output on local-filesystem
        Path localFilename = 
          lDirAlloc.getLocalPathForWrite(filename.toUri().getPath(), 
                                         mapOutputLength, conf);

        MapOutput mapOutput = 
          new MapOutput(mapOutputLoc.getTaskId(), mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), 
                        conf, localFileSys.makeQualified(localFilename), 
                        mapOutputLength);


        // Copy data to local-disk
        OutputStream output = null;
        long bytesRead = 0;
        try {
          output = rfs.create(localFilename);
          
          byte[] buf = new byte[64 * 1024];
          int n = input.read(buf, 0, buf.length);
          while (n > 0) {
            bytesRead += n;
            shuffleClientMetrics.inputBytes(n);
            output.write(buf, 0, n);

            // indicate we're making progress
            reporter.progress();
            n = input.read(buf, 0, buf.length);
          }

          LOG.info("Read " + bytesRead + " bytes from map-output for " +
              mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId());

          output.close();
          input.close();
        } catch (IOException ioe) {
          LOG.info("Failed to shuffle from " + mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), 
                   ioe);

          // Discard the map-output
          try {
            mapOutput.discard();
          } catch (IOException ignored) {
            LOG.info("Failed to discard map-output from " + 
                mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), ignored);
          }
          mapOutput = null;

          // Close the streams
          IOUtils.cleanup(LOG, input, output);

          // Re-throw
          throw ioe;
        }

        // Sanity check
        if (bytesRead != mapOutputLength) {
          try {
            mapOutput.discard();
          } catch (Exception ioe) {
            // IGNORED because we are cleaning up
            LOG.info("Failed to discard map-output from " + 
                mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId(), ioe);
          } catch (Throwable t) {
            String msg = getTaskID() + " : Failed in shuffle to disk :" 
                         + StringUtils.stringifyException(t);
            reportFatalError(getTaskID(), t, msg);
          }
          mapOutput = null;

          throw new IOException("Incomplete map output received for " +
                                mapOutputLoc.getTaskAttemptId() + " from " +
                                mapOutputLoc.getOutputLocation() + " (" + 
                                bytesRead + " instead of " + 
                                mapOutputLength + ")"
          );
        }

        return mapOutput;

      }

8.LocalFSMerger线程的run方法。Merge map输出的本地拷贝。

public void run() {
        try {
            LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " Thread started: " + getName());
            while(!exitLocalFSMerge){
                // TreeSet<FileStatus>(mapOutputFileComparator)中存储了mapout的本地文件集合。
                synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {             
                    List<Path> mapFiles = new ArrayList<Path>();
                    long approxOutputSize = 0;
                    int bytesPerSum = 
                            reduceTask.getConf().getInt("io.bytes.per.checksum", 512);
                    LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + "We have  " + 
                            mapOutputFilesOnDisk.size() + " map outputs on disk. " +
                            "Triggering merge of " + ioSortFactor + " files");
                    // 1. Prepare the list of files to be merged. This list is prepared
                    // using a list of map output files on disk. Currently we merge
                    // io.sort.factor files into 1.
                    //1. io.sort.factor构造List<Path> mapFiles,准备合并。            synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {
                    for (int i = 0; i < ioSortFactor; ++i) {
                        FileStatus filestatus = mapOutputFilesOnDisk.first();
                        mapOutputFilesOnDisk.remove(filestatus);
                        mapFiles.add(filestatus.getPath());
                        approxOutputSize += filestatus.getLen();
                    }
                }



                // add the checksum length
                approxOutputSize += ChecksumFileSystem
                        .getChecksumLength(approxOutputSize,
                                bytesPerSum);

                // 2. 对list中的文件进行合并。
                Path outputPath = 
                        lDirAlloc.getLocalPathForWrite(mapFiles.get(0).toString(), 
                                approxOutputSize, conf)
                                .suffix(".merged");
                Writer writer = 
                        new Writer(conf,rfs, outputPath, 
                                conf.getMapOutputKeyClass(), 
                                conf.getMapOutputValueClass(),
                                codec, null);
                RawKeyValueIterator iter  = null;
                Path tmpDir = new Path(reduceTask.getTaskID().toString());
                try {
                    iter = Merger.merge(conf, rfs,
                            conf.getMapOutputKeyClass(),
                            conf.getMapOutputValueClass(),
                            codec, mapFiles.toArray(new Path[mapFiles.size()]), 
                            true, ioSortFactor, tmpDir, 
                            conf.getOutputKeyComparator(), reporter,
                            spilledRecordsCounter, null);

                    Merger.writeFile(iter, writer, reporter, conf);
                    writer.close();
                } catch (Exception e) {
                    localFileSys.delete(outputPath, true);
                    throw new IOException (StringUtils.stringifyException(e));
                }

                synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {
                    addToMapOutputFilesOnDisk(localFileSys.getFileStatus(outputPath));
                }
                LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() +
                        " Finished merging " + mapFiles.size() + 
                        " map output files on disk of total-size " + 
                        approxOutputSize + "." + 
                        " Local output file is " + outputPath + " of size " +
                        localFileSys.getFileStatus(outputPath).getLen());
            }
        } catch (Throwable t) {
            LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID()
                    + " Merging of the local FS files threw an exception: "
                    + StringUtils.stringifyException(t));
            if (mergeThrowable == null) {
                mergeThrowable = t;
            }
        } 
    }
}

9.InMemFSMergeThread线程的run方法。

    public void run() {
        LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " Thread started: " + getName());
        try {
          boolean exit = false;
          do {
            exit = ramManager.waitForDataToMerge();
            if (!exit) {
              doInMemMerge();
            }
          } while (!exit);
        } catch (Throwable t) {
          LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID() +
                   " Merge of the inmemory files threw an exception: "
                   + StringUtils.stringifyException(t));
          ReduceCopier.this.mergeThrowable = t;
        }
      }

10. InMemFSMergeThread线程的doInMemMerge方法,

private void doInMemMerge() throws IOException{
        if (mapOutputsFilesInMemory.size() == 0) {
          return;
        }
        
        TaskID mapId = mapOutputsFilesInMemory.get(0).mapId;

        List<Segment<K, V>> inMemorySegments = new ArrayList<Segment<K,V>>();
        long mergeOutputSize = createInMemorySegments(inMemorySegments, 0);
        int noInMemorySegments = inMemorySegments.size();

        Path outputPath = mapOutputFile.getInputFileForWrite(mapId, 
                          reduceTask.getTaskID(), mergeOutputSize);

        Writer writer = 
          new Writer(conf, rfs, outputPath,
                     conf.getMapOutputKeyClass(),
                     conf.getMapOutputValueClass(),
                     codec, null);

        RawKeyValueIterator rIter = null;
        try {
          LOG.info("Initiating in-memory merge with " + noInMemorySegments + 
                   " segments...");
          
          rIter = Merger.merge(conf, rfs,
                               (Class<K>)conf.getMapOutputKeyClass(),
                               (Class<V>)conf.getMapOutputValueClass(),
                               inMemorySegments, inMemorySegments.size(),
                               new Path(reduceTask.getTaskID().toString()),
                               conf.getOutputKeyComparator(), reporter,
                               spilledRecordsCounter, null);
          
          if (combinerRunner == null) {
            Merger.writeFile(rIter, writer, reporter, conf);
          } else {
            combineCollector.setWriter(writer);
            combinerRunner.combine(rIter, combineCollector);
          }
          writer.close();

          LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + 
              " Merge of the " + noInMemorySegments +
              " files in-memory complete." +
              " Local file is " + outputPath + " of size " + 
              localFileSys.getFileStatus(outputPath).getLen());
        } catch (Exception e) { 
          //make sure that we delete the ondisk file that we created 
          //earlier when we invoked cloneFileAttributes
          localFileSys.delete(outputPath, true);
          throw (IOException)new IOException
                  ("Intermediate merge failed").initCause(e);
        }

        // Note the output of the merge
        FileStatus status = localFileSys.getFileStatus(outputPath);
        synchronized (mapOutputFilesOnDisk) {
          addToMapOutputFilesOnDisk(status);
        }
      }
    }

11.ReduceCopier.GetMapEventsThread线程的run方法。通过RPC询问TaskTracker,对每个完成的Event,获取maptask所在的服务器地址,即MapTask输出的地址,构造URL,加入到mapLocations,供copier线程获取。

public void run() {
      
        LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + " Thread started: " + getName());
        
        do {
          try {
            int numNewMaps = getMapCompletionEvents();
            if (numNewMaps > 0) {
              LOG.info(reduceTask.getTaskID() + ": " +  
                  "Got " + numNewMaps + " new map-outputs"); 
            }
            Thread.sleep(SLEEP_TIME);
          } 
          catch (InterruptedException e) {
            LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID() +
                " GetMapEventsThread returning after an " +
                " interrupted exception");
            return;
          }
          catch (Throwable t) {
            LOG.warn(reduceTask.getTaskID() +
                " GetMapEventsThread Ignoring exception : " +
                StringUtils.stringifyException(t));
          }
        } while (!exitGetMapEvents);

        LOG.info("GetMapEventsThread exiting");
      
      }

12.ReduceCopier.GetMapEventsThread线程的getMapCompletionEvents方法。通过RPC询问TaskTracker,对每个完成的Event,获取maptask所在的服务器地址,构造URL,加入到mapLocations。

    private int getMapCompletionEvents() throws IOException {

        int numNewMaps = 0;

        //RPC调用Tasktracker的getMapCompletionEvents方法,获得MapTaskCompletionEventsUpdate,进而获得TaskCompletionEvents
        MapTaskCompletionEventsUpdate update = 
                umbilical.getMapCompletionEvents(reduceTask.getJobID(), 
                        fromEventId.get(), 
                        MAX_EVENTS_TO_FETCH,
                        reduceTask.getTaskID());
        TaskCompletionEvent events[] = update.getMapTaskCompletionEvents();

        // Check if the reset is required.
        // Since there is no ordering of the task completion events at the 
        // reducer, the only option to sync with the new jobtracker is to reset 
        // the events index
        if (update.shouldReset()) {
            fromEventId.set(0);
            obsoleteMapIds.clear(); // clear the obsolete map
            mapLocations.clear(); // clear the map locations mapping
        }

        // Update the last seen event ID
        fromEventId.set(fromEventId.get() + events.length);

        // Process the TaskCompletionEvents:
        // 1. Save the SUCCEEDED maps in knownOutputs to fetch the outputs.
        // 2. Save the OBSOLETE/FAILED/KILLED maps in obsoleteOutputs to stop 
        //    fetching from those maps.
        // 3. Remove TIPFAILED maps from neededOutputs since we don't need their
        //    outputs at all.
        //对每个完成的Event,获取maptask所在的服务器地址,构造URL,加入到mapLocations,供copier线程获取。
        for (TaskCompletionEvent event : events) {
            switch (event.getTaskStatus()) {
            case SUCCEEDED:
            {
                URI u = URI.create(event.getTaskTrackerHttp());
                String host = u.getHost();
                TaskAttemptID taskId = event.getTaskAttemptId();
                int duration = event.getTaskRunTime();
                if (duration > maxMapRuntime) {
                    maxMapRuntime = duration; 
                    // adjust max-fetch-retries based on max-map-run-time
                    maxFetchRetriesPerMap = Math.max(MIN_FETCH_RETRIES_PER_MAP, 
                            getClosestPowerOf2((maxMapRuntime / BACKOFF_INIT) + 1));
                }
                URL mapOutputLocation = new URL(event.getTaskTrackerHttp() + 
                        "/mapOutput?job=" + taskId.getJobID() +
                        "&map=" + taskId + 
                        "&reduce=" + getPartition());
                List<MapOutputLocation> loc = mapLocations.get(host);
                if (loc == null) {
                    loc = Collections.synchronizedList
                            (new LinkedList<MapOutputLocation>());
                    mapLocations.put(host, loc);
                }
                loc.add(new MapOutputLocation(taskId, host, mapOutputLocation));
                numNewMaps ++;
            }
            break;
            case FAILED:
            case KILLED:
            case OBSOLETE:
            {
                obsoleteMapIds.add(event.getTaskAttemptId());
                LOG.info("Ignoring obsolete output of " + event.getTaskStatus() + 
                        " map-task: '" + event.getTaskAttemptId() + "'");
            }
            break;
            case TIPFAILED:
            {
                copiedMapOutputs.add(event.getTaskAttemptId().getTaskID());
                LOG.info("Ignoring output of failed map TIP: '" +  
                        event.getTaskAttemptId() + "'");
            }
            break;
            }
        }
        return numNewMaps;
    }
}
}

13.ReduceTask.ReduceCopier的createKVIterator方法,从拷贝到的map输出创建RawKeyValueIterator,作为reduce的输入。

private RawKeyValueIterator createKVIterator(
        JobConf job, FileSystem fs, Reporter reporter) throws IOException {

      // merge config params
      Class<K> keyClass = (Class<K>)job.getMapOutputKeyClass();
      Class<V> valueClass = (Class<V>)job.getMapOutputValueClass();
      boolean keepInputs = job.getKeepFailedTaskFiles();
      final Path tmpDir = new Path(getTaskID().toString());
      final RawComparator<K> comparator =
        (RawComparator<K>)job.getOutputKeyComparator();

      // segments required to vacate memory
      List<Segment<K,V>> memDiskSegments = new ArrayList<Segment<K,V>>();
      long inMemToDiskBytes = 0;
      if (mapOutputsFilesInMemory.size() > 0) {
        TaskID mapId = mapOutputsFilesInMemory.get(0).mapId;
        inMemToDiskBytes = createInMemorySegments(memDiskSegments,
            maxInMemReduce);
        final int numMemDiskSegments = memDiskSegments.size();
        if (numMemDiskSegments > 0 &&
              ioSortFactor > mapOutputFilesOnDisk.size()) {
          // must spill to disk, but can't retain in-mem for intermediate merge
          final Path outputPath = mapOutputFile.getInputFileForWrite(mapId,
                            reduceTask.getTaskID(), inMemToDiskBytes);
          final RawKeyValueIterator rIter = Merger.merge(job, fs,
              keyClass, valueClass, memDiskSegments, numMemDiskSegments,
              tmpDir, comparator, reporter, spilledRecordsCounter, null);
          final Writer writer = new Writer(job, fs, outputPath,
              keyClass, valueClass, codec, null);
          try {
            Merger.writeFile(rIter, writer, reporter, job);
            addToMapOutputFilesOnDisk(fs.getFileStatus(outputPath));
          } catch (Exception e) {
            if (null != outputPath) {
              fs.delete(outputPath, true);
            }
            throw new IOException("Final merge failed", e);
          } finally {
            if (null != writer) {
              writer.close();
            }
          }
          LOG.info("Merged " + numMemDiskSegments + " segments, " +
                   inMemToDiskBytes + " bytes to disk to satisfy " +
                   "reduce memory limit");
          inMemToDiskBytes = 0;
          memDiskSegments.clear();
        } else if (inMemToDiskBytes != 0) {
          LOG.info("Keeping " + numMemDiskSegments + " segments, " +
                   inMemToDiskBytes + " bytes in memory for " +
                   "intermediate, on-disk merge");
        }
      }

      // segments on disk
      List<Segment<K,V>> diskSegments = new ArrayList<Segment<K,V>>();
      long onDiskBytes = inMemToDiskBytes;
      Path[] onDisk = getMapFiles(fs, false);
      for (Path file : onDisk) {
        onDiskBytes += fs.getFileStatus(file).getLen();
        diskSegments.add(new Segment<K, V>(job, fs, file, codec, keepInputs));
      }
      LOG.info("Merging " + onDisk.length + " files, " +
               onDiskBytes + " bytes from disk");
      Collections.sort(diskSegments, new Comparator<Segment<K,V>>() {
        public int compare(Segment<K, V> o1, Segment<K, V> o2) {
          if (o1.getLength() == o2.getLength()) {
            return 0;
          }
          return o1.getLength() < o2.getLength() ? -1 : 1;
        }
      });

      // build final list of segments from merged backed by disk + in-mem
      List<Segment<K,V>> finalSegments = new ArrayList<Segment<K,V>>();
      long inMemBytes = createInMemorySegments(finalSegments, 0);
      LOG.info("Merging " + finalSegments.size() + " segments, " +
               inMemBytes + " bytes from memory into reduce");
      if (0 != onDiskBytes) {
        final int numInMemSegments = memDiskSegments.size();
        diskSegments.addAll(0, memDiskSegments);
        memDiskSegments.clear();
        RawKeyValueIterator diskMerge = Merger.merge(
            job, fs, keyClass, valueClass, diskSegments,
            ioSortFactor, numInMemSegments, tmpDir, comparator,
            reporter, false, spilledRecordsCounter, null);
        diskSegments.clear();
        if (0 == finalSegments.size()) {
          return diskMerge;
        }
        finalSegments.add(new Segment<K,V>(
              new RawKVIteratorReader(diskMerge, onDiskBytes), true));
      }
      return Merger.merge(job, fs, keyClass, valueClass,
                   finalSegments, finalSegments.size(), tmpDir,
                   comparator, reporter, spilledRecordsCounter, null);
    }

14.ReduceTask的runNewReducer方法。根据配置构造reducer以及其运行的上下文,调用reducer的reduce方法。

 

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
    private <INKEY,INVALUE,OUTKEY,OUTVALUE>
    void runNewReducer(JobConf job,
            final TaskUmbilicalProtocol umbilical,
            final TaskReporter reporter,
            RawKeyValueIterator rIter,
            RawComparator<INKEY> comparator,
            Class<INKEY> keyClass,
            Class<INVALUE> valueClass
            ) throws IOException,InterruptedException, 
            ClassNotFoundException {
        //1. 构造TaskContext
        org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.TaskAttemptContext taskContext =
                new org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.TaskAttemptContext(job, getTaskID());
        //2. 根据配置的Reducer类构造一个Reducer实例
        org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer<INKEY,INVALUE,OUTKEY,OUTVALUE> reducer =      (org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer<INKEY,INVALUE,OUTKEY,OUTVALUE>)
                ReflectionUtils.newInstance(taskContext.getReducerClass(), job);
        //3. 构造RecordWriter
        org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.RecordWriter<OUTKEY,OUTVALUE> output =
                (org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.RecordWriter<OUTKEY,OUTVALUE>)
                outputFormat.getRecordWriter(taskContext);
        job.setBoolean("mapred.skip.on", isSkipping());

        //4. 构造Context,是Reducer运行的上下文
        org.apache.hadoop.mapreduce.Reducer.Context 
        reducerContext = createReduceContext(reducer, job, getTaskID(),
                rIter, reduceInputValueCounter, 
                output, committer,
                reporter, comparator, keyClass,
                valueClass);
        reducer.run(reducerContext);
        output.close(reducerContext);
    }

15.抽象类Reducer的run方法。从上下文中取出一个key和该key对应的Value集合(Iterable<VALUEIN>类型),调用reducer的reduce方法进行处理。

public void run(Context context) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    setup(context);
    while (context.nextKey()) {
      reduce(context.getCurrentKey(), context.getValues(), context);
    }
    cleanup(context);
  }

16.Reducer类的reduce,是用户一般会覆盖来执行reduce处理逻辑的方法。

@SuppressWarnings("unchecked")
  protected void reduce(KEYIN key, Iterable<VALUEIN> values, Context context
                        ) throws IOException, InterruptedException {
    for(VALUEIN value: values) {
      context.write((KEYOUT) key, (VALUEOUT) value);
    }

 

完。

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posted on 2014-01-28 16:28 idouba.net 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

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