返回顶部
扩大
缩小

Zhang_derek(选择比努力更重要)

Django rest framework源码分析(1)----认证

目录

一、基础

1.1.安装

两种方式:

pip install djangorestframework

1.2.需要先了解的一些知识

理解下面两个知识点非常重要,django-rest-framework源码中到处都是基于CBV和面向对象的封装

(1)面向对象封装的两大特性

把同一类方法封装到类中

将数据封装到对象中

(2)CBV

基于反射实现根据请求方式不同,执行不同的方法

原理:url-->view方法-->dispatch方法(反射执行其它方法:GET/POST/PUT/DELETE等等)

二、简单实例

2.1.settings

先创建一个project和一个app(我这里命名为API)

首先要在settings的app中添加

INSTALLED_APPS = [
    'rest_framework',
]

2.2.url

from django.contrib import admin
from django.urls import path
from API.views import AuthView

urlpatterns = [
    path('admin/', admin.site.urls),
    path('api/v1/auth/',AuthView.as_view()),
]

2.3.models

一个保存用户的信息

一个保存用户登录成功后的token

from django.db import models

class UserInfo(models.Model):
    USER_TYPE = (
        (1,'普通用户'),
        (2,'VIP'),
        (3,'SVIP')
    )

    user_type = models.IntegerField(choices=USER_TYPE)
    username = models.CharField(max_length=32)
    password = models.CharField(max_length=64)

class UserToken(models.Model):
    user = models.OneToOneField(UserInfo,on_delete=models.CASCADE)
    token = models.CharField(max_length=64)

2.4.views

用户登录(返回token并保存到数据库)

from django.shortcuts import render
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from API import models

def md5(user):
    import hashlib
    import time
    #当前时间,相当于生成一个随机的字符串
    ctime = str(time.time())
    m = hashlib.md5(bytes(user,encoding='utf-8'))
    m.update(bytes(ctime,encoding='utf-8'))
    return m.hexdigest()

class AuthView(object):
    def post(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':None}
        try:
            user = request._request.POST.get('username')
            pwd = request._request.POST.get('password')
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user,password=pwd).first()
            if not obj:
                ret['code'] = 1001
                ret['msg'] = '用户名或密码错误'
            #为用户创建token
            token = md5(user)
            #存在就更新,不存在就创建
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj,defaults={'token':token})
            ret['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            ret['code'] = 1002
            ret['msg'] = '请求异常'
        return JsonResponse(ret)

2.5.利用postman发请求

如果用户名和密码正确的话  会生成token值,下次该用户再登录时,token的值就会更新

 数据库中可以看到token的值

 

当用户名或密码错误时,抛出异常

 三、添加认证

 基于上面的例子,添加一个认证的类

3.1.url

path('api/v1/order/',OrderView.as_view()),

3.2.views

from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from API import models
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework import exceptions
from rest_framework.authentication import BasicAuthentication

ORDER_DICT = {
    1:{
        'name':'apple',
        'price':15
    },
    2:{
        'name':'dog',
        'price':100
    }
}

def md5(user):
    import hashlib
    import time
    #当前时间,相当于生成一个随机的字符串
    ctime = str(time.time())
    m = hashlib.md5(bytes(user,encoding='utf-8'))
    m.update(bytes(ctime,encoding='utf-8'))
    return m.hexdigest()

class AuthView(object):
    '''用于用户登录验证'''
    def post(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':None}
        try:
            user = request._request.POST.get('username')
            pwd = request._request.POST.get('password')
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user,password=pwd).first()
            if not obj:
                ret['code'] = 1001
                ret['msg'] = '用户名或密码错误'
            #为用户创建token
            token = md5(user)
            #存在就更新,不存在就创建
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj,defaults={'token':token})
            ret['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            ret['code'] = 1002
            ret['msg'] = '请求异常'
        return JsonResponse(ret)


class Authentication(APIView):
    '''认证'''
    def authenticate(self,request):
        token = request._request.GET.get('token')
        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户认证失败')
        #在rest framework内部会将这两个字段赋值给request,以供后续操作使用
        return (token_obj.user,token_obj)

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        pass

class OrderView(APIView):
    '''订单相关业务'''

    authentication_classes = [Authentication,]    #添加认证
    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        #request.user
        #request.auth
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':None,'data':None}
        try:
            ret['data'] = ORDER_DICT
        except Exception as e:
            pass
        return JsonResponse(ret)

3.3用postman发get请求

请求的时候没有带token,可以看到会显示“用户认证失败”

 

 这样就达到了认证的效果,django-rest-framework的认证是怎么实现的呢,下面基于这个例子来剖析drf的源码。

 

四、drf的认证源码分析

源码流程图

 

请求先到dispatch

dispatch()主要做了两件事

  • 封装request
  • 认证  

具体看我写的代码里面的注释

def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        `.dispatch()` is pretty much the same as Django's regular dispatch,
        but with extra hooks for startup, finalize, and exception handling.
        """
        self.args = args
        self.kwargs = kwargs
        #对原始request进行加工,丰富了一些功能
        #Request(
        #     request,
        #     parsers=self.get_parsers(),
        #     authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
        #     negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
        #     parser_context=parser_context
        # )
        #request(原始request,[BasicAuthentications对象,])
        #获取原生request,request._request
        #获取认证类的对象,request.authticators
        #1.封装request
        request = self.initialize_request(request, *args, **kwargs)
        self.request = request
        self.headers = self.default_response_headers  # deprecate?

        try:
            #2.认证
            self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)

            # Get the appropriate handler method
            if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
                handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                                  self.http_method_not_allowed)
            else:
                handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

            response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

        except Exception as exc:
            response = self.handle_exception(exc)

        self.response = self.finalize_response(request, response, *args, **kwargs)
        return self.response

4.1.reuqest

(1)initialize_request()

可以看到initialize()就是封装原始request

def initialize_request(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Returns the initial request object.
        """
        parser_context = self.get_parser_context(request)

        return Request(
            request,
            parsers=self.get_parsers(),
            authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),    #[BasicAuthentication(),],把对象封装到request里面了
       negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(), parser_context=parser_context )

(2)get_authenticators()

通过列表生成式,返回对象的列表

    def get_authenticators(self):
        """
        Instantiates and returns the list of authenticators that this view can use.
        """
        return [auth() for auth in self.authentication_classes]

 (3)authentication_classes

 APIView里面有个  authentication_classes   字段

可以看到默认是去全局的配置文件找(api_settings)

class APIView(View):

    # The following policies may be set at either globally, or per-view.
    renderer_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_RENDERER_CLASSES
    parser_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_PARSER_CLASSES
    authentication_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES
    throttle_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_THROTTLE_CLASSES
    permission_classes = api_settings.DEFAULT_PERMISSION_CLASSES
    content_negotiation_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_CONTENT_NEGOTIATION_CLASS
    metadata_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_METADATA_CLASS
    versioning_class = api_settings.DEFAULT_VERSIONING_CLASS

 

4.2.认证

self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)

    def dispatch(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        `.dispatch()` is pretty much the same as Django's regular dispatch,
        but with extra hooks for startup, finalize, and exception handling.
        """
        self.args = args
        self.kwargs = kwargs
        #对原始request进行加工,丰富了一些功能
        #Request(
        #     request,
        #     parsers=self.get_parsers(),
        #     authenticators=self.get_authenticators(),
        #     negotiator=self.get_content_negotiator(),
        #     parser_context=parser_context
        # )
        #request(原始request,[BasicAuthentications对象,])
        #获取原生request,request._request
        #获取认证类的对象,request.authticators
        #1.封装request
        request = self.initialize_request(request, *args, **kwargs)
        self.request = request
        self.headers = self.default_response_headers  # deprecate?

        try:
            #2.认证
            self.initial(request, *args, **kwargs)

            # Get the appropriate handler method
            if request.method.lower() in self.http_method_names:
                handler = getattr(self, request.method.lower(),
                                  self.http_method_not_allowed)
            else:
                handler = self.http_method_not_allowed

            response = handler(request, *args, **kwargs)

        except Exception as exc:
            response = self.handle_exception(exc)

        self.response = self.finalize_response(request, response, *args, **kwargs)
        return self.response

 (1)initial()

 主要看 self.perform_authentication(request),实现认证

    def initial(self, request, *args, **kwargs):
        """
        Runs anything that needs to occur prior to calling the method handler.
        """
        self.format_kwarg = self.get_format_suffix(**kwargs)

        # Perform content negotiation and store the accepted info on the request
        neg = self.perform_content_negotiation(request)
        request.accepted_renderer, request.accepted_media_type = neg

        # Determine the API version, if versioning is in use.
        version, scheme = self.determine_version(request, *args, **kwargs)
        request.version, request.versioning_scheme = version, scheme

        # Ensure that the incoming request is permitted
        #3.实现认证
        self.perform_authentication(request)
        self.check_permissions(request)
        self.check_throttles(request)

 (2)perform_authentication()

 调用了request.user

    def perform_authentication(self, request):
        """
        Perform authentication on the incoming request.

        Note that if you override this and simply 'pass', then authentication
        will instead be performed lazily, the first time either
        `request.user` or `request.auth` is accessed.
        """
        request.user

(3)user

request.user的request的位置

点进去可以看到Request有个user方法,加 @property 表示调用user方法的时候不需要加括号“user()”,可以直接调用:request.user

    @property
    def user(self):
        """
        Returns the user associated with the current request, as authenticated
        by the authentication classes provided to the request.
        """
        if not hasattr(self, '_user'):
            with wrap_attributeerrors():
                #获取认证对象,进行一步步的认证
                self._authenticate()
        return self._user

 (4)_authenticate()

 循环所有authenticator对象

    def _authenticate(self):
        """
        Attempt to authenticate the request using each authentication instance
        in turn.
        """
        #循环认证类的所有对象
        #执行对象的authenticate方法
        for authenticator in self.authenticators:
            try:
                #执行认证类的authenticate方法
                #这里分三种情况
                #1.如果authenticate方法抛出异常,self._not_authenticated()执行
                #2.有返回值,必须是元组:(request.user,request.auth)
                #3.返回None,表示当前认证不处理,等下一个认证来处理
                user_auth_tuple = authenticator.authenticate(self)
            except exceptions.APIException:
                self._not_authenticated()
                raise

            if user_auth_tuple is not None:
                self._authenticator = authenticator
                self.user, self.auth = user_auth_tuple
                return

        self._not_authenticated()

返回值就是例子中的:

token_obj.user-->>request.user
token_obj-->>request.auth
#在rest framework内部会将这两个字段赋值给request,以供后续操作使用
return (token_obj.user,token_obj)     #例子中的return

当都没有返回值,就执行self._not_authenticated(),相当于匿名用户,没有通过认证

    def _not_authenticated(self):
        """
        Set authenticator, user & authtoken representing an unauthenticated request.

        Defaults are None, AnonymousUser & None.
        """
        self._authenticator = None

        if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER:
            self.user = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_USER()   #AnonymousUser匿名用户
        else:
            self.user = None

        if api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN:
            self.auth = api_settings.UNAUTHENTICATED_TOKEN()  #None
        else:
            self.auth = None

面向对象知识:

子类继承 父类,调用方法的时候:

  • 优先去自己里面找有没有这个方法,有就执行自己的
  • 只有当自己里面没有这个方法的时候才会去父类找

 因为authenticate方法我们自己写,所以当执行authenticate()的时候就是执行我们自己写的认证

父类中的authenticate方法

    def authenticate(self, request):
        return (self.force_user, self.force_token)

 我们自己写的

class Authentication(APIView):
    '''用于用户登录验证'''
    def authenticate(self,request):
        token = request._request.GET.get('token')
        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户认证失败')
        #在rest framework内部会将这两个字段赋值给request,以供后续操作使用
        return (token_obj.user,token_obj)

 认证的流程就是上面写的,弄懂了原理,再写代码就更容易理解为什么了。

4.3.配置文件

继续解读源码 

默认是去全局配置文件中找,所以我们应该在settings.py中配置好路径

api_settings源码

api_settings = APISettings(None, DEFAULTS, IMPORT_STRINGS)


def reload_api_settings(*args, **kwargs):
    setting = kwargs['setting']
    if setting == 'REST_FRAMEWORK':
        api_settings.reload()

setting中‘REST_FRAMEWORK’中找

 全局配置方法:

API文件夹下面新建文件夹utils,再新建auth.py文件,里面写上认证的类

settings.py

#设置全局认证
REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    "DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES":['API.utils.auth.Authentication',]   #里面写你的认证的类的路径
}

auth.py

# API/utils/auth.py

from rest_framework import exceptions
from API import models


class Authentication(object):
    '''用于用户登录验证'''
    def authenticate(self,request):
        token = request._request.GET.get('token')
        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户认证失败')
        #在rest framework内部会将这两个字段赋值给request,以供后续操作使用
        return (token_obj.user,token_obj)

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        pass

在settings里面设置的全局认证,所有业务都需要经过认证,如果想让某个不需要认证,只需要在其中添加下面的代码:

authentication_classes = []    #里面为空,代表不需要认证
from django.shortcuts import render,HttpResponse
from django.http import JsonResponse
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from API import models
from rest_framework.request import Request
from rest_framework import exceptions
from rest_framework.authentication import BasicAuthentication

ORDER_DICT = {
    1:{
        'name':'apple',
        'price':15
    },
    2:{
        'name':'dog',
        'price':100
    }
}

def md5(user):
    import hashlib
    import time
    #当前时间,相当于生成一个随机的字符串
    ctime = str(time.time())
    m = hashlib.md5(bytes(user,encoding='utf-8'))
    m.update(bytes(ctime,encoding='utf-8'))
    return m.hexdigest()

class AuthView(APIView):
    '''用于用户登录验证'''

    authentication_classes = []    #里面为空,代表不需要认证

    def post(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':None}
        try:
            user = request._request.POST.get('username')
            pwd = request._request.POST.get('password')
            obj = models.UserInfo.objects.filter(username=user,password=pwd).first()
            if not obj:
                ret['code'] = 1001
                ret['msg'] = '用户名或密码错误'
            #为用户创建token
            token = md5(user)
            #存在就更新,不存在就创建
            models.UserToken.objects.update_or_create(user=obj,defaults={'token':token})
            ret['token'] = token
        except Exception as e:
            ret['code'] = 1002
            ret['msg'] = '请求异常'
        return JsonResponse(ret)




class OrderView(APIView):
    '''订单相关业务'''


    def get(self,request,*args,**kwargs):
        # self.dispatch
        #request.user
        #request.auth
        ret = {'code':1000,'msg':None,'data':None}
        try:
            ret['data'] = ORDER_DICT
        except Exception as e:
            pass
        return JsonResponse(ret)
API/view.py代码

 再测试一下我们的代码

不带token发请求

 

 

 

带token发请求

 

五、drf的内置认证

 rest_framework里面内置了一些认证,我们自己写的认证类都要继承内置认证类 "BaseAuthentication"

4.1.BaseAuthentication源码:

class BaseAuthentication(object):
    """
    All authentication classes should extend BaseAuthentication.
    """

    def authenticate(self, request):
        """
        Authenticate the request and return a two-tuple of (user, token).
        """
        #内置的认证类,authenticate方法,如果不自己写,默认则抛出异常
        raise NotImplementedError(".authenticate() must be overridden.")

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        """
        Return a string to be used as the value of the `WWW-Authenticate`
        header in a `401 Unauthenticated` response, or `None` if the
        authentication scheme should return `403 Permission Denied` responses.
        """
        #authenticate_header方法,作用是当认证失败的时候,返回的响应头
        pass

4.2.修改自己写的认证类

自己写的Authentication必须继承内置认证类BaseAuthentication

# API/utils/auth/py

from rest_framework import exceptions
from API import models
from rest_framework.authentication import BaseAuthentication


class Authentication(BaseAuthentication):
    '''用于用户登录验证'''
    def authenticate(self,request):
        token = request._request.GET.get('token')
        token_obj = models.UserToken.objects.filter(token=token).first()
        if not token_obj:
            raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户认证失败')
        #在rest framework内部会将这两个字段赋值给request,以供后续操作使用
        return (token_obj.user,token_obj)

    def authenticate_header(self, request):
        pass

 

4.3.其它内置认证类

rest_framework里面还内置了其它认证类,我们主要用到的就是BaseAuthentication,剩下的很少用到

 

六、总结

 自己写认证类方法梳理

 (1)创建认证类

  • 继承BaseAuthentication    --->>1.重写authenticate方法;2.authenticate_header方法直接写pass就可以(这个方法必须写)

(2)authenticate()返回值(三种)

  • None ----->>>当前认证不管,等下一个认证来执行
  • raise exceptions.AuthenticationFailed('用户认证失败')       # from rest_framework import exceptions
  •  有返回值元祖形式:(元素1,元素2)      #元素1复制给request.user;  元素2复制给request.auth

 (3)局部使用

  • authentication_classes = [BaseAuthentication,]

(4)全局使用

#设置全局认证
REST_FRAMEWORK = {
    "DEFAULT_AUTHENTICATION_CLASSES":['API.utils.auth.Authentication',]
}

 

源码流程

--->>dispatch

    --封装request

       ---获取定义的认证类(全局/局部),通过列表生成式创建对象 

     ---initial

       ----peform_authentication

         -----request.user   (每部循环创建的对象)

    

 

posted on 2018-04-04 17:16 zhang_derek 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏

导航

公告