在分布式系统中,会有生成全局唯一ID的需求,已有的解决方案中,UUID不便于索引,全局ID生成器自身会有性能瓶颈,雪花算法则很好的解决了这两个问题
雪花算法生成的是一个64位的LONG值,主要由以下四个部分组成
1、1位的保留位
2、41位的时间戳(可以保证69年不重复)
3、10位的机器ID(可供1024台机器使用)
4、12位的自增序列号(从1-4096中循环使用)
基于雪花算法的设计原则(时间戳+机器号+自增号)可以很方便的设计出符合自己需要的ID生成器,需要注意的是,雪花算法依赖于机器自身的时间,如果机器自身的时间存在问题,则可能出现重复ID,这个问题可以在生成器初始化时,连接时间服务器来解决。
GITHUB上的雪花算法基于scala实现:
https://github.com/twitter/snowflake
基于Java的实现可参考,这个实现与twitter的实现略有不同,使用了保留位,可以生成139年不重复的ID:
https://www.callicoder.com/distributed-unique-id-sequence-number-generator/
import java.net.NetworkInterface;
import java.security.SecureRandom;
import java.time.Instant;
import java.util.Enumeration;

/**
 * Distributed Sequence Generator.
 * Inspired by Twitter snowflake: https://github.com/twitter/snowflake/tree/snowflake-2010
 *
 * This class should be used as a Singleton.
 * Make sure that you create and reuse a Single instance of SequenceGenerator per node in your distributed system cluster.
 */
public class SequenceGenerator {
    private static final int TOTAL_BITS = 64;
    private static final int EPOCH_BITS = 42;
    private static final int NODE_ID_BITS = 10;
    private static final int SEQUENCE_BITS = 12;

    private static final int maxNodeId = (int)(Math.pow(2, NODE_ID_BITS) - 1);
    private static final int maxSequence = (int)(Math.pow(2, SEQUENCE_BITS) - 1);

    // Custom Epoch (January 1, 2015 Midnight UTC = 2015-01-01T00:00:00Z)
    private static final long CUSTOM_EPOCH = 1420070400000L;

    private final int nodeId;

    private volatile long lastTimestamp = -1L;
    private volatile long sequence = 0L;

    // Create SequenceGenerator with a nodeId
    public SequenceGenerator(int nodeId) {
        if(nodeId < 0 || nodeId > maxNodeId) {
            throw new IllegalArgumentException(String.format("NodeId must be between %d and %d", 0, maxNodeId));
        }
        this.nodeId = nodeId;
    }

    // Let SequenceGenerator generate a nodeId
    public SequenceGenerator() {
        this.nodeId = createNodeId();
    }


    public synchronized long nextId() {
        long currentTimestamp = timestamp();

        if(currentTimestamp < lastTimestamp) {
            throw new IllegalStateException("Invalid System Clock!");
        }

        if (currentTimestamp == lastTimestamp) {
            sequence = (sequence + 1) & maxSequence;
            if(sequence == 0) {
                // Sequence Exhausted, wait till next millisecond.
                currentTimestamp = waitNextMillis(currentTimestamp);
            }
        } else {
            // reset sequence to start with zero for the next millisecond
            sequence = 0;
        }

        lastTimestamp = currentTimestamp;

        long id = currentTimestamp << (TOTAL_BITS - EPOCH_BITS);
        id |= (nodeId << (TOTAL_BITS - EPOCH_BITS - NODE_ID_BITS));
        id |= sequence;
        return id;
    }


    // Get current timestamp in milliseconds, adjust for the custom epoch.
    private static long timestamp() {
        return Instant.now().toEpochMilli() - CUSTOM_EPOCH;
    }

    // Block and wait till next millisecond
    private long waitNextMillis(long currentTimestamp) {
        while (currentTimestamp == lastTimestamp) {
            currentTimestamp = timestamp();
        }
        return currentTimestamp;
    }

    private int createNodeId() {
        int nodeId;
        try {
            StringBuilder sb = new StringBuilder();
            Enumeration<NetworkInterface> networkInterfaces = NetworkInterface.getNetworkInterfaces();
            while (networkInterfaces.hasMoreElements()) {
                NetworkInterface networkInterface = networkInterfaces.nextElement();
                byte[] mac = networkInterface.getHardwareAddress();
                if (mac != null) {
                    for(int i = 0; i < mac.length; i++) {
                        sb.append(String.format("%02X", mac[i]));
                    }
                }
            }
            nodeId = sb.toString().hashCode();
        } catch (Exception ex) {
            nodeId = (new SecureRandom().nextInt());
        }
        nodeId = nodeId & maxNodeId;
        return nodeId;
    }
}

  

posted on 2019-08-21 11:27  yytxdy  阅读(803)  评论(0编辑  收藏