python测试开发django-rest-framework-65.序列化(ModelSerializer)

前言

serializers.Serializer可以对modle模型中的字段序列化,并且必须写create和update两个方法。ModelSerializer可以看成是Serializer的一个升级版,功能更强大,更方便。
实际上ModelSerializer类继承了Serializer类。

ModelSerializer

ModelSerializer类能够让你自动创建一个具有模型中相应字段的Serializer类。这个ModelSerializer类和常规的Serializer类一样,不同的是:

  • 它根据模型自动生成一组字段。
  • 它自动生成序列化器的验证器,比如unique_together验证器。
  • 它默认简单实现了.create()方法和.update()方法。

比如我们创建的一个模型models.py

# models.py
from django.db import models
# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713


# Create your models here.
class UserPersonalInfo(models.Model):
    '''用户个人信息'''
    name = models.CharField(max_length=10, verbose_name="昵称")  # 昵称
    sex_choices = (
        (u'M', u'男'),
        (u'F', u'女'),
    )
    sex = models.CharField(max_length=11,
                           choices=sex_choices,
                           verbose_name="性别",
                            )
    age = models.IntegerField(verbose_name="年龄",  default="", blank=True)
    mail = models.EmailField(max_length=30, default="", blank=True)
    create_time = models.DateField(auto_now=True, verbose_name="添加时间")

使用ModelSerializer序列化后如下

# serializersapi.py
from rest_framework import serializers
from .models import UserPersonalInfo
# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713


class UserInfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = UserPersonalInfo
        fields = '__all__'

fields参数设置为'__all__'会默认序列化所有的字段,可以在django shell交互模式查看

D:\soft\yoyoapi>python manage.py shell
Python 3.6.0 (v3.6.0:41df79263a11, Dec 23 2016, 08:06:12) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
(InteractiveConsole)
>>> from apiapp.serializersapi import UserInfoSerializer
>>> serializer = UserInfoSerializer()
>>> print(repr(serializer))
UserInfoSerializer():
    id = IntegerField(label='ID', read_only=True)
    name = CharField(label='昵称', max_length=10)
    sex = ChoiceField(choices=(('M', '男'), ('F', '女')), label='性别')
    age = IntegerField(label='年龄', max_value=2147483647, min_value=-2147483648, required=False)
    mail = EmailField(allow_blank=True, max_length=30, required=False)
    create_time = DateField(label='添加时间', read_only=True)
>>>

fields指定要包括的字段

如果我只想要其中的几个字段,如'id', 'name', 'mail', 'create_time',那么fields参数可以设置成元组类型

# serializersapi.py
from rest_framework import serializers
from .models import UserPersonalInfo
# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713


class UserInfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = UserPersonalInfo
        fields = ('id', 'name', 'mail', 'create_time')

修改代码后,需exit()退出shell,再重新进。django shell交互模式运行查看结果

D:\soft\yoyoapi>python manage.py shell
Python 3.6.0 (v3.6.0:41df79263a11, Dec 23 2016, 08:06:12) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
(InteractiveConsole)
>>> from apiapp.serializersapi import UserInfoSerializer
>>> serializer = UserInfoSerializer()
>>> print(repr(serializer))
UserInfoSerializer():
    id = IntegerField(label='ID', read_only=True)
    name = CharField(label='昵称', max_length=10)
    mail = EmailField(allow_blank=True, max_length=30, required=False)
    create_time = DateField(label='添加时间', read_only=True)
>>>

exclude排除字段列表

fields属性设置相反的是,可以用exclude排除部分字段

# serializersapi.py
from rest_framework import serializers
from .models import UserPersonalInfo
# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713


class UserInfoSerializer(serializers.ModelSerializer):
    class Meta:
        model = UserPersonalInfo
        # fields = ('id', 'name', 'mail', 'create_time')
        exclude = ('id', 'sex', 'age')

django shell交互模式查看结果

# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713
D:\soft\yoyoapi>python manage.py shell
Python 3.6.0 (v3.6.0:41df79263a11, Dec 23 2016, 08:06:12) [MSC v.1900 64 bit (AMD64)] on win32
Type "help", "copyright", "credits" or "license" for more information.
(InteractiveConsole)
>>> from apiapp.serializersapi import UserInfoSerializer
>>> serializer = UserInfoSerializer()
>>> print(repr(serializer))
UserInfoSerializer():
    name = CharField(label='昵称', max_length=10)
    mail = EmailField(allow_blank=True, max_length=30, required=False)
    create_time = DateField(label='添加时间', read_only=True)
>>>

上面例子中用 exclude参数会排除掉'id', 'sex', 'age'这三个参数。

案例操作

接下来使用serializers.ModelSerializer序列化后(设置fields = 'all'),写个简单的案例,编辑views.py视图,在上一篇基础上,改这一句即可

verify_data = UserInfoSerializer(data=request.data) # 只改这里

# views.py
from rest_framework.response import Response
from rest_framework.views import APIView
from .models import *
from rest_framework.permissions import IsAuthenticated,AllowAny
from .serializersapi import UserInfoSerializer

class UserInfoView(APIView):
    '''REST framework的APIView实现获取card列表 # 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713'''
    # authentication_classes = (TokenAuthentication,)  # token认证
    # permission_classes = (IsAuthenticated,)   # IsAuthenticated 仅通过认证的用户
    permission_classes = (AllowAny,)  # 允许所有用户

    def get(self, request, format=None):
        """
        Return a list of all UserPersonalInfo
        """
        info = UserPersonalInfo.objects.all()
        serializer = UserInfoSerializer(info, many=True)
        return Response(serializer.data)

    def post(self, request, format=None):
        '''
        create UserPersonalInfo
        '''
        verify_data = UserInfoSerializer(data=request.data)  # 只改这里
        if verify_data.is_valid():
            verify_data.save()
            return Response({"message": "create some data!", "data": request.data})
        else:
            return Response(verify_data.errors)

urls.py设置访问地址

# urls.py
from apiapp import views
from django.conf.urls import url


# 作者:上海悠悠,QQ交流群:750815713


urlpatterns = [
    url(r'^info', views.UserPersonalInfoView.as_view()),
]

测试接口

GET请求访问http://127.0.0.1:8000/info,查询结果

POST请求提交http://127.0.0.1:8000/info,测试结果

posted @ 2019-09-18 00:15 上海-悠悠 阅读(...) 评论(...) 编辑 收藏