Android 框架简介--Java环境(转)

==========================上===========================

这里简单的介绍了Android的java环境基础,在后面一节中会结合具体的实例来理解这一节的内容。

一、Dalvik虚拟机

Dalvik是android的程序的java虚拟机,代码在dalvik/下,

./
|-- Android.mk
|-- CleanSpec.mk
|-- MODULE_LICENSE_APACHE2
|-- NOTICE
|-- README.txt
|-- dalvikvm 虚拟机的实现库
|-- dexdump
|-- dexlist
|-- dexopt
|-- docs
|-- dvz
|-- dx
|-- hit
|-- libcore
|-- libcore-disabled
|-- libdex
|-- libnativehelper 使用JNI调用本地代码时用到这个库
|-- run-core-tests.sh
|-- tests
|-- tools
`-- vm

二、android的java框架

android层次中第3层是java框架,第四层就是java应用程序。

android的java类代码,主要是在frameworks/base/core/java/下,

./
|-- android
|-- com
|-- jarjar-rules.txt
`-- overview.html

我们再看一下frameworks/base/目录

./
|-- Android.mk
|-- CleanSpec.mk
|-- MODULE_LICENSE_APACHE2
|-- NOTICE
|-- api
|-- awt
|-- build
|-- camera
|-- cmds
|-- common
|-- core
|-- data
|-- docs
|-- graphics
|-- include
|-- keystore
|-- libs
|-- location
|-- media
|-- native
|-- obex
|-- opengl
|-- packages
|-- preloaded-classes
|-- sax
|-- services
|-- telephony
|-- test-runner
|-- tests
|-- tools
|-- vpn
`-- wifi

这里也有android的java框架代码。

三、JNI

在android中,通过JNI,java可以调用C写的代码,主要的实现是在frameworks/base/core/jni,通过查看Android.mk,我们可以看到最后生成了libandroid_runtime.so,具体实现JNI功能需要上面我们介绍的libnativehelper.so,

四、系统服务之java

1、binder,提供android的IPC功能

2、servicemanager,服务管理的服务器端

3、系统进程zygote,负责孵化所有的新应用

============================中===========================

在我平时工作中主要是进行linux网络子系统的模块开发、linux应用程序(C/C++)开发。在学习和从事驱动模块开发的过程中,如果你对linux系统本身,包括应用程序开发都不了解,那么读内核代码就如同天书,毫无意义,所以我分析框架也是从基本系统api开始的,当然也不会太多涉及到应用程序开发。

好,开始这节主要是讲一个简单的adnroid应用程序,从应用程序出发,到框架代码。

分析的应用程序我们也奉行拿来主义:froyo/development/samples/HelloActivity

./
|-- Android.mk
|-- AndroidManifest.xml
|-- res
|-- src
`-- tests

其他的就多说了,看代码

1./*
2. * Copyright (C) 2007 The Android Open Source Project
3. *
4. * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
5. * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
6. * You may obtain a copy of the License at
7. *
8. *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
9. *
10. * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
11. * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
12. * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
13. * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
14. * limitations under the License.
15. */ 
16.package com.example.android.helloactivity;  17.import android.app.Activity;  18.import android.os.Bundle;  19./** 20. * A minimal "Hello, World!" application.
21. */ 
22.public class HelloActivity extends Activity {  23.    public HelloActivity() {  24.    } 
25.    /** 26.     * Called with the activity is first created.
27.     */ 
28.    @Override  29.    public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {  30.        super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);  31.        // Set the layout for this activity.  You can find it   32.        // in res/layout/hello_activity.xml   33.        setContentView(R.layout.hello_activity); 
34.    } 
35.}  

每一个写过android程序的人都应该是从这个代码起步的吧?那好,那么我们研究android框架也从这里启航。

首先是

1.import android.app.Activity; 
2.import android.os.Bundle; 
记住,我们这里不是讲JAVA,我们要讲的是android.app.Activity,回顾上节的内容,android的JAVA框架代码放在froyo/frameworks/base/,
其中Activity的代码放在框架代码的core/java/android/app/Activity.java,大概看一下

1.public class Activity extends ContextThemeWrapper 
2.        implements LayoutInflater.Factory, 

3.        Window.Callback, KeyEvent.Callback, 
4.        OnCreateContextMenuListener, ComponentCallbacks { 
5.    private static final String TAG = "Activity";  6.    /** Standard activity result: operation canceled. */  7.    public static final int RESULT_CANCELED    = 0;  8.    /** Standard activity result: operation succeeded. */  9.    public static final int RESULT_OK           = -1;  10.    /** Start of user-defined activity results. */  11.    public static final int RESULT_FIRST_USER   = 1;  12.    private static long sInstanceCount = 0; 
同样的Bundle的代码core/java/android/os/Bundle.java

1.public final class Bundle implements Parcelable, Cloneable {

2.    private static final String LOG_TAG = "Bundle";

3.    public static final Bundle EMPTY; 
呵呵,其实写多应用程序,然后看看这些代码,会有更加豁然开朗的感觉,所以列出以上目录给大家参考,所有的java框架代码都在那个目录下,到这里今天要讨论的第一个问题就到这里了。

我所在的公司是网络设备供应商,其实和android本身不搭边,android只是平时的爱好而已,所以很多地方如果写错了敬请原谅,当然也计划去做做android系统开发,例如驱动或者是框架开发,这是后话。

=========================下===================

上节讲到了JAVA框架代码和应用程序的关系,那么框架代码和驱动层是怎么联系的呢?这就是这一节的内容:JNI

java使用一种叫做jni的技术来支持对C/C++代码的调用,在anroid中jni的代码放在froyo/frameworks/base/core/jni下,当然在java框架代码的目录下还有其他地方也多多少少放了jni代码,大家可以打开源码来看看。

整体关系如下图:

| java应用程序

--------------------------------------- Android系统api

| java框架

    |本地接口声明

--------------------------------------

| JNI
--------------------------------------

| C/C++代码

继续拿来主义,C/C++中调试用printf,内核调试用printk,呵呵,android调试用log,那么我们就分析log的实现。

log的java代码froyo/frameworks/base/core/java/android/util/Log.java,

1./*
2. * Copyright (C) 2006 The Android Open Source Project
3. *
4. * Licensed under the Apache License, Version 2.0 (the "License");
5. * you may not use this file except in compliance with the License.
6. * You may obtain a copy of the License at
7. *
8. *      http://www.apache.org/licenses/LICENSE-2.0
9. *
10. * Unless required by applicable law or agreed to in writing, software
11. * distributed under the License is distributed on an "AS IS" BASIS,
12. * WITHOUT WARRANTIES OR CONDITIONS OF ANY KIND, either express or implied.
13. * See the License for the specific language governing permissions and
14. * limitations under the License.
15. */ 
16.package android.util;  17.import com.android.internal.os.RuntimeInit;  18.import java.io.PrintWriter;  19.import java.io.StringWriter;  20./** 21. * API for sending log output.
22. *
23. * <p>Generally, use the Log.v() Log.d() Log.i() Log.w() and Log.e()
24. * methods.
25. *
26. * <p>The order in terms of verbosity, from least to most is
27. * ERROR, WARN, INFO, DEBUG, VERBOSE.  Verbose should never be compiled
28. * into an application except during development.  Debug logs are compiled
29. * in but stripped at runtime.  Error, warning and info logs are always kept.
30. *
31. * <p><b>Tip:</b> A good convention is to declare a <code>TAG</code> constant
32. * in your class:
33. *
34. * <pre>private static final String TAG = "MyActivity";</pre>
35. *
36. * and use that in subsequent calls to the log methods.
37. * </p>
38. *
39. * <p><b>Tip:</b> Don't forget that when you make a call like
40. * <pre>Log.v(TAG, "index=" + i);</pre>
41. * that when you're building the string to pass into Log.d, the compiler uses a
42. * StringBuilder and at least three allocations occur: the StringBuilder
43. * itself, the buffer, and the String object.  Realistically, there is also
44. * another buffer allocation and copy, and even more pressure on the gc.
45. * That means that if your log message is filtered out, you might be doing
46. * significant work and incurring significant overhead.
47. */ 
48.public final class Log { 

49.    /**

50.     * Priority constant for the println method; use Log.v.
51.     */ 
52.    public static final int VERBOSE = 2; 

53.    /**

54.     * Priority constant for the println method; use Log.d.
55.     */ 
56.    public static final int DEBUG = 3; 

57.    /**

58.     * Priority constant for the println method; use Log.i.
59.     */ 
60.    public static final int INFO = 4; 

61.    /**

62.     * Priority constant for the println method; use Log.w.
63.     */ 
64.    public static final int WARN = 5; 

65.    /**

66.     * Priority constant for the println method; use Log.e.
67.     */ 
68.    public static final int ERROR = 6; 

69.    /**

70.     * Priority constant for the println method.
71.     */ 
72.    public static final int ASSERT = 7; 

73.    /**

74.     * Exception class used to capture a stack trace in {@link #wtf()}.
75.     */ 
76.    private static class TerribleFailure extends Exception { 

77.        TerribleFailure(String msg, Throwable cause) { super(msg, cause); }  78.    } 
79.    private Log() { 

80.    } 
81.    /**

82.     * Send a {@link #VERBOSE} log message.
83.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
84.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
85.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
86.     */ 
87.    public static int v(String tag, String msg) { 

88.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, VERBOSE, tag, msg); 

89.    } 
90.    /**

91.     * Send a {@link #VERBOSE} log message and log the exception.
92.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
93.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
94.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
95.     * @param tr An exception to log
96.     */ 
97.    public static int v(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

98.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, VERBOSE, tag, msg + '/n' + getStackTraceString(tr)); 

99.    } 
100.    /**

101.     * Send a {@link #DEBUG} log message.
102.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
103.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
104.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
105.     */ 
106.    public static int d(String tag, String msg) { 

107.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, DEBUG, tag, msg); 

108.    } 
109.    /**

110.     * Send a {@link #DEBUG} log message and log the exception.
111.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
112.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
113.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
114.     * @param tr An exception to log
115.     */ 
116.    public static int d(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

117.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, DEBUG, tag, msg + '/n' + getStackTraceString(tr)); 

118.    } 
119.    /**

120.     * Send an {@link #INFO} log message.
121.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
122.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
123.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
124.     */ 
125.    public static int i(String tag, String msg) { 

126.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, INFO, tag, msg); 

127.    } 
128.    /**

129.     * Send a {@link #INFO} log message and log the exception.
130.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
131.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
132.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
133.     * @param tr An exception to log
134.     */ 
135.    public static int i(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

136.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, INFO, tag, msg + '/n' + getStackTraceString(tr)); 

137.    } 
138.    /**

139.     * Send a {@link #WARN} log message.
140.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
141.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
142.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
143.     */ 
144.    public static int w(String tag, String msg) { 

145.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, WARN, tag, msg); 

146.    } 
147.    /**

148.     * Send a {@link #WARN} log message and log the exception.
149.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
150.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
151.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
152.     * @param tr An exception to log
153.     */ 
154.    public static int w(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

155.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, WARN, tag, msg + '/n' + getStackTraceString(tr)); 

156.    } 
157.    /**

158.     * Checks to see whether or not a log for the specified tag is loggable at the specified level.
159.     *
160.     *  The default level of any tag is set to INFO. This means that any level above and including
161.     *  INFO will be logged. Before you make any calls to a logging method you should check to see
162.     *  if your tag should be logged. You can change the default level by setting a system property:
163.     *      'setprop log.tag.<YOUR_LOG_TAG> <LEVEL>'
164.     *  Where level is either VERBOSE, DEBUG, INFO, WARN, ERROR, ASSERT, or SUPPRESS. SUPPRESS will
165.     *  turn off all logging for your tag. You can also create a local.prop file that with the
166.     *  following in it:
167.     *      'log.tag.<YOUR_LOG_TAG>=<LEVEL>'
168.     *  and place that in /data/local.prop.
169.     *
170.     * @param tag The tag to check.
171.     * @param level The level to check.
172.     * @return Whether or not that this is allowed to be logged.
173.     * @throws IllegalArgumentException is thrown if the tag.length() > 23.
174.     */ 
175.    public static native boolean isLoggable(String tag, int level); 

176.    /*

177.     * Send a {@link #WARN} log message and log the exception.
178.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
179.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
180.     * @param tr An exception to log
181.     */ 
182.    public static int w(String tag, Throwable tr) { 

183.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, WARN, tag, getStackTraceString(tr)); 

184.    } 
185.    /** 186.     * Send an {@link #ERROR} log message.
187.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
188.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
189.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
190.     */ 
191.    public static int e(String tag, String msg) { 

192.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, ERROR, tag, msg); 

193.    } 
194.    /**

195.     * Send a {@link #ERROR} log message and log the exception.
196.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
197.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
198.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
199.     * @param tr An exception to log
200.     */ 
201.    public static int e(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

202.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, ERROR, tag, msg + '/n' + getStackTraceString(tr)); 

203.    } 
204.    /**

205.     * What a Terrible Failure: Report a condition that should never happen.
206.     * The error will always be logged at level ASSERT with the call stack.
207.     * Depending on system configuration, a report may be added to the
208.     * {@link android.os.DropBoxManager} and/or the process may be terminated
209.     * immediately with an error dialog.
210.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.
211.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
212.     */ 
213.    public static int wtf(String tag, String msg) { 

214.        return wtf(tag, msg, null); 

215.    } 
216.    /**

217.     * What a Terrible Failure: Report an exception that should never happen.
218.     * Similar to {@link #wtf(String, String)}, with an exception to log.
219.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.
220.     * @param tr An exception to log.
221.     */ 
222.    public static int wtf(String tag, Throwable tr) { 

223.        return wtf(tag, tr.getMessage(), tr); 

224.    } 
225.    /**

226.     * What a Terrible Failure: Report an exception that should never happen.
227.     * Similar to {@link #wtf(String, Throwable)}, with a message as well.
228.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.
229.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
230.     * @param tr An exception to log.  May be null.
231.     */ 
232.    public static int wtf(String tag, String msg, Throwable tr) { 

233.        tr = new TerribleFailure(msg, tr); 

234.        int bytes = println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, ASSERT, tag, getStackTraceString(tr)); 

235.        RuntimeInit.wtf(tag, tr); 
236.        return bytes; 

237.    } 
238.    /**

239.     * Handy function to get a loggable stack trace from a Throwable
240.     * @param tr An exception to log
241.     */ 
242.    public static String getStackTraceString(Throwable tr) { 

243.        if (tr == null) { 

244.            return ""; 

245.        } 
246.        StringWriter sw = new StringWriter(); 

247.        PrintWriter pw = new PrintWriter(sw); 

248.        tr.printStackTrace(pw); 
249.        return sw.toString(); 

250.    } 
251.    /**

252.     * Low-level logging call.
253.     * @param priority The priority/type of this log message
254.     * @param tag Used to identify the source of a log message.  It usually identifies
255.     *        the class or activity where the log call occurs.
256.     * @param msg The message you would like logged.
257.     * @return The number of bytes written.
258.     */ 
259.    public static int println(int priority, String tag, String msg) { 

260.        return println_native(LOG_ID_MAIN, priority, tag, msg); 

261.    } 
262.    /** @hide */ public static final int LOG_ID_MAIN = 0; 

263.    /** @hide */ public static final int LOG_ID_RADIO = 1; 

264.    /** @hide */ public static final int LOG_ID_EVENTS = 2; 

265.    /** @hide */ public static final int LOG_ID_SYSTEM = 3; 

266.    /** @hide */ public static native int println_native(int bufID, 

267.            int priority, String tag, String msg); 

268.} 

我们看到所有代码都是调用public static native int println_native(int bufID,
            int priority, String tag, String msg);来实现输出的,这个函数的实现就是C++,调用的方式就是JNI

我们看一下对应的jni代码froyo/frameworks/base/core/jni/android_util_Log.cpp,最终调用的输出函数是

1./*
2. * In class android.util.Log:
3. *  public static native int println_native(int buffer, int priority, String tag, String msg)
4. */ 
5.static jint android_util_Log_println_native(JNIEnv* env, jobject clazz, 

6.        jint bufID, jint priority, jstring tagObj, jstring msgObj) 
7.{ 
8.    const char* tag = NULL; 

9.    const char* msg = NULL; 

10.    if (msgObj == NULL) { 

11.        jclass npeClazz; 
12.        npeClazz = env->FindClass("java/lang/NullPointerException"); 

13.        assert(npeClazz != NULL); 

14.        env->ThrowNew(npeClazz, "println needs a message"); 

15.        return -1; 

16.    } 
17.    if (bufID < 0 || bufID >= LOG_ID_MAX) { 

18.        jclass npeClazz; 
19.        npeClazz = env->FindClass("java/lang/NullPointerException"); 

20.        assert(npeClazz != NULL); 

21.        env->ThrowNew(npeClazz, "bad bufID"); 

22.        return -1; 

23.    } 
24.    if (tagObj != NULL) 

25.        tag = env->GetStringUTFChars(tagObj, NULL); 
26.    msg = env->GetStringUTFChars(msgObj, NULL); 
27.    int res = __android_log_buf_write(bufID, (android_LogPriority)priority, tag, msg); 

28.    if (tag != NULL) 

29.        env->ReleaseStringUTFChars(tagObj, tag); 
30.    env->ReleaseStringUTFChars(msgObj, msg); 
31.    return res; 

32.} 

当然我们发现最终输出是

1.int res = __android_log_buf_write(bufID, (android_LogPriority)priority, tag, msg); 

用力grep了一下代码,结果如下

./system/core/include/cutils/log.h:int __android_log_buf_write(int bufID, int prio, const char *tag, const char *text);
./system/core/liblog/logd_write.c:int __android_log_buf_write(int bufID, int prio, const char *tag, const char *msg)
./system/core/liblog/logd_write.c:    return __android_log_buf_write(bufID, prio, tag, buf);

这个就是和android专用驱动进行通信的方式,这个分析下去就有点深了,后面分析。

以上三个小节分析了android的JAVA环境,我这里都是简单的抛砖引玉,希望能给大家一点大体的指引,其他修行靠大家了,能成为是一个android程序员是多么幸福的事情,各位已经在幸福中了,我什么时候也可以幸福一把??

本篇文章来源于 Linux公社网站(www.linuxidc.com)  原文链接:http://www.linuxidc.com/Linux/2011-10/44959p3.htm

posted @ 2013-09-03 20:05  Salesforce  阅读(...)  评论(...编辑  收藏